Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 32: Sites of the ancient kingdom of Sheba

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 32: Sites of the ancient kingdom of Sheba

Published June 27, 2012

Petra, the rose carved wall …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 32: Sites of the ancient kingdom of Sheba


Aden is a natural port, built on an old volcanic site, used since ancient times The legend says that human occupation dating back to the flood and that Cain and Abel are buried The pre-Islamic civilizations, kingdoms or Himyarite Sabean had to build port facilities and watchtowers, but it remains no trace The strategic position of the port, between India and Europe since ancient times in fact a place of significant trade


The oasis of Aflaj is 312 km southeast of Al-Riyadh The site of Al-Ayoun is composed of the remains of a large city, dated the 3rd millennium BC Been found there graves, mounds and large quantities of pottery remains The site also includes a system of irrigation canals Al-Baidatain It is a rocky outcrop on which are engraved with inscriptions and petroglyphs Talmudic representing animals An ancient settlement site is located at the base of the hill Al-Bujadiyyah This is a site located about 68 km west of Ad-Dawadmi Several mounds and remains of tombs have inscriptions Talmudic There were found numerous fragments of pottery and iron slag It is thought that this was a mine site of the Neolithic


The excavations in the region of Zabid in Tihama, have discovered the megalithic site of al-Midamman which occupies an area of ​​over 8 sq. km Under a menhir, 15 objects were found in copper and bronze dating from the 5th to the 3rd millennium BC


Amman, the city of 19 hills, was called Rabbath-Ammon in ancient times The site of the earliest fortifications found the ruins from the Neolithic to the Hellenistic period It is a city of the Incense Route


Aqaba or Eilat, has been inhabited since 4000 BC. , Due to its strategic location at the crossroads of trade routes between Asia, Africa and Europe It was an Edomite city before becoming Nabataean The Bible mentions the place: “King Solomon also built ships at Ezion Geber, near Elath in Edom country, bordering the Red Sea” South of Amman the white begins the road of kings, dating back over 5,000 years, ranging from the Red Sea to Aqaba port It is believed today that the Port of Leuce Come described by the Greek geographer Strabo is Aqaba, for all his account corresponds exactly to the city of Elath, including the early kings of the road He tells us that the fees charged by Elath were a quarter of goods!

Dumat Al-Jandal

Dumat Al-Jandal is an ancient city northwest of Saudi Arabia, in the province of Al Jawf The name al-Jandal Dumat literally means “Duma stone” because it was the territory of Duma, a son of Ishmael twelve The Akkadian name of the city was Adummatu The age of ruins is attested by the fact that the city had an Akkadian name and it was the city state Duma

Cave of Burma

In this cave 66 km north of Al-Riyadh, many petroglyphs are carved on the rocks They are dated to ~ 2400 before J.C.


The Nabatean city of Hegra Madâin Salih or Madain Saleh, 400 km from Medina, is at the crossroads between the Arabian Peninsula, Syria, Jordan and Mesopotamia The oasis was located on the caravan route linking Petra in southern Arabia, the Incense Route As Petra, the Nabatean have built over the remains of the city Tokharian, there are over two thousand years, 138 monumental tombs Construction methods were the same: the builders from the top of the facade, destroying after each stage of building the platform carved into the sandstone It was a town of about fifty acres surrounded by an earthen rampart She was surrounded by farmland equipped with an ingenious irrigation system through a network of wells


Ubar, current name, also called Wabar, Irem, Iram, Iram dhat al-`Imad or the city of a thousand pillars, is a lost city of the Arabian Peninsula Iram is mentioned in ancient writings and oral tradition as an important city of the desert of Rub ‘al Khali, south of the Arabian Peninsula Is estimated to have existed from -3000 BC to first century The Quran says Iram was built by the tribe of ʿ ad, great-grand-child of Noah It was a rich and decadent city, whose inhabitants, polytheists, practiced the occult Its king, Shaddad, refused to take the warnings of the prophet Hud God then destroyed the city by burying under the sand with a roaring and furious The legend became history after it was translated the Ebla tablets which explicitly mention the name of Iram The photos of the Persian Gulf by the Space Shuttle Columbia is clear footsteps of several destroyed towns along the incense route between the years – 2800 and + 100 To the east of Oman, in the province of Dhofar, Ubar was identified as Iram Ubar was accidentally discovered by a team that searched the ruins of Fort Shis’r 16th century Under the fort, they find it the remains of the Atlantis of the Sands Ubar was not the name of the city, but that of the region Legend has used the name of the region to designate the city of Iram

Jebel Braqa

This hill about 70k m north of Al-Bujadiyyah is a site of many tombs and remains of an ancient city in the Neolithic A circle of standing stones makes this remarkable

Jebel Jidran

The necropolis of Jebel includes more than 1,500 graves and is similar to Jebel Ruwaik In the necropolis was uncovered many ceramic jars and pots as well as nearly a thousand beads of carnelian, granite, bone, clay, soapstone, bone and shell, as in Jebel Ruwaik Dating and uses have also given the same results: the beginning of the third millennium BC to the early second millennium

Jebel Khanuqa

There is a cave dating back several thousand years and in which there are many petroglyphs and inscriptions

Jebel Ruwaik

The dating of the graves date back to the construction of towers early third millennium BC and confirm occupation of the cemetery until the early second millennium There are over 3000 graves in this cemetery The furniture that accompanies the dead is rare, the widespread looting of In the cemetery of Jebel Ruwaik we uncovered many ceramic jars and pots as well as nearly a thousand beads of carnelian, granite, bone, clay, soapstone, bone and shell In one of the tombs a bronze awl was unearthed The presence of metal objects in the early 3rd millennium BC. AD in this region is not common, but not exceptional The small number of beads readily available materials such as clay or bone, and a taste for the exotic or precious materials such as shells or carnelian indicate that the builders of these towers graves were richer than the remains Archaeological can show it This architecture has endured for nearly 1500 years and gradually disappeared at the turn of the second millennium BC. AD In the first millennium BC. BC, men have reused these graves towers to bury their dead


After Petra Hegra, Jerash is an ancient Jordanian city occupied for over 6500 years Hidden under the sand for centuries before being excavated and restored over 70 years, Jerash is a city in northern Incense Route connecting Petra in Tyre


Jubbah is located in the region of Hail, 350 km north of Riyadh The town was built there over 7000 years. Jubbah, Sakaka and Al-‘Ula petroglyph sites are the most famous of Saudi Arabia A Jubbah the first drawings and inscriptions carved on rocks dating from 5,500 years ago and ranged up to 2000 years BC At that time Jubbah was near a lake inside The drawings reveal a fauna composed of ibex, oryx, antelope from Arabia and Pets Human representations tell us about their lifestyle: hunting, herding and agriculture


This megalithic site dated to the first third millennium BC. AD Monumental buildings were superimposed on these sites for reuse The organization of the site reflects a sustainable activity and a diversified business Analysis of ornaments and other objects discovered is being

Khawlan al-Tiyâl

The site has Tiyâl Khawlan al-identified data to determine the Bronze Age and Neolithic in the Arabian Peninsula through ceramics and lithic remains In this site the domestication of animals has been demonstrated through the bones of bison, cattle, goats and domestic sheep The dating site we confirm a pastoral economy based on cattle breeding between the sixth and the fourth millennium BC


Mecca was already an ancient religious capital In fact, Mecca is a choke point: what is the point of the region’s water … The gods that are worshiped are Hubal and his three daughters al-Lat, Al-Uzza and Manat The people of the region and to the nearby major city of Yathrib, to make a pilgrimage, during which there was a truce of four months The Ka’aba was a simple primitive stone enclosure, surrounding the black meteorite, sacred stone embedded in the current Ka’aba, located near the spring of Zamzam, which saved Ishmael, the baby of Hagar and Abraham The neighbors had brought them the statues of their gods With the advent of Islam, the Kaaba contained more than 360 statues of deities

Mahram Balquis

4 km from Mairb, the Mahram Balquis, Awwam temple is a temple dedicated to Lord Almaqah, god of the Moon It is oval-shaped The major axis is 84 meters, the minor axis of 82.1 meters, a width of 3.90 meters, wall height of 9 meters At 10 meters from the entrance, we see eight monumental pillars Online The dating site is not certain, but certainly before the second millennium BC


The capital of the kingdom of Sheba is the city of Marib It is located near the Yemeni capital Sana’a Marib was built in the early third millennium BC Marib at the time consisted of approximately 20 000 inhabitants The location of Marib, on the left bank of the valley of Dhana, which flows into the desert Saihad, has controlled the trade route of incense Marib was surrounded by a stone wall with three gates, north, west and south-east It is believed that the current village was built on the ruins of the palace Sabean In the old town, there are four temples, two in the north and one in the southern part of the huge stone columns near the palace are the fourth temple. A Marib was built around 1500 BC, a dam 580 meters long to four meters high, and that irrigated land can meet the needs of 50,000 people It was rebuilt several times in 350 BC to 550 AD to irrigate an area estimated at over 72 km ²


This is an ancient seaport on the Red Sea coast in the vicinity of the current Mocha or Mokka, birthplace of coffee, but most likely imported from Ethiopia According to the journey of the Erythraean Sea, Muza is on the road of Arsinoe / Cléopatris: Suez This is the first port safely on the Arabian coast, over 1000 nautical miles south of leuke Kome: Aqaba Muza was the capital of the province of Mafar Muza maintained close trade relations with Africa and India Muza controlled Azania, on the coast of Ajan, on behalf of the Sabeans


Discoveries at the site of Beidha, a few kilometers from Petra, have demonstrated the existence of sedentary facilities dating from 10,000 to around 1000 BC Petra has been built by the Tocharian and after their collapse in the middle of the second millennium, the Nabatean replaced them to control the Incense Route The capital of the kingdom of Sheba, Marib was replaced by Petra, the new capital of the Incense Route, conquered by the Nabatean The Nabataeans were a nomadic warrior tribe of Arabia, plundering the caravans crossing the kingdom of Sheba In the first millennium BC, they took control of trade routes and took Petra as the capital They developed this town while they were away, intentionally or unintentionally, in the footsteps of their predecessors Then the city declined against the might of Rome, which annexed the region in 106 AD

Qariya al Faw

Qariya al Faw located about 700 kilometers south of the city of Riyadh, in the Wadi Ad-Dawasir, is located on the crossing of Wadi Ad-Dawasir and mountain Tuwaiq The excavations at Al-Faw Qariya testified a significant presence from the Neolithic In fact the development of the city has been constant since it was conveniently placed on the ancient trade route Gerha-Najran The archaeological site contains houses, warehouses, streets, temples, tombs and an important market The market consists of three floors with seven towers in the corners of the market and three in the middle The only entry was a small door into a small square The irrigation system and canals of the site are very well preserved It was the capital of Kindah, kingdom of the late first millennium BC, which developed after the destruction of the Marib dam which caused the fall of the kingdom of Sheba The Kindah was one of three provinces of the kingdom of Sheba who was able to take its independence


The site of Rawk, in Hadramawt, in the Wadi ‘Idim, which has a megalithic standing stones remain 2 It is a walled enclosure of rectangular monoliths upright, rounded on top Inside, stone benches are backed against the wall The remains of the site is approximately 5 meters long and 1 meter wide They consist of five standing stones, P1 to P5, and four slabs stacked two by two, D1 to D4 The rescue excavation showed that it was a monumental it lacks the west The ages determined in the sixth millennium occupation and the erection of the monument took place between 3499 and 3198 BC To the west of the standing stone P4, D3 under the slab, was discovered a fragment of metal folded 11.6 x 7.58 mm Standing stones, limestone cold light gray, are oriented north-south This rock comes off the cliffs surrounding the form of blocks of thickness 20 to 40 cm The upper part of standing stones is the result of a size The lower portions of standing stones are thinned The tiles are hard limestone creamy white with dark gray tasks These rocks are on the tops of cliffs The slab dimensions are almost all identical They were wedged at the same level close to 2 mm All tiles have their rounded On some faces are visible reddish cast, probably iron oxide, reflecting the use of metal tools

As a result of erosion caused by flooding of a river, the inhabitants of Rawk 5 anthropomorphic statuettes discovered at the foot of standing stones The discovery of other statues in several Yemeni websites to over 400 kilometers from Rawk, meaning they are not unique to the people of Wadi ‘Idim It seems that the 04 statuette, carved in a rock alien, was imported and copied locally In Yemen, ten statuettes of this type have been discovered They were unearthed in illegal excavations, work planning or pickups surface They were assigned to the 3rd millennium BCE, because of their similarity with the statuette from Wadi Sulay’h which was found on the surface of a settlement site of the Bronze Age


This temple of the god of the moon date in the second millennium BC The eastern part of the temple is still standing It has a semicircular shape and a height of 7 m He stands a stone column The west wall was connected to 4 columns There is a central table, altar, surrounded by stone seats There is also a tower 10 meters high and the ruins of another temple


Shabwa, capital of the kingdom of Hadramawt, located on the incense route, the start of the second millennium The city was built of brick raw Numerous tower houses, over 130 in the area west of the city, two to four levels, were perched on stone bases, types of raised foundations, ensuring the stability of the building in the soft ground The royal castle of Shabwa, consists of a central tower house and a building surrounding a courtyard The floors were constructed of wood, and was found about 300 beams, often in good condition, with their joints and sometimes their décor The royal palace, Shaqir, is known by coins in his name The deities represented in Shabwa are Athtar, chief god, Shams, the sun goddess, Almaqah, god of agriculture and irrigation


Tayma, also called Tema, Teema, Tiamat, Teymeite, an oasis located northwest of Saudi Arabia 400 km north of Medina, on the Incense Route Recent archaeological discoveries show that Tayma has been inhabited since the Bronze Age The second millennium BC, there was built a wall of earth and sandstone about 10 feet high and a length of 15 km, surrounding an area of ​​about 20 hectares, for achieve an oasis of palm trees His strength is impressive even in the 11th century Arab historian Abu Abdullah al-Bakri Exterior walls of the tombs found within the oasis include wooden decorations and ivory shaped flowers, dating from the late second millennium BC Cuneiform inscriptions acquaint us a divine triad Salm, and Ashima Sengalla Salm, the sun god, Sengalla, god of the moon and Ashima, symbolized by Venus It was discovered in the area, a rock with an inscription of the Egyptian pharaoh Ramses III The hieroglyphic inscription on Saudi soil suggests that Tayma was a stage town on the road linking the Red Sea and the Nile Valley Assyrian inscriptions of the eighth century BC, mention the oasis town of Tiamat, thriving city, rich in beautiful buildings and wells Tiglath Pileser III, king of Assyria, reports receiving a tribute of Tayma Sennacherib named one of the gates of Nineveh: the door of the desert, for the gifts of ‘Sumu’anite Teymeite and enter through it The city is quite rich and proud, in the seventh century BC, that Jeremiah prophesied against her: Jeremiah 25:23

Throne Balquis

The throne of Bilquis, Bar’an the temple, al-Amaid, is devoted to Almaqah, god of the Moon It is square with an open courtyard with a holy well and a pond fed by water from the mouth of a bull We must climb 12 stairs to the hall, the sacred chamber, which has in front of the west wall of marble seats He remains standing 5 columns, each of 17.350 tons, 12 m high and 80 × 60 cm thick The temple is surrounded by a brick wall with towers The construction of this temple has undergone two phases: The first phase began during the second millennium BC The second phase took place during the 4th century AD


As Yathrib, also known as Yathrib, Medina or Madina, was an important market town and its inhabitants were making annual pilgrimages to the temples of Manat at Mecca, chief god of both cities This was an important city on the Incense Route

Sites of the ancient kingdom of Sheba

The list of sites of the ancient kingdom of Sheba is far to be closed … Most sites have summers buried under the sand or covered by subsequent occupation When they have not only been re-used or cannibalized … We can say that the Arabian Peninsula was a country teeming with activity and filled at least 10 times more than today This was the obligatory passage of goods between Africa, India, Middle East and Europe This population could live through technology Tocharian: irrigation, agriculture, animal husbandry, metallurgy, etc. … Tocharian and when collapsed, the Nabataeans transformed themselves from looters and wreckers, road manager in market … A caravan had a choice between the inner road and the sea route The inland route was safer but more expensive! The earliest stories we learn that each checkpoint levied a tax of one quarter of goods … This explains the attempts to save the steps despite the dangers The sea route was cheaper, but far more dangerous There are only two crossing points and thus taxes only 2 points: Aden and Aqaba The sea route, Saudi side, is extremely dangerous for its coral and wreckers who lit lanterns to lure ships on the shoals to the plunder As soon as we moved away from the coast of Arabia, we had to deal with African pirates … Yep, nothing has changed today … A maritime expedition tells qu’arrivée in Aqaba, from Aden, she had lost three quarters of its ships from pirates, wreckers and the perils of the sea! A tax of one quarter of goods means a complex and centralized administration But also a police and army But also a communication network between cities But also an agriculture that can feed all these people … We know that Tocharian used wells, rivers, lakes and dams, to form an efficient irrigation system, efficient and reliable



money is the human predator
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