Part 3: The Tocharian, Chapter 12: The Tocharian Cambodia

Part 3: The Tocharian, Chapter 12: The Tocharian Cambodia

Published July 26, 2009

Angkor, Cambodia’s symbol …

DESTINATION EARTH   Book Two: The peoples

Part 3: The Tocharian   Chapter 12: The Tocharian Cambodia

History and Geography

When we speak of a country, I always a little introduction with a summary of its history and geography What good is it, since I’m talking about what happened there over 4000 years! I think it’s interesting to know how this place today, in order to understand how the geography of this country has influenced its history When his story, I think it helps to understand the path of the population of this country and to better understand the people who live But these are only superficial summaries to whet your appetite, and if you’re interested, feel free to expand your knowledge by further research The summaries I present to you, being there only to allow you to better track and understand what happened here, there are over 4000 years …

Cambodia

Cambodia area of 181,035 square km, with 443 km of coastline on the Gulf of Thailand Its capital is Phnom Penh It count about 13 million people Cambodia has a tropical climate with alternating seasons: The rainy season, the monsoon is from May to November The dry season lasts from December to April It is a country of plains and forests, although they decreased visibly because of illegal deforestation

The Tonle Sap

The Tonle Sap means in Khmer: large freshwater river This lake, the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia is a water system is unique, both lake and river It is in a depression created by the collision of plates of the Indian subcontinent and Asia The lake area is nearly 2700 square kilometers with a depth of about one meter in the dry season When the Mekong is in flood, due to the combined effect of the monsoon and Himalayan glacial melt, the river that connects the lake to the sea, reverse its course The lake surface can then reach 16 000 sq km and its depth nine meters, a volume 70 times larger … Reversing the course of the Tonle Sap and its increase in volume limited the risk of flooding downstream At its flood, the lake inundates the nearby fields and forests The Tonle Sap ecosystem is recognized as an ecosystem of flooded forest Seasonal flooding creates an ideal environment for fish reproduction This is a windfall for the Cambodian The Tonle Sap is an area of freshwater fishing’s most productive in the world, Waters down leave with sediment, making it a land suitable for agriculture for the rest of the year

History of Cambodia

Prehistory of Cambodia is well known 5000 years ago the people of India and southern China migrated southwards and settled there These people are the ancestors of Mons and their cousins the Khmer The existence of this kingdom is attested in the 1st century by Chinese historians, that evoke people ugly and black, with curly hair The early sixth century Chinese historians give the name of Chen-la, the Khmer kingdom In the early seventh century, the Khmer king Içanavarman established his capital at Sambor Prei Kuk, north of Kompong Thom, but fifty years later, Jayavarman I, transferred the capital to Angkor Borey In the eighth century the Khmers must accept the suzerainty of Java This is Jayavarman II, a Khmer prince amounted to Java that unifies and liberates the Khmer Javanese He proclaimed himself king in 802 and moved his capital north of Lake Tonle The stele Sdok Kok Thom, dated 1053, tells us about the reign of the founder of the Khmer Empire At the end of the tenth century, the Khmer undergo an incursion of chams, installed in Vietnam today Conflicts with chams are part of Khmer history King Jayavarman VII reign between 1181 and 1227 This is the height of the Khmer Empire in Cambodia more current, encompasses much of Thailand and Laos and Champa is a vassal state The Khmer empire was then called the Sovannaphum or Suvannarbhumi, which means Golden Land In 1285, Jayavarman VIII must pay tribute to Kublai Khan, the Mongol emperor of China In 1336, a Hindu king and persecutor of Buddhism is assassinated by Ta Chay who takes his place on the throne, giving rise to the legend around Ta Trasak MEAP The fifteenth to the nineteenth century, Cambodia was almost constantly in Siamese domination En1841, much of Cambodia was incorporated in Vietnam, to become West Cochin In 1863, King Norodom signed an agreement with France established a protectorate over the kingdom and joined the country in its colonial empire France colonized the three countries, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia, which form almost a century, French Indochina After a brief Japanese rule during World War II, Prince Sihanouk negotiates with French independence, proclaimed in October 1953 Neutrality, based Cambodian foreign policy in years is broken, since 1965, with the resumption of civil war in Vietnam March 18, 1970, in the absence of Prince Norodom Sihanouk, in medical treatment in France, the national assembly, the falls from his post as head of state Then the power falls to General Lon Nol and Prince Sirik Matak In October 1970, the new administration proclaimed the abolition of the monarchy and the country was renamed the Khmer Republic

In April 1970, U.S. President Nixon spread the Vietnam conflict in Cambodia With the help of the North Vietnamese, the Khmer Rouge guerrillas, is growing Pol Pot and Ieng Sary founded the Khmer Communist Party, the CPK 1 January 1975, the Khmer Rouge army launched the offensive end and 117 days, they will become masters of the country April 17, the Khmer Rouge entered Phnom Penh in After his victory, the CPK ordered the evacuation of all cities, residents to work as peasants in the countryside, and it will be death for many of them Everything that could evoke the urban civilization: the industries, hospitals, schools, governments, are destroyed Survivors must participate in the development of a new order under the authority of the Angkar The currency is abolished and any private property Families are dislocated The burnout, malnutrition and disease, in addition to summary executions, often with cudgels, and will cause the death of nearly two million people in the space of three years The official name of the new state’s Democratic Kampuchea Khieu Samphan was formally head of state, but Angkar is headed since April 1977, by Saloth Sar, General Secretary of the CPK and known as Pol Pot His anti-Vietnam war starts in September 1977 On 25 December 1978 the Vietnamese army goes on the offensive and routs the army within days of the Khmer Rouge January 11, 1979, in Phnom Penh, a People’s Revolutionary Committee, controlled by the fraction provietnamienne CPK and chaired by Heng Samrin took power and proclaimed the People’s Republic of Cambodia After the departure of Vietnamese in 1989 and the arrival of UN forces in the early 1990s, the regime will find a semblance of autonomy The current Prime Minister Hun Sen, placed in power by Vietnam, ruled the country since that period, and remained in power through three successive flawed elections in a climate of political violence Cambodia’s economy depends on international aid The country suffers from corruption and many very important traffic, precious stones, wood, prostitution, drugs, and a legal system very poor, slow economic development Since his arrival, Prime Minister Hun Sen has moved closer to China and especially the United States Currently tourism and textiles are the main providers of foreign currency Elections were held in July 2008 The Cambodian constitution of 1993 forbade the Prime Minister to seek a third term Mr. Hun Sen, in power for twenty-three years, has nevertheless represented and re-elected

Archaeological sites in Cambodia

The discovery of burial sites of Cambodia have shown that their use dates back well before the first millennium BC A Sat Rong Sen, the remains have shown that people knew agriculture, livestock, fisheries They also mastered pottery and weaving of bronze and manufactured The finds are similar to those fields of menhirs Hua Pan in Laos In Champassak province, it was discovered the remains of numerous temples and préangkoriens the road to Angkor Vat Phou It is marked every 18 km from temples and large barays, water tanks The various inscriptions confirm that the region is the birthplace of the dynasty founded by Mahendravarman Vat Phou is therefore the first Angkorian capital The mountain temples, or pyramids symbolize Mount Meru of Hindu mythology The center of the universe is represented by the temple It is surrounded by five peaks surrounded by seven mountain ranges, represented by the outer walls and emerging from the ocean, represented by the moat

Koh Ker

Koh Ker is the current name of the ancient Khmer site Chok Gargyar, Khmer capital between 928 and 944 Its Sanskrit name is Lingapura, the city of linga   The capital of Koh Ker lived only 23 years and is still amazed at the work undertaken during a short period Jayavarman IV becomes king of Cambodia in 928 and decided to take his own capital city, Koh Ker, located 85 km northeast of Angkor From 921, there are many shrines built of colossal size He added the general assembly of the prang Prasat Thom, a pyramid with five tiers, intended for the royal linga Prasat Thom temple is a gigantic mountain of 7 floors with 30 m Of Garuda carved on the stone blocks are still climbing guard on the top The huge doorways of the shrines of the tower hint at the size of sacred sculptures worshiped at that time in this place Most large statues of the National Museum in Phnom Penh come from Koh Ker Prasat Thom At Koh Ker there are many shrines prasat or turn Two of them have a huge linga on a yoni, the central sanctuary, large enough to accommodate several people The flow of holy water after passing over the linga can be seen on the outside wall of one of them Further, three prasat one beside the other are dedications to Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu

Prasat Ak Yum

George Trouvé is the discoverer of Prasat Ak Yum, the oldest mountain temples, in 1933Surveys in the central tower of Bayon him discover a new foundation pit excavation His will uncover a large broken statue of Buddha on nagaIt will be restored on a terrace near the Buddhist monument   He was buried in the south dike of the BarayIt is a small set of three brick pyramids to key elements sandstone, built on a site prior The inscriptions date from 609, 704 and 1001 AD The temple was dedicated to the god Gambhiresvara

Prah KoIt

It is the funerary temple of Jayavarman II and his predecessors An enclosure by a moat of 400m by 300m surrounds The foundation stele is a carved monolith, a menhir … The engraving shows the worship of the God-King …

Bakong

It is a temple mountain surrounded by a laterite wall and a moat measuring 900m x 700 m It uses almost exclusively sandstone The stele bears a linga, phallic stone, representing Shiva The linga seems to be a recovery cult of the menhir The central sanctuary of the style of Angkor Wat was recovered from a pile of rubble from 1936 to 1943

Phnom Bakheng

This temple is the center of the first Angkor, which formed a square about 4km from side It is surrounded by a moat and an inner enclosure of 650m by 436m aside It is a pyramid temple cut in the mass of a hill clad in natural sandstone It has seven floors Oriental

Mebon

Centrally located in the East Baray and originally only accessible with a boat It is a temple mountain of brick and laterite, formed by a set of five towers staggered platform supported by a three meter high The east-west axis of the temple is aligned with the main entrance to the Royal Palace of Angkor Thom Sandstone lintels are beautifully made, as well as elephants in the round the corners of each floor

Ta Keo

It is an imposing temple mountain at 5 floors moated It is almost entirely in sandstone It was to be the center of a Khmer capital

Phimeanakas

This is the royal palace in the capital, surrounded by a laterite wall, five meters high and lined by a second wall built later In the center of this enclosure is constructed Phimeanakas, three-stores pyramid on a rectangular

The Baphuon

It is a three-stores temple mountain located south of the royal palace, on the north south across the Phimeanakas It is surmounted by an impressive copper tower, taller than the towers of gold Bayon, described by Chou Ta Kuan, a Chinese envoy visiting Angkor in the late thirteenth century

Ta Prohm

This is a Buddhist monastery in five pregnant It has not been restored and is left to the vegetation of the jungle … This is dramatic for structures as trees that support it are still dying Deciphered the inscriptions tell us that 12,640 people lived within these enclosures, including 13 high priests, officiants 2740, 2,232 assistants and 615 dancers and servants so 7040 …

The Western Baray

This is a huge artificial reservoir 8000 meters by 2000, dug in the 11th Century This baray was built on the site of a former capital, probably in the 7th century The capital was centered around the temple of Ak Yum, the first temple pyramid, characteristic of the capitals of the Khmer Empire Research has confirmed the occupation of this region before the Angkorian period, with the discovery of two prehistoric burial grounds first The site Prei Khmeng revealed the superposition of a Brahmin temple in the middle of 6th century, on the funeral home occupations and the beginning of our era It was discovered in the heart of Baray, a new site even earlier, in some normally submerged throughout the year, but unusually open for a few weeks on the occasion of two unusual droughts Excavations have uncovered a vast necropolis of the Bronze Age, which attests to human occupation at Angkor since the first millennium BC

Thommanon

Thommanon based on a laterite enclosure of 45 m by 60 m, with a central sanctuary linking to a mandapa, a Kleang, is believed to be a library, and two gopuras, east-west The central tower of 3m side has four floors and four fictitious front body on a base with a height of 2.5 m Three of the front building on false doors give the illusion, delicately decorated with highly stylized dêvetâs and finesse The pediments depict the gods and scenes from the Ramayana

Samrong Sen

Near Kompong Chhnang on the site of Samrong Sen, we found a mound of fresh-water shells of 3 km long and 2 km wide, which dates from -600 But also other objects and utensils that have been dated up to – 3420 BC … We found some tools, ceramics, bronzes, ornaments and jewelry, etc. … But the site was only briefly excavated in the late 19th century, and we will certainly bring some surprises, when it could be again …

Angkor Wat or Angkor wat

To build Angkor, it took to build the Baray, and why, destroy habitation sites and cults previous It is a temple pyramid with three floors facing west This is actually the funerary temple of Suryavarman II It is built on an artificial hill with four speakers galleries The outer wall forms a rectangle of 1025m x 800m doubled outside by a moat 190m wide He has more than one square kilometer of bas-reliefs … I’ll let you deepen for yourself what you want to know of this temple, there are so many things to see and say …   This is the most famous temple in the world and that is the representation of Cambodia … Often it is given the title of world wonderIndeed it would have deserved to be included in the list of Wonders of the World …

The Tocharian Cambodia

The Tocharian and Mayan are well spent in Cambodia … It includes the Mayan pyramids, including a menhir Tocharian more or less stylized in their furniture Sites of the main temples have been inhabited since Neolithic times and are therefore sacred sites for nearly five millennia … It includes the traditional materials and articles of all populations tokhariennes As in Xinjiang, it contains the promiscuous of Tocharian: 615 dancers in the monastery … Sure that vocations would increase if it were applied in the Christian monasteries … When the menhirs, dolmens and other megaliths, we identified in the jungle of the mountain of Ta Mao and mountain Rank on the road to Sihanoukville, but the drills being mined, there is not even today, of access possible, but tomorrow … Nobody knows the origin of the Khmer … Allowing us to think that the Khmer could well be Tocharian who settled in Cambodia and have absorbed the local population, about 5000 years ago …

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About DOUGLAS MOONSTONE

money is the human predator
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