EARTH IS THE AIM 6 : Exoduses and survivors ; Part 2 : Peoples of the Sea ; Chapter 10 : Iberians

EARTH IS THE AIM 6 : Exoduses and survivors

Part 2 : Peoples of the Sea

Chapter 10 : Iberians



Since from the 5th millennium, Iberians founded commercial counters in the future Iberia, but the massive colonization will happen from 3rd to 2nd millennium BC

At this time, we see the expansion of megalithic monuments, followed two millennia later by reusing them in funeral monuments


Iberians are hierarchical organized as evidenced by the significant differences in wealth graves

The study of the various objects found in the tombs has defined social structure and determine its hereditary


The leaders had halberds, swords, gold and silver jewelery items, terracotta vases

Women and children belonging to the elite were buried with axes, daggers and punches


For free peoples like as artisans, farmers, traders and employees, we found simple metal objects and pottery

For workers or slaves, the graves are devoid of any object


Aristotle described the Iberians as “warlike race” that plant “on the tomb of the warrior, as many iron stakes he enemies slain”


Their main gods were the mother goddess and a god represented by a bull

It was the same as for the Basques and Ligurians

Basques call him : Maya

We meet him again …

View Earth is the aim 4 , The Tokharians


Caucasus Iberians

The Greeks knew Iberians, a people from the Caucasus in Georgia, in the 8th century BC

In 1833, Julius Heinrich Klaproth, publishes the history of Georgia in its Asian Journal

Its main source is the abridged history of Georgian, compiled by Prince Davith in Tbilisi in 1800


These texts confirm that after the confusion of languages during Nimrod reign, king of Babylon, -2642, men scattered everywhere

When Georgia adopted Christianity, they were forced to relate their history to the Bible and the founder of the nation, kartlos, was becoming descendant of Noah …


Thargamos was a Scythian king who settled in Armenia and gave Georgia to his son kartlos

This happened to -2600

Same date as the first war of Yi in -2650 which occasioned these mass migrations

These outflows were still intensified after the 2nd Yi war in -2350

“The men were scattered everywhere” would therefore be done due to wars of Yi, rather than the confusion of languages …

Confusion of languages, what a pretty name for nuclear wars …


These outflows obviously followed the path of movement of expansion and colonization of the peoples from the Thar Valley which had started since about 2000 years earlier

As Caucasus could not house all the Iberians, the bulk of the population continued his exodus with the Thracian

Then with the Hittite, to finally become a people of the sea and settle in European Iberia


Colin Renfrew published in 1984, the Anatolian hypothesis which postulates that the Proto-Indo-Europeans lived 2000 years before the burial mounds in Anatolia and they later spread to Greece, Italy, Sicily, Corsica, the French part of the Mediterranean coast, Spain and Portugal


This Anatolian hypothesis contradicted the theory of the origin of the Indo-European as Kurgan

Immediately the French historian Bernard Sergent violently attack him by saying that Colin Renfrew has substituted a “model” with “distortions” and “arbitrary choice” to the observable realities and scientific findings that underpin the Kurgan hypothesis and that his work was “fundamentally dishonest ”


The scientific community forced Renfrew to reconsider his theory exactly like it was in Galilee time

Renfrew was obliged to rally to the proposal of Igor Diakonov saying the southeast of Europe was the cradle of Indo-Europeans


Back to the rank, Renfrew was made peer for life in 1991, titled Baron Renfrew of Kaimsthorn, and was awarded in prehistoric archeology in 2004 by the Balzan Prize


Today nobody can no longer defend this Kurgan theory of Indo-Europeans who defended the superiority of European and justified the colonialism

View Earth is the aim 5, Indo-Europeans

Colin Renfrew however, was not alone in defending this version of history

Greek writers of the 8th century BC, had already noticed the language and physical similarities of the peoples of the Caucasus and of the Pyrenees

That is why they called these Iberia Eastern countries as Caucasus Iberians and Western Iberians the Spanish peoples

Georgia has been for long time designated on maps as the kingdom of Iberia


Archaeologist Edward Philippon in 1909, assumed a Caucasus Iberian migration to the West at the time of the great migrations of the late Bronze Age


Archaeologists Tamaz Gamkrelidze and Vyacheslav Ivanov stated in 1984 that the Proto-Indo-European tribes of the Maikop culture lived in these territories from the southern Caucasus and northern Anatolia to find a haven


Iberian History

Their story is known by the stories of Greek and Roman writers, who confirm their Scythian origin and their huge presence in Mediterranean area

Reconstruction of the history of Iberian is difficult because they are, like the other Atlanteans peoples and peoples of the sea, city-states confederations

Depending on their size and geographical influence, these city-states have left more or less trace of their existence and relations between them


From Neolithic times, between – 4311 and – 3800, Iberians, people of the sea, settled in the current Portugal and Galicia, and then followed the coast up to the Rhone Valley where they joined the territories of Ligurians

They gradually simultaneously annexed inland along river valleys


But as evidenced by the Montelavar culture, Galicia and northern Portugal have also been attached to theim for their huge gold , lead and tin mines, essential to the manufacture of bronze

Very soon these territories were abandoned to the Kelts, ancestors of the Celts, as the profitability of these mines have declined by lower productivity and the transport costs becoming too high in comparison of Southern area mines


At the period of the nuclear wars of Yi, began a long exodus of Iberians remained in the Thar Valley up to Anatolia, then Illyria and finally arrive in their European colonies


Their colonization along the coast has been halted by the Ligurians at the Rhone valley, and they gradually pushed them back up to Valencia

These territories movements were not really warriors, as they are both people of the sea, but rather stemmed profitable arrangement for both parties

Towards the end of the 2nd millennium, their territories melted following the invasions of Phoenician populations, greek, Celtic, Roman, etc …

Then, the Iberian civilization collapsed suddenly around 1200/1100 BC


Iberian Sites

Iberians create their city-states nearby maritime and river communications and mines of gold, silver, copper, tin, and so on …

They also take into account the sources of drinking water and areas suitable for agriculture and livestock, but also easy to defend


They built up cities on high places like as top of hills and defended by stone walls and square or semi-circular towers like in Ullastret in Girona, Tivisia in Tarragona and Calaceite in Teruel

They also built larger cities which are real big cities like Sagunto, Tarragona and Numancia

Then they create outposts located in areas to exploit



The main ancient sites Iberians are:


Adra, Alcudia, Almería, Balazote, Barranco Almerin Cabezo Redondo, Calaceite, Castellar de Santisteban, Cerro de la Encina, Cerro de la Virgen, Cerro Las Viñas Coy, Cerro de los Santos, Cerro del Castillo de Lorca, Cerro del Nacimiento, Cuesta del Negro, El Hagar, El Castellón Alto Galera, El Malagón, El Oficio, El Rincón de Almendricos, Fuente Álamo, Gatas, Guainos Alto, Ifre of Mazarrón, Jaen, La Bastida de Totana, Las Angosturas, Los Cipreses Los Millares, Menorca, Motilla of Azuer, Motillas de la Mancha, Numancia, Pedriza, Peñalosa of Baños de la Encina, Puntarrón Chico Beniaján, Sagunto, Sierra Morena, Tarragona, Tivisia, Trebolar, Ullastret, Vila Nova de São Pedro , Zambujal, etc …


And also: Tartessos, as we will see in the next chapter

And many others sites not yet excavated or undiscovered



The tholoi, plural tholos, the barrows, burial mounds, tombs dome, tombelles, cistus, taulas, etc …, are in fact the same thing


They are graves covered with a roof, often with slabs, maintained by a land mass that prevents their dislocation

Erosion sometimes scours the mound and the roof collapses

These monuments have been used since the 5th millennium BC by the Atlanteans people of the valley Thar

They continued to use them in their settlements and during the Indian exodus to the north and west


Los Millares

Los Millares at 17 km from Almería is an archaeological site of the Copper Age dated to the late fourth millennium BC

The village is located near the copper mines of the Sierra de Gador


Reconstitution of Los Millares

Pintura situada en el centro de recepción de visitantes de los Millares

Photo Wikipédia CC : Jose Mª Yuste, autor de la fotografía (Tuor123) Miguel Salvatierra Cuenca, autor de la ilustración
It is an inner walled citadel, surrounded by three other walls, reinforced by semicircular towers and bastions

Los Milares is surrounded by at least 13 outer forts on the near hills and defended with walls

They were also used for the storage of cereals and others products

We find there again the nuraghi and brochs of the Sea Peoples


Inside the walls, simple dwellings around a large building in which we found traces of copper molding


Los Millares could house around 1,500 people

Ceramics discovery is varied and includes many plain or decorated items, including bowls decorated with eyes

Eyes are also represented on several stone idols

From the third millennium, they have already the campaniform ceramics, bell-shaped


The necropolis of Los Millares is of about 4 acres and contains nearly a hundred collective megalithic tombs, mostly tholoi

The tholos is a grave with a dome, covered with earth, like a tumulus

They are usually grouped in cemeteries outside the villages


Culture of Los Millares extends to Murcia, Andalusia and to the south of Portugal



Archaeological discoveries of Barranco Almerin, in the town of Adra, have been dated to the Bronze Age

Currently the site is under study and its area has been defined and implementation monitoring

What will be found will be exhibited in the Museum of Adra


The inhabitants of Adra discovered this tomb on the road to Barranco Almerin and they alerted authorities

It is the rain that dug this cavity and opened the grave

Ongoing excavations would reveal other burials

The tomb was covered with a slab

Funeral found objects are a small copper knife , a pot and some bones and ceramics

Tombs found at Trebolar and Barranco Almerin are identical to those found in Guainos Alto


The tomb of Alto Guainos was covered by six tiles

The deceased was found with a knife and a jug in bronze

At Pedriza we also found two dolmens that were reused in funeral monuments and gathering place


El Argar

The site of El Argar is dated to the Bronze Age and is located near Antas in the province of Almería

It was excavated in 1883 by Henri and Louis Siret brothers helped by the foreman Pedro Flores

They unearthed more than 1,000 graves


In the Grave 62, was unearthed a skull with a silver tiara, copper ear pendant and silver necklace in bone and serpentinite



Lorca town of Murcia in the Guadalentín Valley, has been continuously inhabited since the Neolithic era, i.e. more than 5500 years

Lorca has the largest number of archaeological sites in the region

This is due to the presence of sources and because this valley is the natural communication channel between the Valencia and Andalusia region


There are many cists, individual burials of small dimensions, like as a box

A cist consists of several stone slabs defining the space of burial

It can be delimited by low walls

The tomb is sometimes covered by one or more horizontal slabs or stones forming the mounds that covers and protects all


Castellar de Santisteban

At Castellar Santistebanon they found many terracotta statues and bronze representing riders, naked warriors, women in tight dresses and bells skirts, stylized figurines and drawn



Castulo is an ancient Iberian city located near Linares in the region of the Sierra Morena

It has been continuously inhabited since the end of the 3rd millennium BC to the 15th century when it was abandoned

This abandonment has promoted the conservation of archaeological heritage until today


Castulo was a metallurgical extraction site of copper, lead and silver

Cultural, commercial and industrial contacts are evidenced with Iberian metallurgical communities and surely El Argar


Castulo was also in contact with Tartessos , as he was probably a colony of them


Fortified hill Motillas

The buildings on this site are clearly connecting with the Anatolian bronze culture

We find the same cultural material and the same architectural type


The Lady of Elche

The Lady of Elche is the sculpture of a female bust, dated to around the 5th century BC.

It was discovered in 1897 on the Roman site of Alcudia, 2 km south of Elche, near Alicante

It is exhibited at the National Archaeological Museum of Spain in Madrid

At its discovering it was purchased by the Louvre

In 1941, the Franco repatriated it to Spain in exchange for a Velázquez portrait of Mariana of Austria and the tent of Francis the first in Pavia


This sculpture of 56 cm high has his back a spherical cavity of 18 cm diameter and 16 cm deep, to be used as an urn

It shows polychrome remains on face

Many Iberian statuettes found at other sites, have on their backs a similar cavity


It is also the subject of hard disputes:

First its dating

Then, according to an American art historian, John Moffitt, it would be a “fake”


Its dating to the late 1st millennium arranges the proponents of the Kurgan theory !

They found the statue in a Roman site, then they date it of the Roman time

Whether the Romans reused an ancient Iberian Site


But we clearly finds the sophisticated hairstyles of the Thar Valley

Mohenjo Daro and Harappa have fought many statuettes with headdresses of this style

That proves the Indian origin but also the Iberian Sea Peoples journey


DAMA DE ELCHE. Escultura ibera de piedra caliza del siglo V o IV a.C. Procedente de Elche (Alicante, España). En el Museo Arqueológico Nacional de España, en Madrid.

DAMA DE ELCHE. Escultura ibera de piedra caliza del siglo V o IV a.C. Procedente de Elche (Alicante, España). En el Museo Arqueológico Nacional de España, en Madrid.

Dama de Elche, National Archaeological Museum Madrid

Photographer Luis García, 2006

Photo Wikipedia CC: Zaqarbal,


Many Iberian statuettes having on their backs a similar cavity were found in other dated sites of the Bronze Age

This fixes the two disputes: The statue of the Lady of Elche dates from the 3rd to the 2nd millennium BC and it’s not a fake because the forger could not know in 1897 that other statuettes had the same cavity as they were not excavated and he could not compare it to the Central Asian styles


John Moffitt with its protest against the Lady of Elche, was able to acquire knowledge that he would never have had otherwise, and that in any case he did not deserve

Bashing is easy, but he never came to see the statue to prove his words despite the invitation of the Madrid museum

Meanwhile the technological knowledge has advanced and confirmed the antiquity of polychrome paintings


Technology of Iberians

Residential sites are fortified and on the heights

Houses are grouped together in enclosures bounded by walls and towers are separated by streets

It was found inside houses, fire places, tools and containers

There are also storage buildings and mill for grains as evidenced by the presence of many millstones


Tankers were supplying water to homes and buildings for livestock through a pipeline network


These important storage structures which housed most of millstones, and the concentration of an agricultural production exceeding needs of the sites show it to be extensive agriculture whose surpluses were to be exchanged


Agriculture and livestock were very developped but hunting, gathering wild plants or collecting shellfish were also charged

The crops were mainly barley, wheat, pulses and flax

They practiced fallow regularly

Livestock concerned sheep, goats, pigs, cattle and horses


We could list many of silver, gold, tin and copper mines

They mastered the metallurgy of copper and bronze

Metals were employed for the realization of weapons

It was found artisan workshops with kilns for pottery and metallurgy

Ceramic is of good quality and often standardized, especially for cups, glasses, bowls and pots

It was unearthed beautiful terracotta vases painted with floral stylized patterns, animals, geometric, or characters


The Iberians were skilled goldsmiths and many jewels were discovered: tiaras, pendants, bracelets, necklaces, belts, all in finely carved reliefs gold openwork scrolls, palms, lilies, etc …

But also silver brooches depicting characters, cups and bowls sometimes inlaid patterns of gold


Textile production mainly linen base was highly developed


The handicrafts highly standardized, were distributed in specialized sites, some in metallurgy, in other agricultural products and others in the production of textiles


The evidence of distant international trade are many, like as Baltic amber and ivory and ostrich eggs from Africa


Women in the Iberian society

The situation of women in this society is based on the caste in which she is

Some female burials are extremely full of rich objects of great value as tiaras in gold, but they had never weapons

Daggers and punches are found in numbers and are probably tools


The Iberian government

Iberian society was like other Atlantean populations led by the king of each city-state

The interdependence of the various specialized sites spread throughout the country demonstrates a complex political organization


This required an agreement and effective coordination, in addition to a strong central government

Not having found the site which could be the capital of the government, and to see that this has yet worked for several millennia, it forces us to think that this city has disappeared

And when the city disappeared, the organization could withstand time


This is proof that this city has necessarily existed, then disappeared

It can therefore only be Tartessos


Iberian language

Their language is very poorly known, but it seems it does not belong to the Indo-European group

Before the Roman occupation existed in Iberia three alphabets:

The Tartessian language southwest of Andalusia, the bastetanne or high mastienne Andalusia and the Iberian east of Spain and southern France

The Iberian language is attested in inscriptions that have not yet been deciphered


The Greeks named the peninsula Iberia

We remember that the Iberians before their arrival made stopovers in Illyria


It is certain that many traders have used their language for their written Iberian transactions

Iberian language inscriptions are present on a wide variety of materials: silver coins and bronze, lead sheets, ceramics of Attica, ceramic black varnish, painted ceramics, amphorae, steles, stone slabs, tiles etc …


Today we can read about the texts in Iberian language, but they remain largely incomprehensible

The Basque language would translate certain Iberian language texts


We cannot identify the two languages, but there are many similarities between these two languages that appear to be from the same family




money is the human predator
This entry was posted in adra, Castellar de Santisteban, castulo, cistus, el argar, Fortified hill Motillas, iberians, iberians of Caucasus, lorca, los millares, The Lady of Elche, tholoi, tholos. Bookmark the permalink.

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