Part 3: The Tocharian, Chapter 9: The Tocharian Myanmar

Part 3: The Tocharian, Chapter 9: The Tocharian Myanmar

Published July 25, 2009

The pyramid of Pagan …

DESTINATION EARTH   Book Two: The peoples

Part 3: The Tocharian     Chapter 9: The Tocharian Myanmar

Myanmar

Burma, or Myanmar, has an area of 676,000 sq km Along more than 2000 km, the country is in the Tibetan Himalayas to the Isthmus of Kra It is bordered by Laos and Thailand to the east, Bangladesh to the west, China and India to the north It is bordered by the Andaman Sea, the Gulf of Siam and Bengal and Indian Ocean Has its Himalayan peaks over 5000 meters including the Razi Hkakabo The central plain of the Irrawaddy, which flows into the delta and Rangoon rivers Salween and Chindwin, is very fertile Rice, sesame, peanuts, teak wood and bamboo and poppy are her top resources There were 47.4 million people in 2007, of which 4.5 million live in Yangon The Burmese are composed of four main ethnic groups: – The Tibeto-Burman which represent nearly 80% of the population mainly Bamar, but also rakhaings, the chins, the kashins, Lisu, nagas, etc. … – The Mon-Khmer consist of Mons, but also Inthas, of was and Palaung – Thai people, most of which are Shan – The Kayin and kayahs The government recognizes 67 linguistic groups, officially divided into 8 national races: the Bamar (65%), the Shan (10%), Mon (2.3%), the Kayin (7%), the kays and chins ( 2.3%), the kachis (2.3%) and rakhaings (4%) The country has actually more than 130 minority … British colony, the country gained its independence January 4, 1948 Its English name is Burma, Burma in French, but its official name is in the Burmese language Myanmar Myanmar in Burmese means: Strong and fast, the mythical qualities of the former inhabitants whose minds have created this wonderful country, bya mas … The country became the Socialist Republic of Union of Burma January 4, 1974 It is again the union of Burma September 23, 1988 On 18 June 1989, became the official name Myanmar

History of Myanmar

-300: The Mons founded the first kingdom of Burma, Suwarnabhumi near the port of Thaton -100: Arrival of Pyus cities that establish state Binnaka, Mongamo, Sri Ksetra and Halingyi 849: The Burmese, Mongolian from the eastern Himalayas, replace Pyus and founded the city-state of Bagan 1044: Anawrahta becomes king and Bagan was the capital of the kingdom of Burma 1057: Anawrahta beats the Mon and takes the town of Thaton 1287: Acquisition of Bagan by Mongols 1364: The Shan founded the kingdom of Ava, near Mandalay On the west coast, the rakhaings or Arakanese based Mrauk U, Myohaung, Buddhist kingdom 1472: Accession to the throne of Dhammazedi king of Pegu 1527: The Shan invaded the country 1531: Tabinshwehti, King Shan, begins reunification 1550: Advent of Bayinnaung king of Taungoo, originating in the territory of the Burmese Shan kingdoms, that unifies the country and drove the Siamese 1753: Alaungpaya Bago releases northern Burma 1759: He regains Pegu and takes control of Manipur and Rangoon became the capital of Burma 1819: The British declare war on Burma 1852: Second Anglo-Burmese War Lower Burma becomes a province of the Indian Empire with its teak and rice 1885: The English capture of Mandalay and Upper Myanmar 1937: Separation from the Autonomous Government of India and Burma 1942: The Japanese entering the country and proclaimed its independence, allowing Aung San create the Burmese National Army July 19, 1947: Assassination of General Aung San, the father of independence January 4, 1948, Burma became independent and left the Commonwealth 1958: Arrival of a military government led by Ne Win 1962: Politics of the Burmese way to socialism: nationalization of the whole economy, to retail, and expulsion of nearly 250,000 Indian and Chinese 1988: After brutally suppressed demonstrations, Ne Win retired in July In September, a coup brought to power the SLORC, State Board for the restoration of law and order, which establishes martial law The NLD, National League for Democracy, a coalition of opposition rallied around Aung San Suu Kyi, daughter of Aung San, under house arrest 1990: Free elections, leading to the victory of the NLD, canceled by the military dictatorship and imprisonment of Aung San Suu Kyi 1995: Aung San Suu Kyi is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and is released 1999: Opening multiple new border crossings with China and Thailand November 7, 2005: The capital was moved from Rangoon to Pyinmana, renowned Naypyidaw, meaning royal city

From prehistory to history, Myanmar

It is found fossils of primates older than 50 million years Human occupation is observed since 400 000 years The first excavations Burmese archaeologists have uncovered sites Nyaungyan, T Inn, Mong Kyu, Myin Oo HLE and Kokkokhala, but with limited interventions with little myens Recent excavations, made with more appropriate technology, have proven an important human activity and developed the Neolithic to the Metal Ages The excavations of burials Hnaw Kan, Ywa Htin, Hla Myo, Min Ohh, Htan Nyaung Ta Pin and Gon, show the state of the evolution of these populations in the Metal Ages Many objects in copper-based alloys have been discovered in the central region Bronze objects, tools, weapons, vessels, jewelry and ornaments, were found in the cemeteries of Ywa Htin, Hla Myo and Nyaung Gon Of bronze socketed axes were discovered in the cemeteries of Nyaunggan and Ywa Htin An analysis of these axes was performed by J.-Ch. The Banners and G. Querré of the University of Rennes He determined its composition: binary bronze made of 90.1% copper and 8.91% tin These bronze objects were fabricated by molding But the discovered objects that are most surprising, are bundles of copper son … They were also analyzed by researchers at the University of Rennes who were able to determine that this is a particularly pure copper … See this second book, part one, chapter 19, the copper route, to better understand the advanced state of these people … We also found a lot of carnelian It is a microcrystalline variety of quartz containing iron oxide and can take color from yellow orange to red when heated It is in Southeast Asia is the Iron Age material prized for making ornaments and necklaces

Bagan or Pagan

Bagan was founded around 849, on the left bank of the Irrawaddy, in the dry part of Burma Of about 42 km2 there lacated over 2800 temples, monasteries and other religious buildings and more than 2,000 buildings more or less in ruins … One is struck by their homogeneity despite the centuries that separate their construction Inside, a corridor runs round A narrow staircase leads to the upper platform Some temples still have frescoes and murals Bagan would be after the confederation of 19 Pyus villages, each specializing in one activity, pottery, ceramics, etc. …, surrounded by a fortress town Along the Irrawaddy River, Bagan controlled the trade from all directions It elephants exported to Sri Lanka It traded primarily gold, silver, rubies, jade, copper … Almost the entire old town has disappeared beneath the waves due to earthquakes

Thagara 

Thagara, have been found in 2007, which could be a military post of the first Burmese empire, which is dated the eleventh century Searches are underway and should provide new information very quickly about the history of Burma

Mrauk U or Myohaung

On the west coast, the rakhaings or Arakanese, founded Mrauk U, Buddhist kingdom that rivals Bagan The English have named Myohaung, which means in Burmese Old Town There are as many temples in Bagan The most important is the temple of Shitthaung, custodian of the traditions of the Arakan It is the temple of 80,000 Buddhas … It is built like a fortress, with walls nearly 2 meters thick, rocks, and without mortar …

Myo Hla 

Myo Hla, were found in the plain of Samon, Graves Bronze Age The excavations have uncovered many skeletons and many useful objects and jewelry, ceramic, bronze and copper … The villagers were looking for beads of carnelian, very lucrative This caused the destruction of more than 7 hectares site … In 2003, following the intervention of the authorities, archaeologists are able to access the sites, but the destruction by this research have taken wild from the start of archaeologists

Nyaunggan or Nyaung Gon

North of Monywa, Nyaunggan site was excavated in 1998, spreading the first burial site of the Bronze Age in Burma 43 graves have been discovered, including 7 children All the dead are lying down, head north In burials there found ceramic vessels, bronze tools, polished stone rings, beads, clay, shells and semi-precious stones Excavations in 2007 yielded son bundles of pure copper The son are assembled in packages maintained by a link in plant material These packets are then gathered into bundles Son in the number of a packet is the same across the bundle The number of packets son differs between bundles In the same grave there are exactly the same number of packets and son and the son of length is the same

Thaugthaman

Thaugthaman graves in the valley of the Irrawaddy, near Amarapura, excavated in the 1970s were the first to deliver pottery and iron objects

Kan Hnaw

In 2001 the cemetery of the Iron Age of Hnaw Kan, near Malhaing, yielded 84 graves with 75 skeletons with a rich ceramic and metal furniture and ornaments Some of these graves are mass graves, probably family, often containing more than ten people

Ywa Htin

The cemetery of the Iron Age of Ywa Htin is located in the district at the Mandalay Pyaw Bwe The discovery of the site by the villagers led the looting and bronzes like pearls fueled the booming market of antiques Several vases and metal objects were still preserved in the village in 2002 and some ceramics are exhibited at the Museum of Pagan The excavations of 2002 and 2003, have uncovered more than 150 funerary deposits and skeletal remains of more than 65 people In large pottery we have found beads, pebbles, and son bundles of copper The pots are placed at the feet of the skeleton and support the deceased Several jars lying horizontally in groups of 2 to 4 vases, containing very young children East-West orientation is identical to the graves of adults The furniture is made by bronze socketed axes and spearheads socket It was also exhumed dishes and various bells About 200 beads semi-precious stone and dozens of glass beads were also found The stone beads are shaped stones in pink, green or rock crystal The carnelian beads are highly sought after by the villagers … Of nearby residents wear necklaces of stone beads, carnelian mainly …

The golden rock

262 kms from Rangoon is the rock of gold He wears a small stupa It is also called Pagoda Kyaiktiyo This is a huge megalith circle of about 6 m in diameter, covered with fine gold, and is balanced on the edge of the cliff He was placed there by two nats, spirits, there are 2500 years It was only open by a wire, a hair of Buddha … Women have no right to touch or to approach it …

The Tocharian Myanmar

The high technology of Neolithic man in Myanmar, including control of copper, we clearly proves the passage and the invasion of that country in Tocharian In addition, we found many temples and pagodas, built on a foundation of Amerindian pyramids … Shitthaung Bagan and we show This is the signature of the Maya … But we saw in Chapters 7-9 of this Part 2, the Maya also left Sanchi … But we lack the megaliths of Tocharian … But it is not because one has not yet found that there are none, or that there was no! The golden rock  is a suitable candidate as Tocharian megalith …

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About DOUGLAS MOONSTONE

money is the human predator
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