Part 1: The people édenistes, Chapter 24: The Phoenician

Part 1: The people édenistes, Chapter 24: The Phoenician

Published July 20, 2009

The trireme, the emblem of craftPhoenician …

DESTINATION EARTH, Book Two: The peoples

Part 1: The people édenistes, Chapter 24: The Phoenician

The Phoenician

From the emergence of the kingdom of Israel, the kingdom of Canaan left his room for three new kingdoms Phoenicia in the north, the south and the Philistine Kingdom of Israel in the middle … The Greeks called them Phoenician, Greek phoinix, designating them as well for their famous purple dye Phoenician artisans knew very well make this dye, popular around theMediterranean It is obtained by boiling a shell, the murex, found in abundance on the beaches They also said they had bronzed skin, which seems likely, the Nubian in origin … They created the city-states of Byblos (Jbeil), Tyre (Sour), Sidon (Saida), Berytos (Beirut), Arvad Besides the city of Carthage, they never sought to create other colonies They called themselves the name of their cities, the Phoenician term was only used by foreigners to designate the inhabitants of this federation of cities … The Phoenicians were sailors and traders Their mastery of shipbuilding, allows them to navigate along the coasts of the Mediterranean and Black Sea They even exceed the Pillars of Hercules, the present Strait of Gibraltar … They are guided by the stars and not afraid to navigate the night   Herodotus tells us they land on a site, unpack their goods, let the locals make their choice and offer a barter   Then they pack up their purchases and withdraw But business does not always go as quietly … If the Phoenicians are the best customers, he will be delighted to remove them in order to sell them as slaves … They inspired the Greek removal of Io, the daughter of the king of Argos, who had the Phoenician pirates for more than for merchants …

History of the Phoenicians

The Phoenicians founded soon – 3000 many outlets along the Mediterranean and including Carthage – 814 The fall of Mycenae will allow them to dominate the seas Special relationships have always existed between Egypt and the city of Gebal, Byblos Luxury goods, the vase, chests were found The oldest dates from before 2700 J.C The cedar wood was essential to the pharaohs for marine construction and resin that wood was used for mummification Byblos undergoes destruction prior to 2200 J.C The city was rebuilt around the Hall of Baalat, the Lady of Byblos Its relations with Syria and the north to Byblos assured his supply of metal The city became a site known for bronze metallurgy Production figures, symbol of Byblos dates from this period In the fourteenth century, the confrontation between the Egyptian empire and the Hittite empire was settled by the Battle of Kadesh in 1275/1274 which resulted in the treaty between Ramses II and III Hattousili The separation of empires was placed on both sides of the river banks Nahr el-Kabir, the present border between northern Lebanon and Syria The Phoenician cities were left and then under Egyptian rule qu’Ougarit was under the control of the Hittite After the invasion of Sea Peoples around 1200 BC, the major cities, including Ugarit was destroyed Egypt withdrew and the Hittite empire disappeared … The expedition of Tiglath Pileser I, king of Assyria to 1100 BC in Arwad , Is only a brief foray in the Phoenicians, and that does not prevent them to thrive This period it remains the famous sarcophagus of Ahiram, king of Byblos, which bears on its cover the letters of the alphabet Hiram king of Tyre and Solomon collaborated in building the Temple of Jerusalem The union of Tyre and Sidon, carried out under King Ittobaal, lasted more than two centuries and allowed them to go to the country of Tartessos, Spain from where they brought money Then the foundation of Carthage, call to Spain and Cornwall, Great Britain

The Phoenician navy

Phoenicians brought a host of trinkets in their black ship Odyssey, XV The ships of Tarshish (Tartessos) will bring back your son from afar, and with them their silver and gold Isaiah LX, 9 This is the idea that the ancient Phoenician sailors were being Their pilots spotted thanks to the bear cub, the Greeks called the Phoenician …      The tightness of their boats was provided by the asphalt for caulking, which gave them the black fear and famous …   Shipowners with their Phoenician ships ply the Mediterranean They carry everything that can be exchanged or sell wine, oil, grain, in their amphorae, copper ore, silver and tin to produce bronze But also exotic animals for the royal courts, like monkeys and crocodiles Purple, cedar wood, perfumes and precious stones of the country of Ophir and glass beads, which serves as a bargaining chip with local people

The Phoenician ships  

Representations of their ships are rare   On a fresco from a tomb at Thebes in the second millennium BC. AD is seen a ship hull with a broad and rounded, a central mast and a square sail An Assyrian bas-relief from the palace of Sargon II near Nineveh represents the boats found at the ends with a horse’s head as a figurehead, powered by rowers On another bas-relief from Nineveh in the palace of Sennacherib, shows two different types of ships: Warships, long keel, with a stem ending in a sharp spur in two stern oars on each side, serving as a rudder, mast and two stacked rows of oarsmen Merchant ships hull bulging The Phoenician ship is the oldest pentécontore She had a length of about 25 meters, a crew of 50 paddlers plus a dozen men to maneuver the sails The most famous is the trireme, which crisscrossed the Mediterranean between the IV and VII century BC The crew was about 180 men The quadrireme quinquereme and were built by shipyards in Carthage The crews of these ships were 240 men and 300 The maximum speed of these ships, with sail and oars, is estimated at 5 to 6 knots, about 9 km / h …

The Phoenician’s cities

Their overseas expansion is provided by their tradingLocated at the bottom of bays or islands, shelter from the sea but also to protect populations earth The architecture is based on port and warehouses The houses are large to accommodate goods directly in the habitat Religious buildings and tophets, cemeteries, are also part of these counters There is generally no space cultivable expected, nor fortifications: the sea is the best defense We found traces of Phoenician throughout the western Mediterranean: In Cyprus (Kition), Malta, Sicily (Mozia), Sardinia (Tharros, Nora, Sulcis), Portugal (Olisipo), Spain (Tartessos, Gades, Cartago Nova, Onoba, Toscanos Trayamar, Malacca, Abdera, Sexi) , in North Africa (Tripoli, Hadrumetum, Carthage, Icosium, Utica, Rachgoun, Lixus, Mogador, Oea, Sabratha, Leptis Magna, Agadir, Anfa, Azamma, Cerne, Ich, Lixus Rusbisis, Rusadir, Sala Colonia, Chellah, Tamuda, Thusmida, Tingis, Tizas, Volubilis, Zilis,) These are the counters that we have found traces … But there are probably many more … What is remarkable is that many of these counters are simple later became major cities, and notament: Lisbon, Cadiz, Malaga, Cartagena, Huelva, Tripoli, Sousse, Tunis, Agadir, Casablanca, Rabat, Tangier …

Phoenician archeology

Mr. Péretié, Chancellor of the Consulate General of France in Beirut in 1855, was excavated at the site Magharat Tabloun Sidon He discovered the sarcophagus of Echmounazor, king of Sidon in the fifth century BC. J.C On the cover there were 22 lines of text devoting a curse against those who disturb his eternal rest He is currently in theaters Phoenician the Louvre Napoleon III commissioned in 1860, Ernest Renan, a specialist in Semitic philology, to report on the sites of Phoenicia Excavations then began to Tyre, Sidon, Byblos and on the island of Arwad Rouad The report, entitled Mission in Phoenicia, was published in 1864 Interest in these antiquities looting provoked In 1874, the Ottoman authorities forbade the export of antiques They were assigned to the Imperial Museum in Istanbul After World War I, the mandate over Syria and Lebanon were assigned to France by the League of Nations Mandatory authorities organized the excavations The French and Lebanese Maurice Dunand Maurice Chehab was the most remarkable Maurice Dunand (1898 – 1987), devoted himself to excavations in 1924 He directed more than 44 excavations until 1959 The site of Byblos was excavated and presents evidence of its occupation from the sixth millennium BC. J.C The Emir Maurice Chehab (1904 – 1994) is the founder of archaeological institutions in Lebanon He organized in 1936 the Lebanese Department of Antiquities He was its director until 1982 He discovered in excavations of Tyre, monuments from Roman times

Before the Lebanon war, international collaboration has enabled us to undertake excavations at el-Loz Kamed in the Beqa, Tell Arqa, the plain of Akkar in the north and Sarepta In 1934, the father Poidebard and architect Jean Lauffray combine aerial search and underwater to explore the ports of Tyre and Sidon But after 1975, the war stopped the excavations … Since the end of this first war, the restructuring of the Directorate General of Antiquities, has helped revive projects excavations, unfortunately peace was not sustainable suffisement to continue this research … Lasting peace can only revive this work, and that’s really what we want for this country, which hosted important parts of our history …



money is the human predator
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