Part 3: The Tocharian, Chapter 14: The Tocharian in Vietnam

Part 3: The Tocharian, Chapter 14: The Tocharian in Vietnam

Published July 26, 2009

Frontispiece of the temple of Po Nagar Cham …

DESTINATION EARTH   Book Two: The peoples

Part 3: The Tocharian   Chapter 14: The Tocharian in Vietnam

The Vietnam

Vietnam, Hanoi capital, has an area of 331,690 km2 and has about 85 million people It has 3,260 km of coastline and a length of 1 650 km Mountainous areas and highlands occupy two-thirds of the country Its main natural resources apart from oil represents about 20% of its exports are phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, natural gas, tin, zinc, silver, gold, precious stones, coal, forests and water power To the south, fertile rice is grown mainly Vietnam is the third largest rice exporter

Legendary history of Vietnam

Vietnam was founded in 2879 BC. AD and its capital would be located at the site of the current Township The Viets, also called the Kinh, are children of the fairy and the dragon A dragon and a fairy got married and gave birth to a giant black egg, which hatched one hundred children The dragon was linked to the sea and the fairy in the mountains and the air, they are then separated The dragon took his fifty children to the sea, future Kinh, and the fairy took her fifty children to the mountains The descendants of the children of the dragon and the fairy lived in harmony, each child being the ancestor of a separate kingdom During a first attack of a people from the north, fifteen kings and queens came together and elected one of them to be the first emperor of Việt Nam, the country south of the Vietnamese in 2879 BC. AD

History of Vietnam

Between -500 and -208, the kingdom of Van Lang or the lake, covered the Guangdong Province of China and northern Vietnam Then came the endless wars of conquest, reconquest, invasions, releases, between China, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Thailand, to the landing of the French in 1858 in Da Nang 208: founded by General Zhao Tuo of Viet Nam, the country south of the Vietnamese 111: Viet Nam’s invasion by the Han 2 nd century foundation of the kingdom of Champa to Annam, near Hue 446: invasion of Champa by the Chinese 981: Emperor’s victory Viet Le Hanh Đai of Song China 1018: Viet by Emperor sent an embassy to China to bring back the basic texts of Buddhism 1070: Foundation in Thang Long, Hanoi, Temple of Literature, dedicated to Confucianism 1516: Landing of Portuguese sailors, the first Westerners in Vietnam 1858: French landing in Da Nang 1865: Foundation of the French colony of Cochinchina 1884: Founding of the French protectorate over Tonkin 1930: Founding of the Indochinese Communist Party 1940: Japanese occupation authorities agreed with the Vichy French State 1941: Foundation of the Việt Minh and the beginning of the Vietnamese resistance August 25, 1945: Japanese troops left and the abdication of Emperor Bao Đại September 2, 1945: Proclamation of Independence of Vietnam by Ho Chi Minh 1946: beginning of the war in Indochina 1949: creation of the state of South Vietnam by the French administration 7 May, 1954: French defeat at Dien Bien Phu July 20, 1954: signing of the Geneva partition of the country at the 17th parallel, north Democratic Republic of Vietnam founded by Ho Chi Minh, and the Republic of South Vietnam 1956: arrival of the first U.S. military advisers and reactivation of networks Việt Cong 1959: beginning of the Vietnam War April 30, 1975: Viet Cong victory and end the Vietnam War July 2, 1976: official reunification of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam with Hanoi as its capital and Saigon became Ho Chi Minh City

Sites in Vietnam

Tocharian sites in Vietnam are burial sites, megaliths and temples rarely But the devastating Chinese occupation of more than a millennium, reuse and modern warfare, have removed many vestiges and destroyed all the writings that oral traditions, customs and sites … Fortunately there are still places to discover, and now realize the value of the assets, is highly developed No doubt the near future has much to teach us about our ancestors who lived on this earth … As I said, our ancestors, although I’m not Vietnamese, is that the past as the present and the future for that matter, are the property of all inhabitants of this land …

Phung Nguyen

Phung Nguyen civilization from the 20th to 15th century BC The geographical location of Phung-nguyen matches the legendary kingdom of Van-lang, which tends to prove that the kingdom really existed It is likely that by the legendary attempts to erase memories of the Chinese occupation During excavations in Nghia Lap, Phu Tho, Viet Tri and nearly 20 other sites, were found stone objects, pottery, jewelry and pieces of jars, vases finely decorated

The temples of the Hung Kings

The temples of the Hung Kings stand on Mount Nghia Linh district of Phong Chau After fixing their capital in Phong Chau, the Hung Kings chose Mount Nghia Linh, as the seat of worship to the gods of heaven In the temple Ha, the lower temple, is the pagoda Thien Quang Ha Temple, after descending a few dozen stone steps, we reached the temple Gieng, the temple of the well This is where the princesses are revered Tien Dung and Ngoc Hoa, daughters of King Hung 18 th Inside the temple, is the well Jade as they liked to admire combing Ha temple, one can access the Trung temple, the temple means, by climbing 168 stone steps Trung temple to the Hung Kings kept hearing and discussing state affairs with their subjects Still climbing 100 steps, we reached Thuong temple, the temple above, where the Hung Kings’ worship of heaven, earth, spirits of the mountains and rice Inside, a large horizontal panel door four golden characters “Nam Quoc Son Ha” which means: mountains and rivers of southern countries Front of the temple, a large stone pillar standing on a pedestal, blackened by smoke, called tho, the stone of the oath, marks the spot where An Duong Vuong Thuc Phan in the 2nd century BC AD, vowed to maintain forever the worship of the Hung Kings and to protect their heritage Below the temple Thuong is a tomb built in the 20th century It symbolizes the burial of the first King Hung All the remains is composed of four temples, a pagoda and a tomb They have been restored or built nearly a century ago But recent archaeological studies have discovered on Mount of the Hung Kings architectural remains dating from the Ly Dynasty, Tran Dynasty and even earlier Each of these temples still contains ceremonial objects dating from the time of the Hung Kings

Dong Son

In Vietnam in the province of Thanh Hoa, at the age of bronze, are vestiges of Dong Son civilization, famous for its bronze drums, from Trong Dong Bronze cast or lost wax for others, they are found in the tombs of important characters They should probably include the drum call Indra, as in the legend of Angkor Wat Indra, the sun god, is worshiped as a god of fertility, which explains the patterns on the bronze drums The graves of Dong Son have delivered abundant furnishings: bronze drums, situlae, handled daggers, axes, halberds, spittoons, seals, jewelery, ceramics, musical instruments There are also some megaliths

Sa Huynh

In the province of Quang Ngoi, Binh Tri Thien of the Dong Nai Valley, we find the Sa Huynh culture We practice burials in large stone jars or ceramic The funeral jars are large and are egg-shaped with a lid shaped tray liners, or spherical, or cylindrical with lids shaped like a truncated cone We did not find any skeletons, but incineration ash and treasured objects to the deceased So these funeral jars contained pottery, tools of iron or copper, weapons, objects of daily life, ornaments in clay, gemstones, crystal, agate and metal The pots are pots, vases, bowls, fruit bowls and candlesticks They are usually swollen and low, circular bottom with a flared mouth, with ornaments in zigzags, diamond, decorated with shells and rope They are often covered with red and black lead Creativity and the high technical level of this civilization, is visible in the manufacture of their jewelry Long rows, bracelets and earrings, are made of precious stones, glass and agate earrings The three-node and dual heads of animals are the most representative objects of this culture These finely crafted original jewelry and were also exported to other parts of Southeast Asia is

Culture jars

It was also discovered funerary jars large, interlacing the site of Go Dua, Duy Xuyen district, province of Ha Nam In 1988, at Dien Son, Dien Khanh district, Khanh Hoa coastal province, while drilling a well, they discovered a funerary jar In June 1995, another was brought to light in the same garden There are probably many more … Archaeologists at the Hanoi National University have recently discovered several artifacts dating, estimated about 3,000 years the site of Go Mieu commune of Ha Tien, Tien Phuoc district, Quang Nam Province The objects were found in a tomb in jars located in areas of the town of Ha Tien Archaeologists have found two bronze bowls, including a broken bowl and a ceramic pots 3 Several ceramic fragments, animal bones and jewelry in glass This tomb is attributed to the Sa Huynh Culture, dated the beginning of the Bronze Age to early Iron Age, from 4th to 1st millennium BC. AD

Sa Pa

In August 1924, Jean Bathellier, remark on two large stones in the valley of Muong Hoa, a tributary of the Red River, petroglyphs oddly shaped He advises the French school of Far East (EFEO) in Hanoi, who dispatched the archaeologist Victor Goloubew Goloubew explores the valley of Muong Hoa and discovered thirty engraved stones Of varying sizes, ranging from boulder to blocks weighing several tons, they are black, the patina of time Their natural color is white because they are quartzite, a fine-grained sandstone Placed on the ground, the stones come from elsewhere … The petroglyphs carved on their surface with blows of chisels accurate and consistent are usually visible Goloubew noticed a petroglyph that looks like Chinese characters After much research, Goloubew finds that writing in question can only be of lolo, whose script has an undeniable kinship with the Chinese According to the manual of Ethnology, the tits are a people from Central Asia, which descended from huns Their location in Tonkin dates back to early Christian era The Lolo are distinguished by their slender and wearing of head emerged near the western-style The ethnic Hmong, Yao and Nhang, from China in the mid 19 th century took the place of tits, and whose track is cleared

The petroglyphs 

In 1992, archaeologists discovered another Vietnamese field of engraved stones, near the village of Tra My, 8 km from the valley of Muong Hoa. The total number of engraved stones is 240, but there are probably other We thought they were scattered randomly in nature, but they are arranged in a logical extremely complex, and that remains to be elucidated … Because of the strange logic of which they are ordered, some people think it is a gigantic cryptogram that would announce a future destructive deluge … Adherents of millenarianism, which provide for the end of the world for 2012, are now likely to go to Sapa, which is fast becoming a cult-place …

Nam Dan

The field stone Nam Dan, Ha Giang province was classified national archaeological site This is the second country after the megalithic field of Sa Pa, in the neighboring province of Lao Cai It found seven blocks engraved stones Archaeologists have identified 80 types of carvings on these stones, divided into 7 groups according to their shapes, circle, rectangle, square, parallel lines, symbols of the reproductive organs, etc. … But also a stylized drawing of a man with raised arms and legs folded Some carvings are life-size human feet, the toes deeply etched in stone Several prints have been identified There are also holes 5 to 6 cm in diameter on the west side of certain stones Even today, the meaning of these petroglyphs us is still unknown …


Near the site of Oc-Eo, we discovered an impressive dolmen in Xuan Loc- We even prepared a consolidation project for this megalithic tomb

The My Son Sanctuary

The My Son Sanctuary is a set of Hindu Cham temples in ruins, situated in the province of Quang Nam In the fourth century, the king built in My Son Bhadravarman a wooden temple dedicated to the worship of the lingam Bhadresvara The lingam or Linga is a standing stone This is the representation of Shiva After a fire in the sixth century, rebuilt the temple Sambhuvarman brick and stone and consecrated to Sambhubhadresvara. The ruins of My Son were discovered in 1889 by Camille Paris

The sanctuary of Po Nagar

Po Nagar in Nha Trang, is the sacred shrine in southern Champa, My Son is like for the northern kingdom It is dedicated to Yang Po Nagar Ina, the goddess of the kingdom of Champa It was built in 784, after the burning of wooden temple in 774 It is the sanctuary of Po Nagar, the main kalan, kalan the south, southeast temple, the temple northwest and the mandapa The main kalan Po Nagar is 22.8 meters high and is one of the tallest known cham On the south wall of the northwest tower is a statue of the winged god Garuda On the west wall of this tower, there is a man sitting cross-legged on an elephant’s head, holding a spear ankusa and sidearm, the symbol of Indra, god of thunder The kalan has a square base and a stepped roof with three levels of conical Originally, the mandapa was 24 octagonal brick columns that supported a roof-shaped hull boat overturned The mandapa is connected to the kalan by steps brick A linga is in front of the mandapa The temple and the temple south southeast each house a linga also … The kalan Po Nagar is a place of worship of the goddess Bhagavati, here in Vietnam called Yang Po Nagar Ina This is the mother goddess of the kingdom of Champa The people of Nha Trang and the surrounding temples still use the Po Nagar Each year, the 23rd to the 27th day of the third lunar month, usually in April, takes place the festival of the goddess mother of the country cham Yang Po Nagar Ina would have taught the rice to the population

The Tocharian in Vietnam

The Kingdom of Van-lang is the confirmation of the presence of Tocharian in Vietnam, only able to establish a centralized government, there 5000 years … The advanced technology of the Neolithic is also present here … And technology, 5000 years ago the lost wax casting, is only present in Atlantis or édenistes … The megaliths are present also, and here as elsewhere, it does not explain how these huge blocks of stone from elsewhere, have been transported …   The temples are poorly represented, but as Po Nagar to My Son, they are the continuity of a telluric place Tocharian and not a reconstruction on top of a pyramid as in Cambodia The presence of lingas, confirms this hypothesis The presence of Tocharian is also confirmed by the Atlantean gods, Indra, Garuda and the mother goddess … Locations are stored in the memory of the people, their sacred character, despite the widespread destruction of the invading Chinese, at the very beginning of our era … The petroglyphs have yet to be deciphered to determine if they are burned or Tocharian by people who would be appropriate after these lying menhirs, dolmen or burial for their own cult …



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