EARTH IS THE AIM 6 : Exoduses and survivors Part 3 : Earth People Newly published : Chapter 2 : Arctic area

EARTH IS THE AIM 6 : Exoduses and survivors

Part 3 : Earth People

Newly published : Chapter 2 : Arctic area

 

Arctic area

Arctic means in ancient Greek: bear

Indeed, the constellations of the Great Bear and the Little Bear are located near the celestial North Pole

 

The Arctic surrounds the North Pole and includes nine countries:

Canada, the United States, Denmark and Greenland, Russia, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland

The arctic boundary is the arctic circle (latitude 66 ° 33’N) where during the solstices it gives day or night for twenty-four hours

But it is also defined by the isothermal curve of 10 ° C in July, which marks the limit beyond which trees no longer grow

Politically it also includes Lapland

 

The Arctic consists of a frozen ocean, the pack ice is surrounded by cold lands, tundra and permafrost

There are humans who have adapted to the climate and many animals such as the polar bear, polar fox, reindeer or caribou, muskox, arctic hare, lemming, walrus, The Arctic Duke, the Snowy Owl, etc.

 

The Arctic holds a major role in the physical and biological balance of the planet through its sensitivity to climate change that can alter sea currents and temperature

arctic_circle3

Arctic area peoples

The Arctic region has about 4 million inhabitants

The peoples of the Arctic region have adapted to the cold, to rare or absent vegetation, to the polar night, and despite these extreme conditions have persisted throughout the Ice Age period until today

 

Traditional culture and the ancestral way of life of the people of the Arctic evolved during the 20th century

The igloos and huts were replaced by prefabricated houses and sled dogs by snowmobiles

 

There are mainly three major groups of populations in the Arctic:

Inuit or eskimos living in northeastern Siberia, Alaska, Canada and in Greenland

The Sámi who live in the north of Scandinavia and north-west of Russia

The “Peoples of the North” of Russia, which include 43 ethnic groups living in Siberia

 

 

Arctic peoples (approximate geographic location)

Arctic region map, arctic circle and isothermal curve 10 ° C

Map from News from the Arctic: https://arctique.wordpress.com/arctique/

 

The main peoples of the Arctic are from the west to the east:

Sámas – Nénetses – Mansis – Selkoupes – Énetses – Khantys – Ketes – Nganassanes – Dolganes – Évenks – Evènes – Youkaghirs – Chuvantses – Tchouktches – Kéreks – Alioutors – Koriaks – Aleoutes – Inuits

 

They are mainly located in the Arctic Circle plus the 10 ° C isothermal curve

 

Arctic area history

Inuit myths referring to a people who lived in their lands before them

They are called Tunit or Sivullirmiut, which means: the first inhabitants

They were bigger and stronger than the Inuit

 

Even if the mythology has enlarged them, we must not forget the small size of the Inuit, for which a normal size means immediately: giant

A legend can then be constructed to be interpreted differently later

 

The origin of the Arctic peoples goes back more than 30,000 years

They are probably from eastern Asia

Remnants of these eras were found in southern Siberia, on the borders of China, Mongolia, Lake Baikal and the high valleys of Ob, Angara and Yenisei

 

The creation of land bridges during the successive Würm glaciations of – 110,000

up to about – 10,000, with a glacial maximum around – 19,000, has enabled many transfers of populations already nomadic by nature, to new lands in the hope, as always, of a better life

 

Archeologically speaking, the disturbances caused by glaciations do not lend themselves to the preservation of vestiges

On the other hand, the low population density on such an immense territory limits the possibility of the existence of important human settlements

 

In spite of everything, there have been vestiges of human occupation staggered in the time, during the Ice Age period, from – 30,000 to – 8,000

The discovered tools were attributed to Siberian Palaeo-Arctic culture

There are traces on the coasts of Japan, Hokkaido, and in North America

 

From -5,000 to -3,000, vegetation densifies

Nomadic arctic peoplesare then hunting, gathering and fishing

Shamanic rites appear at the same time as cave drawings

The culture of the Arctic peoples slightly change and grew with the arrival of new populations from the South

 

From the 17th century, the civilized populations of the south colonized the Arctic territories for the extraction of mineral wealth:

Diamonds, gold, oil, gas, oil and shale gas, and so on …

 

Arctic area mythology

Arctic peoples live in symbiosis with wind, water, plants and animals, in perfect harmony with nature and its supernatural forces

Their mythology is based on animism and framed by shamans

 

It is not the case for the population of the yukaguirs up to the sames, which as we saw in the first part of this book, merged with the populations of the Gobi valley, fleeing the wars of Yi

The mythology of these populations, from Siberia to Norway, has been enriched by these contributions

 

For other ethnic groups, from eastern Siberia to Greenland, the original mythology remained

 

However, for the whole Arctic peoples , Christianity has reshaped their mythology

 

Inuit writer Rachel Attituq Qitsualik said:

“The Inuit cosmos is not ruled by anyone. There are no maternal or paternal divine figures. There are no wind gods or creator of the Sun. There is no eternal punishment in the future, and there is no punishment for children or adults here today ”

 

The shamans

The shaman has a strong influence on the village as counselor, doctor and sorcerer

He is the intermediary between men and the supernatural

It is through trance that the shaman enters into communication with the spiritual world populated by spirits, the souls of animals and the masters of animals, which he interrogates, implores, or fights

He may request that animals be sent to the hunter for his food

He can also demand the return of the souls of humans captured by the spirits

 

Shamans are born shamans

As they grow their powers appears

Their initiation is long, solitary and arduous, as they must fight against the spirits to develop their powers before they can return home

 

The Arctic peoples believed in the existence of other worlds under the sea, within the earth and in the sky

The Polar Star is a hole allowing shamans in trance to pass through the celestial vault

They can thus visit in dreams the places that the ordinary mortals will not see only after their death

 

The spirits

The Arctic peoples believed that men, animals and things possess a spirit, which with Christianity has become a soul

These spirits are still there, even after death

 

An Inuit expression says:

“The great danger of our existence lies in the fact that our diet is entirely made up of souls. ”

So killing an animal is like killing a man

Once the spirit of the dead is liberated, it is free to take revenge

This spirit must then be appeased by the observance of customs and rituals

 

The rugged life of the Arctic makes them fear these invisible forces

A succession of events could hurt the entire community

Therefore it was necessary to implore the angry or avenging spirits to survive

 

The shaman had to advise them and remind them of rituals and obedience to taboos, in order to appease the spirits that they only could see and contact

 

Christianity among the Arctic Peoples

During the Christianization of the Arctic peoples, the word Inuit “Anirniq” took on the Christian meaning of the word “soul”

 

This has become the root of other Christian words:

“Anirnisiaq” which means “angel”

“Anirnialuk,” the great spirit, which means “God”

“Tuurngaq” became “demon”

 

The function of the shaman has been totally eradicated in the Christianized populations

 

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About DOUGLAS MOONSTONE

money is the human predator
This entry was posted in arctic, inuits, north pole peoples, sames, Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink.

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