Part 3: The Tocharian, Chapter 20: The Philippines

Part 3: The Tocharian , Chapter 20: The Philippines

Published August 11, 2009


The Pinatubo volcano, less than 100km from Manila … Considered extinct volcano, it erupts in June 1991 for three months …

DESTINATION EARTH   Book Two: The peoples

Part 3: The Tocharian

Chapter 20: The Philippines


The Philippines

The Philippines is an archipelago of 7,107 islands! The Philippines has a total area of about 300,000 square kilometers with a population of about 70 million people The islands are divided into three groups: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao


The capital, Manila, is on the island of Luzon   The country is predominantly Catholic Filipinos are very religious and holy week you can watch real crucifixions, although condemned by the Vatican Religions are distributed as follows: Roman Catholic 83%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 5%, Buddhist and other 3%   The official languages are English and Tagalog, also called Filipino Spanish is the language of culture Arabic is practiced in the southern English and Filipino are used in education, in administration, in business and in many media   The local climate is hot, humid and tropical The annual average temperature is about 26.5 ° There are three seasons: Tag or Tag-init-araw, the hot season from March to May, Tag-ulan, the rainy season from June to November and Tag-lamig, the cold season from December to February Nearly two dozen typhoons a year, arriving from the west Pacific, breaking over the archipelago   Most islands are covered with rainforests and are volcanic in origin The highest point is Mount Apo on Mindanao with 2,954 m Many volcanoes like Pinatubo, are active


Main crops: the first world exporter of coconut products, tobacco, pineapple, rice, corn, abaca, sugarcane, coffee and tropical timber Minerals: chromium, gold, copper and iron Unfortunately for the people and the environment, large multinational mining companies have received more than 10 million hectares of concession, more than a third of the total land area … Originally, almost all the 30 million hectares of the Philippines were covered with a luxuriant forest Today, the forest is no longer present only sur18% of the total area of the country! More than half of the forest has disappeared and the result of disastrous floods …



The aetas, population of Luzon would be the oldest inhabitants The Spaniards have dubbed: negritos, because of their small size and their physical appearance they were similar to African Genetic research done on aetas the mamanwas Mindanao and four other groups of Negritos of the Philippines have to say that the Negritos, except mamanwas, belong to the same group But above all, there is no relationship between the Negritos and African The Negritos of the Philippines are close to other populations of Southeast Asia and is unrelated to the Australian Aborigines and people of New Guinea The Negritos descended from people settled in the late Pleistocene, there are about 11 000 years The absence in aetas genetic markers present in mamanwas proves that these two groups, classified Negritos come from different migration The Negritos have evolved into a small adaptater to the tropical rainforest   Igorots, peoples of the Cordillera, occupying the mountains of northern Luzon are over one million, divided into 10 different groups Their territory remained largely intact through their warlike reputation … They practice the rice terraces that shapes the landscape in platform Filipinos are a mixture of Asian cultures: Vedic, Buddhist, Theravada Buddhist, Hindu, Islamic, and Western: Spanish, Catholic, American, making it a separate nation in Southeast Asia


The history of the Philippines

In the Cagayan Valley in northern Luzon have found many prehistoric chipped stone tools Tabon caves on the island of Palawan, show traces of installation dating back over 30,000 years   At least since the third century, but probably before, the Filipino had contact with Asian peoples They were probably also governed by the Indo-Malay at the time of the empire of Sumatra Then they were led by the peoples of Indochina and China’s Ming In fact the government depended on trade: pottery and jars, metal tools and jewelry, salt and tobacco, traded against feathers, rhino horn, horned cattle and sheep, beeswax, birds nests, resin, copra products, etc. …   In 1990 it was discovered a copper plate in the Bay of Laguna near Manila, Laguna copperplate Written in a mixture of Sanskrit, Old Javanese, Malay and old-old-Tagalog, it is dated 822 Saka era, 900 AD She says Namwaran reached a debt of 926.4 grams of gold with the confirmation of Chief Tondo This name is still common today Namwaran   The Kingdom of Sulu, in the late fourteenth century, in the Sulu Archipelago in the southern Philippines, included the entire island of Borneo and some neighboring islands in the Sulu Archipelago Trade with Chinese merchants made its prosperity


Around 1405, at the end of the war of succession of the Majapahit Empire, Sufi traders, introducing Islam in South East Asia Less than a century later the southern Luzon and other southern islands were under the influence of Muslim rulers of Borneo At that time the Japanese established a trading post at Aparri and maintained their dominance over northern Luzon Because of these invasions, Aboriginal groups, aetas, Negritos, Igorots, mamanwas, are pushed into the mountainous and forested Mixtures of populations of invasions become the dominant ethnic groups   Ferdinand Magellan, Fernao Magalhaes, Portuguese navigator traveling on behalf of Spain, is the first European to arrive in the Philippines, March 16, 1521 The islands were named in honor of the Infante of Spain, the future Philip II of Spain The islands are part of the Spanish colonial empire from 1565   In 1578, Spain tried to conquer the sultanate of Sulu Despite some victories, but also many defeats, the Spanish colony can maintain its dominance in the Sultanate of Sulu in 1646, occupying the garrisons are recalled to Manila Since the Sultanate of Sulu is independent   In 1611, the first university in Asia, is based in Manila: Santo Tomas The Church has been invested in the Philippines by the Spanish monarchs, extensive powers: justice, public order, tax collection   In 1851, the Spaniards again occupy Jolo, the capital of the Sultanate of Sulu In 1878, after long resistance, Sulu agrees to become a vassal of Spain In 1899, Spain evacuates Sulu


In the late nineteenth century writer Jose Rizal creates the resistance movement against Spain Dubbed the Don Quixote of the Philippines, it is executed by the Spanish authorities in 1896 and became a national martyr The United States encourages the independence movement and intervene militarily in the Philippines to the call of Aguinaldo On 10 December 1898, the Treaty of Paris ended the conflict Spain sells the Philippines to the United States, for $ 20 million   February 4, 1899, begins the war of independence against the Filipino U.S. In 1935, the United States grants the Philippines a semi-autonomous status to accompany the country to independence Since then, the country is run by an elected president   In 1942, the country is occupied by the Japanese In 1945, General Douglas MacArthur released the archipelago The Philippines achieved independence July 4, 1946     Currently the south and the island of Mindanao, are disturbed by Muslim separatist movements in opposition since the 1970 ruling of Manila, very close to the Catholic Church


The Philippines is in conflict with Taiwan, China, Vietnam and Malaysia regarding the Spratly islands, rich in oil … But also with Malaysia about the state of Sabah, as the Sultan of Sulu received donations this territory in 1703, by the Sultan of Brunei



money is the human predator
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