Part 3: The Tocharian; Chapter 26: Melanesia

Part 3: The Tocharian; Chapter 26: Melanesia
Posted November 4, 2009
Flying boat in the islands …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 3: The Tocharian

Chapter 26: Melanesia



Melanesia, or the black islands, Polynesia, or the many islands, and Micronesia, small islands, together Oceania Often coastal inhabitants were Christianized and no longer apply the traditional customs which survive only populations within islands Melanesia, an area of approximately 550,000 km2 and a population of 8,123,000 inhabitants in 2007, includes: Fiji Of New Caledonia, The Solomon Islands Vanuatu, formerly the New Hebrides Papua New Guinea, New Guinea Eastern part of Indonesia The Melanesian grow taro, yams, sweet potatoes, cassava, bananas, breadfruit, and coconuts They practice shifting cultivation in rotation, that is to say by a rotation of lands, fisheries and the hog The Europeans have created plantations of sugar cane, coffee, and coconut The Indians have settled mainly in Fiji and the French in New Caledonia There are mines of manganese in Vanuatu, Bougainville copper, gold in Viti Levu, and nickel in New Caledonia



The Republic of Fiji consists of 322 islands, of which about one third are inhabited The two most important islands are Viti Levu Suva with the capital which hosts three quarters of the population, and Vanua Levu The islands are mountainous with peaks reaching 1200 m and covered with tropical forests The population of Fiji by Austronesian peoples began in the second millennium BC On 6 February 1643, the Dutch navigator Abel Tasman passed west of Vanua Levu, without landing, but named the island: Prinz Willem The UK appointed in 1858, William Thomas Pritchard, British consul from Cakobau king of Fiji On 10 October 1874, the Tui Viti Cakobau, supported by Ma’afu and 11 other Fijian chiefs, offered to Queen Victoria, represented by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Hercules Robinson, his war club and signed the Treaty of Cession to the British crown Since 1960, the UK pressed by the UN, began the process of decolonization In October 1970, Fiji became officially independent

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New Caledonia

New Caledonia is administratively divided into three provinces:
Northern Province, covering the north of the mainland, with its capital Kone The southern province, covering the south of the Mainland, with Noumea, capital of New Caledonia and Southern Province The province of islands, comprising the Loyalty Islands In 1917, the geologist Maurice Piroutet found fragments of pottery dating back nearly 4,000 years, Lapita Lapita pottery since the means and the Lapita cultural complex, but also pottery from the same period in New Caledonia and throughout the Pacific On September 4, 1774, James Cook named the Grande Terre, New Caledonia in honor of Scotland From 1841, Protestant missionaries Anglican invest the Isle of Pines and the Loyalty Islands and moved to Touaourou south of the Mainland in 1842 Napoleon III proclaimed the French colony New Caledonia September 24, 1853 The Noumea Accord of 5 May 1998 provides for the establishment of a progressive autonomy and a referendum on self-determination between 2014 and 2018


The Solomon Islands

The Solomon Islands consist of a dozen main islands and more than 990 small islands Solomons are part of the British Commonwealth The Solomon Islands are volcanic with peaks over 3000 meters The island is known to Vanikoro following the sinking ships of La Perouse, the Compass and the Astrolabe in 1798 The archipelago covers more than 1 500 kilometers The capital is Honiara, with 49,107 registered inhabitants in 1999, on the island of Guadalcanal Honiara, Tulagi has replaced the previous capital destroyed in World War II The islands are rich in mineral resources such as lead, zinc, nickel and gold, but remain untapped for lack of profitability … The United Kingdom established a protectorate over the Solomon Islands in the 1890s Autonomy was granted in 1976 and independence was proclaimed July 7, 1978



The Republic of Vanuatu, formerly the New Hebrides archipelago, consists of 83 islands, mostly volcanic, with an area of about 12,000 km2 and 200,000 inhabitants The only two cities are Port Vila, the capital, on Efate Island and Luganvillesur the island of Espiritu Santo The official languages are English, French and Bislama are added and 113 indigenous languages It consumes no more humans for over a century They were replaced by delicious traditional dishes, or laplap tuluk In Vanuatu, there is no income tax, no withholding tax at source, any tax on capital gains, no inheritance and no exchange controls Vanuatu is a tax haven that does not provide information on financial accounts Vanuatu is also a flag of convenience On Pentecost Island is practiced jumping Gol Having built a wooden tower a block away, men and male children, empty into the void with only two vines wrapped around the ankles Or on Malekula Malekula Island, the men dance while wearing masks of land around a frame fashioned from roots of ferns and bells attached to their ankles nuts These dances celebrate traditional events: births, circumcisions, graduation ceremonies and funeral rites On the island of Gaua, women play the music by water movements and clapping to the surface water of a pond, river or the sea The designs of Vanuatu are traditional designs made in the sand These geometric and harmonious compositions are performed by insiders They serve to transmit rituals, customs, ancestral myths, information, agricultural techniques and craft These drawings are part of Vanuatu Intangible Heritage of Unesco The first deals with the European archipelago in Espiritu Santo This is the Portuguese Pedro Fernández de Quirós in 1606, who believed they had discovered the southern continent Bougainville rediscovered in 1768 and Espiritu Santo islands is He appoints all the major Cyclades In 1774, James Cook come full circle and gives it its name of New Hebrides In 1906 the archipelago became the condominium of New Hebrides Independence was proclaimed on 30 July 1980 and the former French colony became the Vanuatu


New Guinea

New Guinea is the third largest island in the world after Australia and Greenland with 829 200 km ² and a population estimated at 5.2 million inhabitants for Papua New Guinea and 800 000 in New Guinea in Indonesia It measures about 2400 km long and 700 km wide It is covered with forests, and mountains often exceed 5000 meters The flora and fauna are Australian type It includes Papua New Guinea and Indonesia The interior is covered with forests where there are ebony, sandalwood, cedar and camphor The basement contains deposits of gold, silver, platinum, copper, oil and natural gas. The interior of the island has been explored since the Second World War and most of the lands of the interior are still unknown Port Moresby is the capital of Papua New Guinea It was discovered by Captain John Moresby, who landed in 1873 Port Moresby has luxury hotels and is deemed a call for cruise ships Yet the gang, including raskols, raging there, and make Port Moresby the fifth most dangerous city in the world The National Museum has a large collection of Papuan art and countless remains of WWII The first European to discover the island was Antonio de Abreu, Portuguese navigator in 1511, and the Spanish explorer Jorge de Menezes, it will dock the first in 1526 The Spanish claimed the island in 1546 and named it Nova Guinea In 1793 the East India Company claimed the island on behalf of the United Kingdom The claim was disputed by the Netherlands and in 1828 the Dutch East India Company took possession of the western half of New Guinea The northeastern part including all the territories that were not in English or Dutch sovereignty was annexed by Germany in 1884 under the name Kaiser-Wilhems-Land The Netherlands abandoned the west in 1962, that became the Indonesian province of Irian Jaya The eastern part became independent as Papua New Guinea in 1975



money is the human predator
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