Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 26: The Elam

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 26: The Elam

Posted February 7, 2012

Timbale Elamite, proof of the quality of life, their technology, their artistry and their ability to write and metallurgy …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 26: The Elam

The civilization of Ikshvaku

The Indo-European of Ikshvaku, the Aryans  , see Chapter 9 to 11, who moved there from the 4th millennium BC, to develop, will split The Scythian will go east and south Elamite In the Avesta, the territories of the Ikshvaku were considered former paradise The Ikshvaku is controlled by major city states that support economic activity The late Indo-European, around – 2000 BC, will generate a new mode of power: the religions In Ikshvaku, Zarathustra created religion to Mazdean – 2000 BC The Elamite will take him with them in Elam

The Elam

The Elamite moved from the fourth millennium BC in what is now Iran Its capital, Anshan is located at Tell-i Malyan The city, covering an area of ​​200 hectares, was protected by an imposing wall The most important buildings of the city, are two large buildings: an administration building and other crafts No religious building … We are in a city of Atlantis Aryan At the same time, Susa was the capital of Susa, also Aryan kingdom before being annexed by Anshan The capital of Elam, will be one or the other, Anshan and Susa, because of changes in policies, where the royal title, which is titled king of Anshan and Susa The kingdom of Elam is composed, in addition to the cities of Anshan and Susa, like other Indo-European kingdoms, with many important cities and states, as Awan, Sialk Tepe, Tepe Ozbaki, Shahr-i Sokhteh, Godin Tepe, Simashki, Sherihum, Bashime, Huhnur, Kabnak, Hidalu, Madaktu, Hard-Untash, Liyan, Al-Untash Napirisha, Chogal Zanbil, etc. … Although qu’affiliées the kingdom of Elam, they are relative independence that can go at certain times until complete independence

The gods of Elam

The Elamite king, the sunki is the representative of the gods on Earth, and it is in their name that directs the Elam The gods royal govern their city-state   Humban, which means: one who commands, is the chief deity of the Elamite kingdom at the time of the dynasty of Awan in the third millennium His consort goddess estla Pinikir Pinikir, Pinigir Pinengir or, as the divine couple with primary Humban until XXIIIrd century BC Pinikir had an important temple at Dur-Untash today Chogha Zanbil Napirisha is the patron god of Anshan Its name means the great god It is associated with the snake symbolizes the primordial waters, like the Mesopotamian god Enki / Ea, god of the primordial waters of the abyss A large temple is dedicated to Hard-Untash today Chogha-Zanbil, in Susiana This temple is backed by a large ziggurat He is also revered in large open cave sanctuaries, like Kurangun His consort is Kiririsha Kiririsha, which means: the great goddess, is the consort of Napirisha, whose name means: the great god Napirisha and supplant the old divine couple Humban-Pinikir She is the patron goddess of the city of Liyan, in Bushehr, south of the Elamite kingdom on the Persian Gulf Excavations have unearthed inscriptions confirming that a great temple of this goddess was there This is a mother goddess, fertility goddess, who is thus similar to the Sumerian goddess Ishtar and Ninhursag Inshushinak is the tutelary deity of the city of Susa His name means Lord of Susa He is the god of the dead Attended the god-Ishme karab Lagamar and of the goddess, he judges the souls of the dead Its main temple was located in the neighborhood of Susa and a sacred ziggurat he was Assistant Another temple of Inshushinak, he shared with Napirisha was in the city of Dur-Untash, also accompanied by a ziggurat Nahhunte is the sun god, justice and protector of oaths and contracts Nusku the god of light and fire Its emblem is the lamp He is the son of Enlil, and has a son, Gibil, fire Gibil represents fire, the forge and metalworking It maintains the sharp weapons The Elamites also worshiped gods of Mesopotamian origin as Ishtar, Adad, or Ninhursag Nushku

Ziggurats to temples

The Elamites, like the Mesopotamian ziggurats were built since the 4th millennium BC Two of them are known: that of Susa attested by written sources, and that of Tchogha Zanbil, currently the best preserved ziggurat Some churches are in the open, like those found in Fars to Izeh, Kurangun or Naqsh-e Rostam Large reliefs representatives of the gods and scenes of worship have been carved Some of these places were used over a long period, as Naqsh-e Rostam which is still a place of worship under the Sassanid The Elamites also worshiped their gods in temples as at Susa, Haft Tappeh and Tchogha Zanbil Elamite and Assyrian texts inform us that the Elamite temples include sacred groves, the husa, perhaps linked to the cult of the dead

The succession of gods

The brother sister incest was common among the Atlanteans It seems that it must be to retain power in the family The Elamites are Atlantean Elamite kings are called: the sister’s son, Ruhu-shak, their predecessor The son born to the union of the king and his sister are the rightful heirs priority for succession to the throne The king’s successor was appointed during the lifetime of his predecessor and he participated in the affairs of the kingdom It has been found in numbers of these rules dynasties Atlantean In the dynasty of governors of the kingdom of Ur III, the king bears the title: mah sukkal of Elam, great ruler His successor was appointed sukkal Susa, Regent He exercised power in Susiana on behalf of his king From the Neo-Elamite, the rules of succession become classics: we succeeded from father to eldest son

History of Elam

Elam is a mountainous territory Therefore, it has always consisted of many independent and rival city states The two main ones being that ruled Susa Susiana and Elam who led Anshân In fact, Elam was rarely unified in its history, – in 4000 – 1000 … The historical capitals were sometimes cited under the domination of smaller states We know very little about the period – 4000 to – 2600, except that it is a period of expansion and collapse of competing city-states, allied or enemy … But this was the era or are developing significant international trade flows for the people who master the writing and metallurgy, among others … Towards – 2600, Elam is dominated by the dynasty of Awan The kings of Awan were defeated by Sargon, despite the help of their allies Marhashi They still retain their independence Towards – 2250, the Empire of Akkad collapsed The king of Awan, Puzur-Inshushinak, reconstructs a powerful kingdom from Susa, he resumed Then a succession of wars will put the power of emerging dynasties: the kings of Simashki the épartides of Ebarat: the Sukkalmah, then kidinuides In the 15th century BC, the capital of Susa was the city of Kabnak, Haft Tepe today King Tepti-Ahar there built a great palace with his funerary temple complex and a craft It manufactured portraits painted terracotta which were placed in tombs, near the head of the dead In the second half of the 14th century, King Untash Napirisha, founded a city bearing his name: Al-Untash Napirisha, Tchoga today He restored the unity of the Elam taking the title of king of Anshan and Susa, Elam and Susiana There he built a grand palace: the center stood a temple dedicated to Inshushinak, tutelary god of Susa Like all palace Indo-European, it was not only worship It included a large courtyard surrounded by shops On one side, two small rooms were arranged on both sides of the central passage guarded by monsters and animals glazed earthenware The square outside were protected by an enclosure in which were part of dwelling houses and workshops A second chamber housed other temples and houses A third enclosure surrounding a city of more than 100 hectares The king’s palace contained underground cellars where large were placed cremated remains of the king and some family members A temple or a palace, with a large open courtyard, have been used to Nusku cult, the god of fire

The bronze of the time show a high mastery of metallurgy They make ceremonial ax-shaped snake-breathing dragon blade The kings gave them as a badge to their officials The bronze statue of the queen Napir-asu, weighing 1750 kg, with fine aristocratic hands clasped on the dress flared evidenced today in the Louvre Their mastery of glass and earthenware, their allowed to manufacture seals remarkable In the 12th century, the heyday of the Elamite power: The conquest of the Babylonian Sending to Susa the stela of Naram-Sin Drafting the code of Hammurabi, which is probably a compilation of law much older, inherited the first Indo-European

Elamite Writing

The Elamite writing, linear, date of the fourth millennium BC Bee Season seem designate goods and names The figures show the use of the decimal system The Elamite was later attested in cuneiform script from the second half of the third millennium BC This writing has resisted all attempts to decipher because many signs designate probably things or methods that are totally unknown More icons are highly stylized The Elamite cuneiform used by proving a phonetic writing, which does not facilitate decryption The tablets recently discovered at Konar Sandal, Jiroft, would be to write Elamite The oldest text in Elamite cuneiform is a peace treaty between a king of Awan and King Naram-Sin of Akkad The Elamite cuneiform is used to the Achaemenid The last tablets found in this writing, are those of the palace of Persepolis


Anshan,  or Anšan, is the former capital of the Elamite kingdom, and the first capital of the Achaemenid Persian kings It owes its influence to its strategic location at the crossroads of important trade routes It is located on the site of Tell-e Malyan in Iran, near the city of Shiraz Anshan was occupied from the 6th millennium BC The site of Tell-e Malyan is considered home to the Elamite civilization The city, covering an area of ​​200 acres, was enclosed by a large wall The site includes two large buildings: a main building and an administrative workshop The administrative building has yielded fragments of proto-Elamite tablets The building had its walls covered with craft paint colors white, black, gray and red, with geometric patterns: triangles, rosettes, etc. … Between 2400 and 2000, the kings of Anshan face expansionism of the kings of Akkad and Ur The kings of the Dynasty of Anshan Simashki make the capital of the Elamite kingdom Dynasties of Eparti, or Sukkalmah, Anshan is with Suse, one of two capitals of Elam The kings of later dynasties, the kidinuides, and the igehalkides shutrukides, of – 1450 – 1100, will take the title of king of Susa and Anshan In the first millennium, the region of Anshan, Anshan new name, passed to the Persian Achaemenid The Persian sovereigns then take the title of King of Anšan It was discovered, dating from around 1100, a new landmark building, built by King Khutelutush-Inshushinak, which were found in Elamite administrative tablets


Suse , Shushan in the Bible, Susan Elamite, ancient Elamite, becomes the fifth century BC, the capital of the Achaemenid Persian Empire Today it is a field of ruins in the small town of Shush Susa was founded around 4000 BC on a checkpoint in the valley of the Tigris Susiana before Suse is already populated with several city-states founded in the late 6th or early 5th millennium, which Jafarrabad, Jowi, Bendebal and Chogha Mish Darius I built on the ruins Elamite, his palace of Apadana The Acropolis, the highest part of the site housed an Achaemenid fort, which was habition area of ​​the city at the time Elamite Below is the royal city that was inhabited from the late fifth millennium, Susa Elamite The upper terrace, which one side was reached, is a palace with a single stage, measuring 10 meters high and 80 meters long A necropolis was discovered near Many graves have delivered copper items: flat axes, awls and mirrors But also of painted pottery fine white or red, decorated with geometric and stylized animals, mainly vases, cups and bowls Excavations have unearthed a large number of seals or seal impressions and seals on doors Many are the master of animals, common in Iran divinity of the fourth millennium Were manufactured at Susa many statues of all sizes Darius I built there his statue The metal is also very developed and there control the technique of lost wax Excavations have delivered remarkable bronze weapons Obviously there at that time an administrative Accounting is present everywhere, indicating a complex management of agricultural estates and many trade Were found during excavations more than 1,500 tablets administrative accounting, recording or storage of goods movements Was found in Susa, the stele of Hammurabi’s code and that of Naram-Sin of Akkad, reported military campaigns Elamite


Awan is a former city of Elam, whose kings are the first historic dynasty Awan has not yet been found It is located north of Susiana According to the Sumerian King List, a dynasty of three successive sovereigns, reigned 356 years ago This is the political importance of Awan in the third millennium BC At the period of Akkad, to – from 2340 to -2 200 Mesopotamian historical texts inform us that Sargon of Akkad, Naram-Sin and Rimush beat successively Luhi ishshan-and-Hishep ratep Awan and their allies, the kings of Marhashi After these defeats, Awan becomes the vassal kings of Akkad The peace treaty signed between Naram-Sin and ruler of Awan, Khita, is one of the oldest documents in Elamite, which has been found

Tepe Sialk

In Isfahan Province, near the town of Kashan, is the site of Tepe Sialk, consisting of two hills, the tell north and south tell The occupation of the site dates back to the late 7th millennium BC until the 4th millennium BC There is also a necropolis from the second millennium BC Tell the north has two levels: Sialk I and II Sialk The tombs of Level I contained pottery with painted decoration and clear the stone tools or bone The level Sialk II attest the appearance of metallurgy and demonstrates trade links with other state cities Tell the south includes levels III and IV Sialk Sialk III corresponds to the fifth millennium and the beginning of the fourth This period reflects the complexity of the architecture and materials: molded bricks, stone and handicraft development and Metallurgy The level IV Sialk from the second half of the fourth millennium to the abandonment of the site at the beginning of the third millennium It is here that date back many proto-Elamite tablets At Sialk IV, we also find the ruins of a vast ziggurat This is a large terrace which has more than 5000 years After a drop of more than a millennium, the site was reoccupied Sialk in the second half of the second millennium: Sialk V and VI Sialk It found two burial Sialk level V, we have uncovered weapons and bronze objects, jewelry and objects made of iron But also ceramics of gray-black or red, decorated with geometric At Sialk VI, the graves are covered with tiles It is found weapons of bronze and iron, bits and harnesses But also long-beaked vases, painted with geometric or animal The site was finally abandoned in the early first millennium

Choga Zanbil

Choga Zanbil Elamite is an urban complex in the Khuzestan province in Iran   Found in Chogha Zanbil the ruins of the ziggurat of Dur Untash, the largest and best preserved of all those we know The site is located approximately 45 miles south of Susa Also included is a figurine of kaolin representing a human head, from the 2nd millennium BC, and looking strangely like the statues of Easter Island …

The ziggurat of Dur-Untash-Napirisha

In the 13th century BC, at the height of the Elamite kingdom, the ziggurat of Dur Untash dominated the kingdom Partially restored, it is one of the largest ziggurats of the world Hard-Untash-Napirisha was a religious center of the Elamite kingdom, founded around – 1250 by King-Untash Napirisha on the road between Susa and Anshan Hard-Untash-Napirisha means the fortress of Untash-Napirisha The city is surrounded by a wall of 400 m square and is dedicated to the god of Susa, Inshushinak Napirisha, Ishme-Karab, Kiririsha, there are also revered The ziggurat is composed of four floors fitted vertically A neighborhood with royal palace was built southeast of the city Royal tombs were built under one of the palace mausoleum of use Found there the remains of cremated bodies, as in Hittite and Hurrian Nushku a temple, the god of fire, was excavated near the palace Neighborhoods designed for habitation, were never built, the city was soon abandoned because of the rapid extinction of the dynasty of Untash-Napirisha Many works of art created for Hard-Untash, were sent to Susa, where they will be found during the excavations The ziggurat however still used several centuries, until its destruction by the Assyrians

The Elamite

The Elamite art is characterized by animal motifs, like that of Scythian … The site of Susa has delivered a large number of impressions of cylinder seals and statuettes Ceramics, painted pottery, jewelry and bronze sculptures complete the inventory of artistic, classical Aryan for all populations The economy and industry, also demonstrate the high technological level for the time, found in all ethnic groups Aryan Valley Thar to the Eastern Europe International trade and metallurgy developed are the hallmarks The classical architecture of the valley and the Thar is found everywhere in Aryan Ancient cities include administrative buildings, workshops, homes, but like all cities Aryan: any place of worship … In fact, all this confirms the invention of religion, to – 2000, to take power, because the technology of the gods is no longer sufficient to impose

Before – in 2000, is the time of gods on earth

After – 2000 is the time of the gods in heaven …



money is the human predator
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