Part 1: The people of Eden, Chapter 12: Nubia

Part 1: The people of Eden, Chapter 12: Nubia
Published July 19, 2009

Vase found at el Kadada …
DESTINATION EARTH, Book Two: People Part 1: The people of Eden, Chapter 12: Nubia


Nubia Is discovered only today the archaeological resources of Sudan, formerly Nubia, a Neolithic civilization still unknown Ancient Nubia stretched from both sides of the Nile between Aswan, Egypt, and Khartoum, Sudan The “Khartoum Neolithic” is present on the site of el-Shaheinab, south of the sixth cataract and ceramics have been found from the sixth millennium BC. J.-C The Kadero sites, located today in the northern suburbs of Khartoum, the remains date from the fifth millennium BC. AD Then in the first half of the fourth millennium, the site of el-Kadada and Kadruka that take over In the fourth millennium BC, became the capital of Kerma Nubian kingdom Surveys upstream of the Third Cataract testify at that time a fairly advanced culture that grows along the Nile The scientists then separated the Nubian populations by assigning letters: A, B and C This system is not very accurate but is used, given that this civilization we are virtually unknown group from 4000 to 2700 BC it was discovered several sites in Group A: Salaya, Faras, Aksha and Omdurman The graves of these sites show that the Nubian populations were similar to those of Egypt We found a skull trepanned and the transition to X-ray of the skull revealed a lesion in the frontal region due to a trepanation and the wound healing seen evidence that the patient survived The objects found on the oldest sites, from large cemeteries, tombs consist of circular crop characteristics to Nubian troisièmemillénaires We discover ceramics, weapons and utensils, as well as the round These clay figurines exclusively accentuate female sexual characteristics and we note especially the statue of a pregnant woman Analyzes radiocarbon date from the middle of the fourth millennium BC. AD objects found in excavations of El Shaheinab at el Geils, and in el Kadada to Kadruka This is therefore the same population of Egypt into the Khartoum area We are therefore faced with a single Neolithic civilization that occupied the region of present-day Sudan to the Mediterranean

El Shaheinab or esh Shaheinab

El Shaheinab or esh Shaheinab is discovered by the excavations at a stone industry geometric microliths microlithic: art to make the most cutting edge of the minimum material Harpoons perforated at the bottom and hooks attest to the permanence of fishing There are also polished tools, axes and pottery Among the skeletal remains, we note the presence of many fish but also goats and sheep Dated fourth millennium, this site shows a large animal domestication As to research, emerges a complex culture The graves of Omdurman and esh Shaheinab are evidence of a different tradition and sophisticated in what is expected of the Neolithic peoples The archaeologist AJArkell, specialty of the region of the 20th century, will even give crops esh Shaheinab to Nubian group A driven from Lower Nubia by the Egyptians of King Djer at the beginning of the first dynasty The material found in these tombs present with the group A disturbing similarities

Nubian sites

In the early discoveries of sites Nubian, the set of el Kadada was isolated No other site of this culture had been reported The few Neolithic sites known in the region had been seen by the archaeologist Arkell, who was only a vague description A el and el Kadada Ghaba, other habitats and other Neolithic cemeteries have been found The habitat of El Ghaba has not yet been exploited but it is contemporary with the tombs of el Kadada, the oldest of which have been dated to 4500 BC They contain material that the apparent Neolithic Shaheinab esh and the tombs of el Kadada Upstream and downstream of el Kadada at Shendi and el Hassah two sites belonging to the same culture were found Neolithic sites in the Khartoum area have equipment similar to that of el Kadada


The site of El Kadada is located 12 Km north of Shendi, on the right bank of the Nile The people of al-fourth millennium Kadada had a complex culture and refined Ceramics have good technical qualities of modern forms and varied The statuettes of women accentuate the lower body and hair figurines The funerary objects are numerous and rich The stone tools are of great finesse Excavations there revealed many lithic fragments, ceramics and shells and ostrich eggs It is also found bone harpoons, hooks shell, beads carnelian, amazonite and bone The grave is abundant The graves include vases and burials in the ground Burials in jars are reserved for infants and young children The vases are hemispherical, large and decorated Funeral offerings accompany the deceased, either inside or outside of the graves They consist of terracotta vases, ostrich eggs, beads, etc. … The graves in the open pits are formed in circular or oval The skeleton is usually on the side Sometimes it rests on a mat The grave goods include: terracotta vases, bone objects and earthenware, terracotta figurines and sandstone, ostrich eggs, shells, animal bones … The ornaments include beads, small pendants, bracelets and decorations nose or lip The stone tools are made of siliceous rocks, sandstones and volcanic rocks in the graves there are deposits of quartz pebbles, broken at the burial The fragments were used directly after sharp burst of the roller The sandstone is mainly used for the production of milling tools: palettes, grinders and crushers The tooling is polished igneous rock: club heads discoid, perforated discs, axes of various sizes …. The tools of bone, abundant and varied, has unfortunately suffered greatly from poor preservation We recognize the barbed harpoons, a comb, spoons and pallets, punches and smoothers The pottery is represented by fragments, but also by a large number of vases from the tombs whole Mounted by hand, it has mostly gray or black type, although the surfaces were sometimes reddened with a dye solution The sets are geometric incised or impressed Shapes and sizes are varied The most common are undecorated vessels whose outer surface is simply brushed or wrinkled vertically But it is also found vases decorated with incised geometric patterns, usually made with great care The surface is polished and forms are varied The ornaments mainly include bracelets and necklaces, made of one piece, decorations nose or lips The beads are carnelian, amazonite, white rock, ostrich egg …. The most common form is annular, but there are also disc beads with ostrich egg and pendants in carnelian and quartz A necklace of small non-perforated cylinder-shaped biconvex thickened at the ends shows a certain refinement The bracelets are one piece is made from ivory, or in large seashells Anthropomorphic figurines are also deposited in the graves The specimens found in a search is made of sandstone, the others are clay Only two are full and only one was found in place Tattoos decorate the body and often the chest One of them is a pregnant woman is missing, unfortunately, the head and part of the legs In addition to manufactured goods, are also found in the tombs of ostrich eggs, one end is pierced, fragments of red ocher and malachite Bucranes of large cattle and canine skeletons may supplement the funerary The excavation of a mound of historical time revealed under a layer of Neolithic around 4000 BC. J-C graves previous

Civilization of El Kadada

El Kadada is one of the most brilliant civilizations of the Nile in prehistoric Neolithic While using natural resources such as hunting, fishing, shellfish gathering and gathering, they also practice farming and agriculture Habitat in the excavations found the bones of domestic animals, wildlife and fish Domestic fauna, however, is more abundant than wildlife It consists of cattle, small livestock and dogs Wildlife is represented by crocodiles, hippos, elephants, giraffes … The flora was poorly preserved but pottery shards have kept prints of seeds showing the use of cereals A tradition still alive among the peoples of the Upper Nile: the bucranes are deposited in the graves, sometimes dogs This civilization is not only local resources It uses products and raw materials in remote areas such as shells from the Red Sea, the amazonite, whose only known deposits are located north of the Tibesti and southern Egypt, near the Red Sea Malachite, whose field is closest to the south of Sinai, is so precious that sometimes carries death in his grave that protects fragments of his hands In a region or around the sixth cataract is to the east, residents of El Kadada get igneous rocks which they are a great tool polished The disaffection cut for small tools marks a break with tradition and lithic shows significant changes in their lives every day The presence in the tombs of quartz pebbles whole or broken, however, shows the continuing importance of the small tools in its most rudimentary The importance of material life is well reflected in the tombs, which demonstrate significant development

The culture of el Kadada, heir to the Neolithic esh Shaheinab has obvious affinities with Group A of Lower Nubia and predynastic cultures of Upper Egypt His study shows that the local Neolithic continues to grow without interruption during the fourth millennium BC. AD and it is related to the contemporary cultures of Lower Nubia and Upper Egypt The Nile valley is thus Sahara as a vast geographic area where the cultures that flourished despite regional differences have common characteristics, the nature and origin remain to be determined


Kadruka site is located between the first and the fourth cataract of the Nile The people practiced animal husbandry and agriculture She mastered the 4th millennium techniques of ceramics About twenty cemeteries discovered, six were searched Two burial mounds beyond the thousand graves Others have more than one hundred graves About 700 graves have been dated between 4800 and 4000 BC Burial customs show the homogeneity of populations and their socialization Advanced Objects found in graves from graves circular or oval The dead are buried in a fetal position They wear bracelets and necklaces The grave is made of terracotta vases, weapons, utensils of stone, bone or shell, as well as female figurines in clay or sandstone

History of Nubia

This is the first African empire and its development is well before that of Egypt Nubia was the cradle of civilization and advanced brilliant dominating the entire region of south Sudan to Egypt in the north The populations of group A during the fourth millennium are socially organized They work the copper and live in round huts The dead were buried in graves topped by a circular mound of earth Located on the road to Central Africa and the Mediterranean Sea Rougevers, they trade with predynastic Egypt (4000-3200) The products traded are mostly vases, weapons, semi-precious stones and precious, ivory, ebony, frankincense and gold Common representation of cattle and sheep on ceramics demonstrates the importance of breeding Nubian This civilization will disappear to 2800 BC, for unknown reasons Egyptian troops involved for the first time in Nubia under King Aha, the first dynasty, circa – 3100, but reach the second cataract that under King Djer The Egyptians want to take the strategic location of Nubia They also covet the gold of Nubia The name comes from the Nubian Egyptian nub, meaning gold The first settlements in Nubia Egyptian implanted near the mining centers and trade routes They settled especially near the time Buhen Thinite: -3100 to -2900

The Kingdom of Kerma

I am called Kerma in ancient Egyptian, is located in the rich plain of Dongola It begins with the pre-Kerma of about 2800 to 2400 BC, and the Ancient Kerma about 2400 to 2050, the Middle Kerma from 2050 to about 1750 and ends with the classic Kerma about 1750 to 1500 BC Christ This kingdom takes the place of missing Nubian


Brennecke Sydney said:
August 9, 2011 March 3, 27 à 0827

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Frederic Vidal said:
9 August 2011 14 February 46 0846

thank you so much for your enthusiasm heavy … im happy to heard about it … My Aim Is to continue to astonish you and everybody at EACH new chapter, and There are about 35 chapters up to the end of this second book, and come the em Third book … im sorry its so long, as i wish i could write a chapter a day, drank i need time for my Researches to be sure im so near of reality as possible … have a nice day …  Frederic



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This entry was posted in edenists, el kadada, el-Shaheinab, esh Shaheinab, kadero, kadruka, kerma, kerma kingdom, nubia. Bookmark the permalink.

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