Part 3: The Tocharian, Chapter 19: The Bantu

Part 3: The Tocharian, Chapter 19: The Bantu
Published July 31, 2009

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The menhir square topped, of Kalokol at Namoratunga II, near Lake Turkana, Kenya …

DESTINATION EARTH Book Two: The peoples

Part 3: The Tocharian Chapter 19: The Bantu

Khoi-San

Bantu

Bantu means: humans, in the Kongo language The Bantu are drawn from Sudan to South Africa and the Atlantic Ocean to the Indian Ocean They are farmers and sedentary and gained from ancient times, the mastery of iron, which allowed them to colonize territories for a period of about four thousand years … The Bantu clans are most matriarchal, and practicing respect and submission to the elders of the tribe

Bantu_expansion

History of Bantu

The Bantu are from the south of the Benue River in Nigeria, and would have migrated in stages to central Africa, then to the Eastern and Southern Africa This colonization of the Bantu began in the second millennium BC. AD and ended in the nineteenth century with the arrival of the Zulu in South Africa They have mastered iron metallurgy Their founding ancestors were kings of civilizing-smiths, which allowed them to make iron tools to clear glades This story is called into question as and archaeological discoveries … Before 2000 BC, the Bantu most likely originate from the east, from where they migrated to the west to Nigeria, the starting point of their history recognized … From the west, the Bantu are then returned to the east, their homeland …

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Bantu Trade

The Egyptians of the Pharaonic era used the cinnamon plant endemic to southeast Asia, for mummification Queen Hatshepsut, who secured the regency on the death of her husband, the 16th century BC, led an expedition on the sea coast of Somalia beyond the Strait of Bab el-Mandeb, and perhaps to Madagascar, or at least until a meeting with the Tocharian, to refuel in cinnamon … There have probably had an unexpected out of stock … The story of this expedition is on the bas-reliefs of the temple of Queen at Deir el-Bahari The Bantu language is Swahili, or Kiswahili, the language of traders, spoken in Kinshasa and Djibouti to South Africa It is therefore likely that this linguistic tradition was born of a stranglehold on the African trade from north to south and from east to west, by the Bantu This could only work because the Bantu were allies of the Tocharian … 2000 years BC, the Bantu supplied the Tocharian and African slaves in Egypt … They delivered to Egyptian cinnamon in Java … The gold regions of south, manufactures of iron, and many other products, completed their catalog … The colonization of land traversed was a guarantee of security for their caravans …

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Iron from Bantu
Recently, UNESCO has undertaken research to establish the dating of the Iron Age in Africa … Here are the results: The steel industry dates back to at least 1500 BC. JC at Termit, Niger A Egaro, east of Termit, Iron Age dates back to 2900 BC. J. C. In Cameroon, near Lake Nyanza, iron was mined from 1200 BC J. C In Egypt, at Giza, it is in 2700 BC. J.C. and at Abydos in 2350 BC. J.C. In Nubia, Buhen, the Iron Age began in 1991 BC. J. C. Tanzania, Kuturuka is in 1470 BC. J. C. The Iron Age began around 1100 BC. BC in the Mediterranean world and from 800 to 700 av. AD in northern Europe …

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Direct reduction

It is a furnace and iron ore Bantu man on horseback gives the scale … The first technology is demonstrated that the direct reduction which allows to obtain the iron used in a single operation Blacksmiths building small furnaces alternately loaded with charcoal and iron ore Around 1200 ° C, iron separates from its impurity The metal recovered is then purified by hammering hot and transformed

The indirect reduction

The founders first remove the iron after total liquefaction of the ore in blast furnace from 1535 ° C Shed its excess carbon, it is then transformed into steel in the same oven This technique is used in Africa since the 10th century BC. J. C. , And will be performed for the first time in Europe in the fourteenth century AD or 2,400 years later …

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The observatory Namoratunga

Namoratunga II, called Kalokol, but the dancing stones, stones dancing, is a megalithic site of 19 standing stones of basalt, a meter high or more, above the surface Some stones are cut into square, but others are perfectly cylindrical Some of them are on the top, a sloping surface with petroglyphs Namoratunga means stone The site has not been dated, but there are other petroglyphs in a buried site at 100 km south, archaeologists have decided to give it the same date, – 300 BC How did he dated this other site? … We do not know … We note here, the rigor of scientific … These same scientists suggest that this is an observatory, because by aligning certain stone them, they find the direction of the stars … One need only take the alignment between the stones 4, 9, 10 and 11, and was significantly referral to St. Peter in Rome! Normal, all roads lead there, even – 300! Others think it could be a cemetery, even if no body found … Often use a necropolis, is after the date of the original site, and is usually part of what is called: re … Anyway, it is certain that to be buried here, it was a dream trip, no trace of the City, existing in the area … But such constructions require substantial resources and therefore many people, and technologically advanced … Some stones are rich in hematite and copper ore, so that some are completely rusted and others are gray-green So it’s rather think that the site should be bound with iron, copper and cast iron … Blacksmiths have always been respected and feared for their expertise … The magic of the transformation of stone metal … The metal weapons and tools … Symbol of power, wealth and survival …

kalokol

The dancing stones
The Legend of Turkana legend that there were no stones here … One day some members of a local tribe danced there when a group of foreign passing by, the look in a strange way … The dancers asked them not to laugh … Foreigners were unable to hold on and broke out laughing … Immediately, the dancers were turned into stone …

The petroglyphs of Namoratunga I and II

On sites Namoratunga, and Lokori Kalokol, petroglyphs have been found here On the study of Kalokol, archaeologist Lynch are 23 different symbols Many of these symbols are currently used as a mark of their cattle by breeders of Lake Turkana This use must already be old, since these symbols are recognized by the Maasai, Pokot, Samburu and, while few of them approach the Turkana. Turkana elders recognize about twenty symbols, when shown, but also are able to draw them, when one gives the name … It seems that they are appropriate these petroglyphs We are currently unable to clarify whether these petroglyphs date from the erection of menhirs, or if they were carved by people after appropriating these megaliths

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The Great Zimbabwe

Great Zimbabwe, these are the ruins of the capital of the Monomotapa, or Munhumutapa, now Zimbabwe The Zimbabwe bird, national symbol of Zimbabwe, was discovered there in the form of soapstone carvings An area of approximately 80 ha, it remains important remains, whose large enclosure, built of granite blocks, and whose outer walls reached almost 11 m high

Great_zimbabwe_2
Zimbabwe is a Shona word: the big house made of stones The dating is its current building in 400 BC. About AD At its peak it had about 18,000 inhabitants The builders of Great Zimbabwe are the Shona people, part of the Bantu The site was also a place of commerce and trade During excavations, numerous objects were discovered from Persia, India and China in the early Ming Dynasty

Zimbabwe

A Portuguese trader who described it in the early sixteenth century as well: “Near the gold mines of the interior, between the Limpopo and the Zambezi, there is a stone fortress of extraordinary size, it seems that no mortar was used … The building is surrounded by hills on which there are other similar constructions using no mortar, and one of them is a tower of more than 12 fathoms (22 meters) high. The locals call these constructions Symbaoe, which means their language in court ”

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The kingdom of Monomopata

In southern Africa, as a result of archaeological excavations and accounts of early Portuguese travelers, it was discovered the existence of the kingdoms of Great Zimbabwe Soil fertility, the major gold deposits, are not sufficient to explain the urban character of their civilization and their influence as important Archaeological sites spread over several hundred km2 … Among the kingdoms of Great Zimbabwe, the most powerful was that of Monomopata

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In the fifteenth century, it dominated many small states and chiefdoms and occupied a vast territory The gold trade with the coast, allowed the kingdom to connect to commercial networks in the Indian Ocean In the sixteenth century, the local states gained their independence gradually The Portuguese forced the king to sign a treaty ceding the product of its mines in the seventeenth century In the nineteenth century, the Ngoni, chased by the Zulus of South Africa, invaded the kingdom, which became the kingdom Rowzi In the 1830s, the Ndebele, Zulu related to, in turn invaded the kingdom Rowzi

Khami

Khami

Among the kingdoms of Great Zimbabwe, one of the best known outside Monomopata, is the kingdom of Butua, whose capital is Khami, ruled by the dynasty Torwa Khami developed especially after the abandonment of the capital of Great Zimbabwe in the mid-sixteenth century Excavations have brought to light objects from Europe and China and prove that the city was long a center for trade

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The Tocharian and Bantus

Advanced agriculture, ironworking, megaliths, petroglyphs, urban centers, international trade, while Tocharian shows that we are well managed in Africa and they have made as allies the Bantu It happened there was about 5000 years … The current dating of megalithic monuments and cities do not take to history … Of course, the stranglehold of Bantu has probably not been continuous for five millennia, and it is likely that ancient sites abandoned for some time, could be rehabilitated later … But scientists have remained as first clues, because they were not keen to prove the antiquity of African development … Tocharian and the Bantu of Mozambique party went to Cameroon and Nigeria, not wishing to continue further north to the kingdom of the Dogon, home and édenistes Atlantean … Then they returned to their starting point to regain Madagascar by implanting their Bantu allies and colonizing much of southern Africa They have well established trade routes from north to south, to trade with the Egyptian and Atlantean Tocharian, and east to the west to trade with the Tocharian and Dogon …

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About DOUGLAS MOONSTONE

money is the human predator
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