Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 22: Cities and states Hurrian kingdoms

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 22: Cities and states Hurrian kingdoms
Published June 27, 2011

The 12 Hurrian gods of the underworld …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 22: Cities and states Hurrian kingdoms

The Hurrian

Originally, the Hurrian arrived from the Valley Thar in India to their desks in Armenia, see chapter of Urartians Armenians speak a language related to Sanskrit Hurrian texts discovered describe Vedic deities: Varuna, Indra and Nasatya In the fourth century AD, Eusebius, cites Eupolemus historian of the second century BC, which asserts that the time of Abraham around 1800 BC, the Armenian invaded the Syrian This confirms the Indo-European Hurrian


Tell means a hill or an artificial hill formed by remains of dwellings Tells are characteristic of the Neolithic and we are found from the Indus to the Near East The equivalent Turkish tepe: hill, or höyük: mounds Persia is Tappeh: Hill The word also refers to the tombs, as these hills artificial burial mounds are often

Tell Mohammed Diyab

This mound of 14 hectares, is under excavation surrounded tells many smaller It is occupied from the third millennium to the end of the time Mitannian There is a small temple and homes In a tomb were found the remains metallic clearly indicating an Armenian of Hurrian, as for Urartians As at Tell Brak and other sites Mitannian, there find traces of repeated destruction by the Assyrians

Gasur and Nuzi

Gasur, who was appointed during the second millennium Nuzi, Today Yorgan Tepe, has been inhabited since the fifth millennium BC The texts indicate an uninterrupted occupation until its destruction in the fourteenth century During the second millennium, Nuzi was a city of the kingdom Arrapha of the present Kirkuk, a vassal of Mitanni North of the palace was a double temple dedicated to Ishtar and Teshub, the Hurrian storm god Excavations in the temples, the palaces and houses, have delivered more than 6,000 cuneiform tablets, the oldest dating from the third millennium before J.C. Most of the names of the inhabitants of Nuzi that we are related in the tablets, names are Hurrian There are also uncovered statues, weapons, ceramics and remains of frescoes In a house, more than a thousand tablets us engage the private archives of the owner TEHIP Tilla: contracts, recording acquisitions and land exchanges, purchases of slaves, trial, etc. … Property sales are in the form of adoption of fictitious contracts, of maruti tuppi: a person takes a another, which he inherited a property and in return pays the adopted adopting a present that is the price of land Tehip-Tilla is passed over a hundred times The lending rate is 50% and insolvent debtors must dispose of their property to their creditors or placing family members or themselves , And for several years to several decades

The kingdom of Ebla
The tell of Ebla, Tell Mardikh today, 60 km south Aleppo, occupies a strategic position which controls access to the Mediterranean The kingdom of Ebla has extended its grip to Iraq The king has the title of Sumerian EN, translated by Lord , And its legitimacy is based on ancestor worship deified dynastic Excavations have unearthed more than fourteen thousand tablets carved in Sumerian clay and éblaïte These tablets have provided information on economy, trade, industry, government, diplomacy, religion and history of Ebla The exhumed remains can tell Ebla was occupied in the second half of the fourth millennium Between – and 3000 – 2000, Ebla was one of the most powerful city-states of Syria

The G palace, which dates from the XXIVth century, is the oldest palace known in Syria It extended over an acre and included at least one stage In the administrative district was found in the room archives about 14,700 tablets and fragments of tablets classified On the east wall were shelves deliveries tissue In the corner there were shelves of deliveries precious metals and copper Along the north wall on the top shelf there were word lists or dictionaries éblaïte-Sumerian and Decrees Other shelves were reserved for agriculture and Livestock In other parts of the palace, were found tablets deliveries of food, flour and oil The threshold of the civic district and steps the grand staircase of the palace include pearl- The courtyard and the throne room contained wall panels inlaid with gold leaf, ornamental limestone and lapis lazuli These panels represent processions of characters paying homage to the sovereign There were also statues of composites, whose elements in hair are made of steatite and lapis lazuli The body of the statues was hard stone or metal decorated precious stones and gold There were inlaid furniture and decorated with small marble figurines representing animals or round of fighting heroes and mythological animals Representation shows a goddess taming lions

The palace of Ebla textile workers employed for work wool and flax, blacksmiths with about 500 ironworkers, the goldsmiths who worked copper, silver and gold, and workers in the processing of agricultural products such as flour milling, baking, brewing, wine making, the manufacture of perfumes, etc. Two-thirds of the agricultural sector are grain, as evidenced by a report, which informs us that the palace has a reserve of more than 31 000 tonnes of barley Almost all the rest of the agricultural area is formed olive groves At the time of the destruction of the palace, its reserves were approximately 330,000 liters of oil The vine occupied the remaining land, the presses and Wine cellars are mentioned in the documentation The breeding was mainly focused on sheep There would have been more than 100,000 according to the archives According to accounts, there were over 8,000 head of cattle International trade was very active The export concerned mainly olive oil and textile products Ebla was on a crossroads of trade routes important that controlled trade in metals and wood In the royal palace were found objects from Egypt and lapis lazuli from Afghanistan The great god of the kingdom is éblaïte Kura and his consort Barana Dagan is the god of fertility The god of thunder is Adda The sun god Utu is Rashap god of the underworld, Ishkhara fertility goddess, Ashtar (Ishtar), celestial goddess of Venus, the star is Kakkab, Enki, the goddess Ninki, the Hurrian goddess Hebat complete this pantheon still largely unknown

Ebla is constantly at war against its powerful neighbor, Husband At the end of the XXV and early XXIVth century, Ebla was a vassal state of Mari and pays tribute But the reign of Ibrium, around 2300 BC, Ebla conquered the kingdom of Emar, the kingdom and the kingdom of Tuttul Abarsal and several other small neighboring kingdoms Through marriages of princesses éblaïtes, the vizier Ibbi-zikir is allied to the kingdoms of Nagar and Kish After many adventures in this region tormented, to – 1600, the city of Ebla was destroyed by King Hurrian Pizikarra of Nineveh, according to a tablet written in Hittite and Hurrian discovered in the ruins of Hattusha It tells the story of the making of Ebla One recognizes all the elements that characterize companies Aryan or Indo-European Kura is the chief god, unknown elsewhere, which is normal for a tutelary deity of the city founder The other gods are the classical pantheon Aryan god and goddess couple, storm gods, fertility, the sun and other celestial bodies, the underworld, etc. … Aryan Technology is also recognizable architecture, urban planning, administration, goldsmiths, metallurgy , Intensive agriculture, wine and beer, international trade, etc … And all this, there 5000 years …


Urkish or Urkesh now Tell Mozan, was founded during the fourth millennium BC. J.C. Excavations have unearthed the royal palace, a terrace which had to be surmounted by a temple, houses with courtyards interior and exterior, cemeteries, etc. … Urkish was Hurrian capital at times The cuneiform tablets in Hurrian language of the gods speak Kumarbi, god nature, father of gods and tutelary deity of the city, and the god of the underworld , Nergal They also give us the names of some kings The first names mentioned are the title of Hurrian NNWS : Tupkish NNWS (2250 BC.) Tish-atal NNWS (time unknown) Shatar-mat NNWS (time unknown) Atal-shen (time unknown) Ann-atal (2050 BC.) Te’irru (1800 BC.)


Nagar, modern Tell Brak, is composed of several tells, extends over 110 hectares The site has been occupied since – 6500 before J.C. There is good reason to believe that one of the tells of Nagar is the site of Wassugammi, but there is no conclusive evidence in meaning Nagar IV dated millennium before J.C. We are unearthed a temple measuring 30 meters by 25 The outer walls are decorated with cones forming a rosettes and mosaic stone Copper sheets covered the interior walls At the back of the temple, there was an altar decorated with stones white and lapis lazuli He was appointed temple in the eyes because they are found more 200 figures in alabaster, called: idols in the eyes, representatives of characters with one or two heads, eyes occupying almost the entire surface But also many amulets and large amount of faience beads and rock crystal and many ceramics The seals that are found, attest at that time The existence of an administration developed After its destruction by the XXIVth century Sargon of Akkad, a palace of 105 by 92 meters, is built on the site of the temple to eyes


Taite, called Taidu Assyria was one of the capital Mitanni Tell al-Hamidiya be identified with Taite We are uncovering a citadel and a large palace complex It was destroyed and rebuilt by the Assyrians in their so because they wanted to sever all ties with civilization Hurrian

The kingdom of Mitanni

The Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni reaches its apogee in the sixteenth century before J.C. The capital was Wassugammi Wassugammi could be located at Tell Brak Taite was the second capital, modern Tell al-Hamidiya Urkish too, was the capital of Mitanni In fact, the capital has to depend on the extent and composition of the kingdom … It is a confederation of many vassal cities: Aleppo, Alalakh, Ugarit, Carchemish, Emar, and kingdoms: Nuhasse, the Kizzuwatna, Arrapha, the Hana, etc … Mitanni then goes to the east of the Zagros, Iran, until the Mediterranean in the west and north to Taurus, Turkey, to the south to Kadesh and Hana, at Lebanon and Syria The king of Mitanni was called: Hurrian king of men The first elements of the Hurrian language have survived with the letter Mitannian This missive from the king of Mitanni to Pharaoh Tushratta Egyptian Amenhotep III, from the early fourteenth century, was found in Egypt at Tell El-Amarna The address consists of seven lines, written in Akkadian Text, four one hundred eighty-seven lines, is written in Hurrian It is the composition of the dowry of Princess Mitannian given in marriage to the Pharaoh The decline of the Mitanni kingdom will begin with Hittite and Egyptian invasions and end with the final annexation by Assyrians in the thirteenth century before J.C. The Assyrians had a policy of destroying the borrowed of other civilizations and replacing them with their values and personal this explains the difficulty to find traces of Hurrian

The kingdom of Mari

Mari, modern Tell Hariri, is also a kingdom Hurrian The city of Mari was founded around – 3000 BC on a surface Circular 1300 meters in diameter Found there a magnificent palace, the sacred and the terrace of the massive red The site includes the temples of Ishtar, Nini-Zaza, of Shamash and Ninhursag of Dagan but has not yet found the temple of Itur-Sea , The tutelary deity of Mari Bronze objects attesting to metallurgy developed Technology and administration are attested to by Mari a Hurrian city-state But after 40 seasons of excavations, only one fifteenth the site was excavated It was a strategic port on the Euphrates controlled regional trade A channel 120 km long allowed the ascent of the river and connected the northern plains of the south by the Khabur and the Euphrates land routes Tablets show that the rulers of Mari required up to 20% of the value of goods transported were Husband was surrounded by a dike designed to protect flood and was protected by a thick wall of 6 meters, and flanked by towers There was also an irrigation system to allow intensive agriculture The city was abandoned around – 2650 BC, following succession of wars with Sumer Husband will be integrated in the empire of King Sargon of Akkad the Great to – 2300 BC and becomes a flourishing city A second royal palace is then built on the site of before and another smaller palace is added To – 1800 BC, the palace of Mari reached its peak with over three hundred rooms and over an area of 2500 hectares Husband will then be destroyed by the Babylonian armies of Hammurabi before in 1760. AD



money is the human predator
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