Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 18: Cities states and small kingdoms

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 18: Cities states and small kingdoms
Posted February 5, 2011

Head of a king, unknown … One of the many kings, one of countless city-states of the third millennium …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 18: Cities states and small kingdoms


Kingdoms and city states
We will now go around the field colonial Indo-European, or Aryan, East Valley Thar and south of the Ikshvaku Colonized this vast area, ranging from Pakistan to the Mediterranean and will consist primarily of counters which will gradually become city states and kingdoms But from the moment the motherland, in the valley of the Thar, in the aftermath of nuclear war against the édenistes Yi, will lose its authority, the autonomy of the kingdoms and city states will come true … But this autonomy of the feudal system will be, and wars will follow one another, each wanting to unify the territories for the benefit …


Text fragments were found at the site of the former Meturan, modern Tell Haddad, we confirm that his death Gilgamesh was buried under the waters of the Euphrates River which had been temporarily diverted from its bed


Uruk covered an area of 400 hectares In April 2003, German archaeologists believe to have found the tomb of King Gilgamesh In the middle of the old course of the Euphrates, we see the remains of a building that could be the tomb The magnetogram allows the observation of magnetization differences between the bricks and sediments, thus designing the city map It shows a sophisticated system of canals, which was tell archaeologists qu’Uruk was a Venice in the desert, as the cities of the valley of Thar … The existence of these channels also explains how the river was diverted to build the tomb in bed Gilgamesh seems to have really existed They found that the king list mentions, but also documents that confirm the existence of other monarchs associated with it: the kings and Agga of Kish Enmebaragesi Gilgamesh probably ruled around 2700 BC His epic, the oldest of mankind, was written on clay tablets in cuneiform Akkadian language in Babylon to – 2000 BC According to the Sumerian king list, Gilgamesh was the fifth king of Uruk and reigned one hundred and twenty to six years

Gilgamesh and Heracles

The Epic of Gilgamesh, king of Uruk and the myth of Hercules, the orders of Hera, have much in common Gilgamesh is two-thirds god and one third human, he made a series of works which were to lead to immortality Heracles, guided by Hera, is half god and half man, and he must perform 12 works that will also lead to immortality On one of the cylinders found in Uruk, if the man shown seated rose, it would be much larger than the other 2 It would be a giant … The giants of the bible, gods are running backs, both among the Atlanteans than in édenistes … And texts are not lacking, in one or the other, candidates wishing to acquire running backs gods immortality of the gods


The Ehursag, house-mountain, is a square building of a base 55 feet square, southeast of the shrine of Nanna, the center of the city The royal palace is composed of a large courtyard that opens onto the throne room This palace was home to Ur-Nammu and Shulgi It became a sanctuary when they were deified Southeast of the palace are the mausoleums where kings are buried two of the 3rd Dynasty This is Shulgi who built this building It was to be his mausoleum, and a vaulted tomb was designed to accommodate his remains Amar-Sin had built new shrines Near the Ehursag was uncovered, a set of 400 tablets, printed with footprints cylinder seals They date from the 3rd millennium BC One of them is banded aragonite and is a banquet scene Another is made of lapis lazuli and is the god Shamash A third, aragonite orange, has a fight scene These would be the archives of the temple of the moon god Nanna, tutelary deity of the city They mention agricultural estates, possessions of the temple These texts mention lugal, King, and ensino, Vicar There are also seals in the name of the cities of Sumer, found on pieces of clay used to seal jars or doors

The Royal Tombs of Ur

In Ur, we found the royal tombs of kings and Meskalamdug Akalamdug, who ruled around – 2600 There are over 1800 graves in an area of 50 x 70 meters, dating from the XXVIth XXIIIrd century BC The graves are not robbed of a rich The sovereigns are buried with their servants We had 78 in the tomb of King RT 789, with five oxen pulling two carriages A Akalamdug, RT 1080, they are 40 A Pu-abi, RT 800, there are 17 and two oxen In the well of death, RT 1237, they are 74 The dead are richly dressed The soldiers in combat gear and musicians are buried with their instruments The arrangement of the body shows no disorder, suggesting that they died voluntarily or drugged The objects found in royal tombs confirm their high-tech in jewelery and metallurgy There’s luxury tableware, fine weapons, like daggers of gold, a chariot of respect that we could go back, statues, cylinder seals, etc. … There is a wooden lyre decorated with a bull’s head A sculpture representing a goat clinging to a bush which he eats the leaves, which measures 42 cm high It is made of wood overlaid with gold, lapis lazuli, silver, pearl and other materials There is also a gold helmet The ornament of Queen Pu-abi is made with a diadem of gold leaf, with decorations in gold, lapis lazuli, carnelian and other precious stones In the tomb PG 779 is the standard of Ur, exhibited at the British Museum in London It is 20 cm high by 47 long It is pearl with lapis lazuli There are two main panels, which were named War and Peace “War” is a battle scene from the Sumerian army There are four-wheeled wagons drawn by wild asses, soldiers wearing protective clothing and foot soldiers with swords or axes The panel also shows the wounded and prisoners naked, presented to the King “Peace” portrays a banquet scene There are meat, fish and other products The figures are seated and a musician plays the lyre

The Sumerian ziggurat

A ziggurat is a pyramid shaped building storey rectangular base It comprises three to seven platforms The ziggurat was oriented in the position of stars and constellations The ziggurat of 7 floors, had a base of about 90 meters wide and a height of nearly 100 meters It was a spectacular monuments with its colorful walls with glazed brick siding These ziggurats, surprisingly similar to Mayan pyramids … For the record, the Mayans are very related to Tocharian, one of the two components of the Aryans, see the third part of this book … There are about thirty known in Babylonia They are built in the center of city states Sippar in the north is home to the shrine of the sun god Shamash Ur in the south is home to the moon god, Sin Uruk is dedicated to the goddess Ishtar Babylon, the most impressive, worships the god Marduk The ziggurat of Chogha Zanbil is located 40 km southeast of Susa in Iran A Hard-Sharrukin today Khorsabad, the four lower floors of the ziggurat were painted white, black, pink and blue The top three floors were also stained The Tower of Babel was probably a ziggurat, although it is often represented later, probably wrongly, with a circular base

Ras Ibn Hani

Ras Ibn Hani, 5 kilometers southwest of Ras Shamra, the kingdom of Ugarit, we found the remains of two royal palaces The site has now been excavated on the sixth of its terrain In addition to the palace, there are also residential areas The city was built of stone, and found there a vast literature in cuneiform tablets Another interest of this discovery is that the tablets are written in several languages, which confirms the density of exchanges between city states and kingdoms


Ugarit, now Ras Shamra, was the main port of the Mediterranean kingdom of Ugarit in Syria The king who directs was chosen by the gods Despite its importance, more than 25 hectares, the site has been very little researched, and we know little about this city so important before 1800 BC It was deemed a port through which transited wine, olive oil, textiles, dyes, wood, copper and other metals Homes, a floor area of 50 m2 to 500 m2 more, generally included a floor for housing, the ground floor is reserved for the storage and business activities and crafts They consisted of wells and pipelines for water supply and sewage disposal We thus find in Ugarit, as in almost all state cities, the Thar valley to the Mediterranean, the same architectural characteristics and social … The merchants were men of the king, in the service of the royal palace, but they could also do business on their own account Independent dealers, local or foreign, had settled in Ugarit They also exercised financial activity and were even ready … They were organized into corporations or rather family clan, and had correspondents in other commercial centers, the middle east to India At Ugarit we found documents in eight languages and four different scripts … The craft of Ugarit was famous for pottery and ceramics, but also for the metal, silverware, the realization of ivory, textiles and the development of glassy materials


Alalakh, today Tell Acana, is a site of Turkey, on the river Orontes, near the northern border of Syria, which claims to this territory Site investigations have identified an occupation beginning at about – before 3400 J.-C The royal palace is dated from around – 2400 Been discovered large batches of tablets that telling us about the political and economic life of the kingdom of Alalakh But not on religious life … Umma Umma, modern Tell Djokha, had a productive agriculture as it had a sophisticated irrigation system The city is far from the Tigris and Euphrates, it was necessary to build a whole system of canals They were broad enough to allow boats to come ashore at karum, wearing


Many temples were built in the city, which was the tutelary deity Shara The site has never been officially excavated Numerous texts from Umma come from illegal excavations The remains of this city, such as the city of Ur, were looted during the war in Kuwait The oldest kings Aga is known, which lists the name of a pearl lapis lazuli This would be the last king of the first dynasty of Kish, to – 2585 BC The ongoing war between Lagash and Umma, about the limits of their common border, will last until the annexation to Sargon of Akkad – 2300 BC


The Marhashi is a kingdom of Iran, between Elam and the Indus Valley The peak of its influence is between 2600 and 1700 BC approximately. The archives of the kingdom of Elam tells us that the Marhashi had trade relations with the kingdoms of the Thar valley but also with the Mesopotamian kingdoms and even to the distant kingdom of Dilmun The kingdom is an exporter of semi-precious stones such as soapstone, chlorite, agate, carnelian, lapis lazuli The Marhashi is also known for trade in domesticated animals such as sheep, bears, dogs, monkeys, elephants and zebu

Small kingdoms and city states of the third millennium

The list of city states and small kingdoms does not stop there … It is very difficult to find in this web in perpetual motion … For example, the city-state of Lagash, who after having been an independent kingdom, became an important city of the kingdom of Akkad The kingdom of Awan, after being annexed by the kingdom of Elam, is finally a province of Akkad … We meet in front of colonial trading, relatively independent of the motherland, and in direct commercial competition with its neighbors So when the motherland would collapse and the result is a fierce feudal system …



money is the human predator
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6 Responses to Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 18: Cities states and small kingdoms

  1. Ballymundub says:

    Thanks for the informative read , gonna have a good aul root through all these posts in the hope of finding another one just as good as yours !

  2. Ballymundub says:

    * as good as this

  3. Crystal Giaccone says:

    I am extremely interested in learning more about this , and would accept any legitimate offer from someone who is well versed in ancient cities of this nature . Please feel free to email me if you are serious about teaching , an eager student . My email address is, I will not answer any emails that are not of a serious nature thank you . Sincerely yours Mrs Crystal Giaccone .


      good morning Crystal
      thanks a lot for your enthousiast comment , i appreciate it really
      concerning the subject , i can tell you the 4th part of the book is now totally published on my blog , and i invite you to follow the story from the chapter 18 you read up to the chapter 33 , end of the indo-europeans peoples , related in this part 4
      i think you cand find that of interest
      but anyway , if you have a particular question or interrogation , dont hesitate to contact me
      douglas moonstone

  4. Pingback: 6. Uruk – 2807 B.C. | Rafael Blotta

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