Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 20: The kingdom of Urartu

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 20: The kingdom of Urartu

Published May 29, 2011

Urartians were renowned for their horses, there are over 4000 years …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 20: The kingdom of Urartu

Historical knowledge

Excavations superficial sites Urartians, the first discovery being interpreted by historians as final and not succeeding, and the looting of sites, mean that our knowledge of the history of Urartu only beginning to the first millennium BC -C.   Some older discoveries allow official historians a very superficial knowledge and embellished with numerous holes, for the period from the second millennium BC   When the 3rd millennium BC and earlier, historians recognize no knowledge   But this is not specific to the Urartu, this is so for almost the entire history of the earth

The emergence of Urartu

From the fourth century BC. AD, ethnicity urartéene of Aryan or Indo-European, installed countertops in the southern Black Sea Caspian Ala It continued its hold by founding new city-states up to Lake Van After the wars to Yi – 2350, Urartians survivors Valley Thar came to take refuge in these city-states The entire territory became the kingdom of Urartu   The kingdom of Urartu will then gradually become an important kingdom which controlled present-day Georgia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan, the north eastern Turkey and northwestern Iran In fact, the south boundaries of the kingdom were blocked by the powerful Assyrian ethnic Indo-European like them From the second millennium BC, the kingdom will become a civilization that will count in the history of the region up to – 600 BC

The Urartu

Understanding of technology, but also the customs of the Aryans, in this kingdom of Urartu It has not yet found many remains of their civilization until the second millennium, but the royal inscriptions of the first millennium clearly prove this relationship I Argishti we communicate to -770: “For the greatness of Haldi, Argishti, son of Menua speaks: I built a great fortress and gave him a name from the mine, Argishtinhinili. The land was wild, nothing was built there. From the rivers I built four channels; vineyards and gardens have been shared. ” It gives its name to the city he built himself in because he considered the tutelary god   The kingdom is connected by roads that pass through the fertile plains and hills connect them Canals were built to develop agriculture in the plains One recognizes hydrological knowledge found in all pathways On the hills they built fortresses The fortresses controlled the roads and plains They are used for crop storage and to house the troops The territory of Urartu is mainly composed of the region enclosed by three lakes: Lake Van, Lake Sevan and Lake Urmia The Lake Van and Lake Urmia are salt lakes, which is why they are called inland seas The border of Urartu was controlled by Altintepe

The fortresses of Urartu

The main strongholds are known Horom, Arin Berd, Kamir Blur, Armavir, Altintepe, Kef Kalesi Ayanis Van Kalesi Bastam Toprakkale, Cavustepe, Hasanlu, Haykaberd, Musasir, etc. … These are the current names But there has certainly many other sites that we have not yet discovered


The city of Van Kalesi includes the ruins of the fortress of Tushpa Technology Architects of Urartu is remarkable To have more space on the surfaces of tiny hills, Urartians were masters in the art of digging into the rock pieces A Tushpa barn was found carved into the rock The fortress is surrounded by a wall made of stone blocks over 20 tons


Rusahinili today Toprakkale, was connected to Tushpa by a 56 km canal network that served the region for agricultural water The canal was built by Menua in – 800 In fact, it seems more likely that Menua have altered and extended a channel that already existed for centuries We had to fetch water from a source in southern Tushpa, build an aqueduct and retaining walls over 20 m high The channel Menua remained in use until the 1950s when its maintenance was no longer profitable …   Towards – 720, King Rusa, expanding the water network with the development of an artificial lake, the current Kesis Gölü The waters of the reservoir were retained by two dams, which held until 1891   The plain of Van had at the time of Urartu many other water projects, dams, reservoirs and canals Inscriptions found tell us that water projects have also been made in the valley of the Araxes


Fortress Altintepe is built on a hill overlooking the Euphrates The citadel has been little researched, but has helped to uncover beautiful objects in gold, silver, ivory and bronze It also found the pot of Altintepe It is bronze and is 51 centimeters high It is decorated with four bulls’ heads that serve as handles He was accompanied by a tripod of 66 centimeters The dating supposed to be the first millennium BC Yet it is well recognized in the materials and how, the Indo-European art of the fourth and third millennium BC …   Their technology is also recognized in the drainage system of the fortress There are also workshops where they worked metals There were large storage areas for agricultural products Some pieces were used to make oil and wine production


Teishebani today Kamir Blur, is the city’s storm god: Teisheba The city of about thirty acres was surrounded by walls of a thickness of about 3 m and more than 9 m high In the center there are four acres of the citadel! She had a large courtyard surrounded by about 150 rooms … Rooms, workshops, warehouses, attics, cellars, etc. … The roofs were built of barrel vaults Many walls were covered with frescoes painted   Found there including the remains of cereals, fruit, wine, oil and beer But also many ceramics, bronze statues and ivory, weapons and armor of bronze and iron as well as administrative documents, testify to the living standards of Urartians   The fortress had a floor that served as a residence, the ground floor used primarily for storage and workshops It’s like in the Thar valley …


Erebuni, Arin Berd today, was built by the kings Argishti I and II to Sarduri -782, To establish the power of the country and intimidate his enemies, according to an inscription in cuneiform on a slab of basalt In fact, as for all sites Urartians, it dates from the 3rd millennium BC, and the successive kings, have completed sites by maintenance and expansion, appropriating the same time the paternity of the city , which placed them to the rank of gods …   The palace of Erebuni has a central courtyard with porticoes To the right was the throne room, which was reached by three small rooms The rest of the building was formed by residences and warehouses


Argishtihinili today Armavir, was occupied from the fifth and sixth millennia BC Tools, bronze objects and pottery show King Argishti I gave it its name in 776 BC This is a citadel surrounded by imposing walls   Armavir, from the first millennium, will be under the rule of the Seleucid, Parthian and then, then the kingdom of Armenia, then the Roman Empire, then of the Sassanid and Byzantine Empire before being conquered by 645 by the Arabs

Rusahinili Eidurukai

Fortress Rusahinili Eiduru-kai, Ayanis today, was built on a hill surrounded by walls The architecture is characterized by massive blocks of stone for buildings, walls and gates The fortress occupies an area of 400 m x 150 m Its occupation dates back to the Bronze Age It was reused and destroyed during the reign of King Rusa II, -685 to -645   We discovered a solid gold scepter, but also many bronze objects such as weapons, arrowheads, helmets and a wonderful cauldron


Rusal-Urutur, Bastam today, is the second largest after that of Urartian fortress Tushpa It was occupied from the third millennium BC. AD   The dried brick fortress on a foundation stone, measuring about 800m and 400m on floor on three levels It is protected by walls with rectangular towers and buttresses   The lower part has a single door to the south, flanked by a tower There are houses, barns that can hold about sixty horses, a mill, kitchens, stores and workshops Upstairs, there are large warehouses for grain, wine and oil The upper part which was used for habitation, has been transformed into a palace in the 7th century   The city was sacked by the Scythians to the end of the reign of Rusa II, we have only found few items   In the plain, opposite the fortress, we found the remains of buildings for horse breeding, and housing for visitors and merchants


Musasir temple, dedicated to the god Haldi urartéen, is deemed by the wealth obtained from being looted by Sargon II, king of Assyria over a ton of gold, five tons of money, valuables and more 300 000 weapons … The narrative of the campaign of Sargon II describes the admiration of the Assyrian Urartu for: architecture, infrastructure such as waterworks, horse breeding, wealth and artistic silverware   Musasir is located today in Rabat Tepe near Sardasht in West Azerbaijan, Iran The site had been assessed at 14 hectares, but the excavations show that the site area is over 60 hectares   There is a pavement of 1.80 m X 1.80 m 7 interlocking circles representing Another feature is the discovery of winged angels female color on the brick reliefs It has also found a male winged angel The dating of these is the low relief prior to the first millennium


The cave shrine of Meher-Kapesi is carved into the rock It consists of two niches on an artificial platform The pantheon urartéen is engraved on the rock in the large niche with a list of deities and sacrifices that they spent There are also engraved on the rock, petroglyphs …


Haykaberd Fortress, also known Sardurihinili, Cavustepe today, was built, according to Armenian legend, August 11, 2492 BC It was founded by Hayk who rejected and killed King Bél who tried to invade UrartuBel was the king of Assyria at the time of Zeus and other gods fought the giants and titans Hayk built the city in the valley of Haykashen Hayots Dzor Haykaberd and fortress on the site of the battle of the giants   Haykaberd Fortress is located on a ridge and is surrounded by imposing walls The fortress is on a floor, with residential functions upstairs and utility rooms on the ground floor King Sarduri There is added, between 764 and 735 BC, the palace-Sarduri Hinlini and the temple of Khaldi, the god of war

The legend of Hayk and Bel king

The Armenian history was compiled by Moses of Khoren, who lived from 410 to 490, from the oral tradition This earned him the title father of Armenian history: patmahayr This is the first Armenian history from its origins to the demise of the kingdom of Armenia In fact, we hold that copies were made from the ninth century, which confirms a significant risk of Christianization of the original work It tells the legend of Hayk and Bel king  Hayk, son deTorgom had a child named Armanak while living in Babylon When Titanid Bel seized power in Babylon, Hayk and his family emigrated to the region of Mount Ararat, where he founded a village he named Haykashen   He left behind a guard armed detachment commanded by his small son Kadmos Bel sent one of his son asking him to return to Babylon, but Hayk refused Bel then pursued with a huge army   Warned by Kadmos, Hayk harangued his men He told them they must overcome and kill Fair, because it was better to die than become slaves He assembled his army along the shore of Lake Van Hayk was a giant, a mighty archer and a fearless warrior At the Battle of the giants, Hayk slew Bel with its arrows He pulled so far that it seemed impossible and put the king’s troops in disarray Bel Legend has it he used a very long bow, usable only by a giant, and so accurate that this arc would be magic After the battle, Hayk and Bel gave him embalm his body for the attackers The Babylonians deified then Bel, who became the god Baal

Legend and history

After the wars of Yi, the urartéen Hayk, Aryan Atlantean, came to settle in Babylon then occupied by the Phoenicians, Nubians, édenistes Soon, they could not coexist and Hayk took his in Urartu and founded Haykashen Bel would not accept this break and chased When they arrived at Haykaberd, Hayk sent them an arrow from the shores of Lake Van: 24 km! He was to remain in Hayk, a nuclear missile war Yi … Simply measure the residual radioactivity in Cavustepe to confirm Hayk went to the body of Bel Phoenicians who deified as a god, because it is the Phoenician sank as far inland Thus Bel became the god Baal

Religion of Urartu

The god of Urartu is Haldi, the god of war He is represented by a man standing on a lion Her main temple is located in the city of Musasir His consort is Bagbartu Haldi and Bagbartu are purely Urartians   The other deities are common with the Hurrian pantheon Teisheba the god, storm god, standing on a bull His consort is Huba ARTinis is the god of the sun His consort goddess estla Shiwiniqui attribute has as a winged sun disk   Haldi, and Teisheba ARTinis form a triad   The temples are made Urartians by a tower, or susi, with thick walls, surrounding a square cella It is not far from the pyramids … They have only found that stone bases, the walls being built of mud brick, were missing

Language and script of Urartu

The urartéen is a language belonging to the same branch as the Hurrian language Urartian language was translated by the German Johannes Friedrich in 1930, through bilingual inscriptions urartéenes-Assyrian   Urartians use the cuneiform The most famous cuneiform texts are royal inscriptions   Subsequently, they also used a hieroglyphic writing similar to that of Luwian, which has not yet been deciphered This hieroglyphic writing is clean louvitophones peoples of Anatolia and Iran whose oldest known inscriptions date from the fifteenth century BC. AD The Luwian was written centuries before, in cuneiform



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