EARTH IS THE AIM 7 , Mu and the other worlds ; Chapter 7: Evolution

EARTH IS THE AIM 7 , Mu and the other worlds

Chapter 7: Evolution


Evolution in Antiquity

Hippocrates in the 5th century BC, found a relationship between anatomy and influence of the home environment

Aristotle, in the 4th century BC, already describes an evolution of life, according to a progressive scale: Scala naturae

Galen in the 2nd century AD, urges physicians to practice dissection on monkeys because of the similarity of their anatomy with men

Carl von Linné establishes a classification of nature, Systema naturae, in which man is described as Homo Sapiens, a member of the group of anthropomorphs including chimpanzees (Homo Troglodyts) and sloths

Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck defines evolution: more complex species emerge as a function of environmental changes, according to an evolutionary process

It introduces the notions of anteriority, descent, genealogy of species and transformism


The Darwinian Theory

On July 1, 1858, two theses were presented to the Linnean Society of London:

On the Tendency of Species to Form Varieties, by Alfred Russel Wallace

From the Origin of Species, by Charles Darwin

These two theses present the theory of evolution by natural selection

Darwin in “Of the origin of the species”, explains there the mechanism of the evolution of the species

His theory is that only the best adapted species survive and reproduce

It is natural selection

According to Wallace, only natural selection leads to the evolution of species

For Darwin , it cannot explain everything and publishes “The Offspring of Man”, which adds sexual selection

He considers that monkeys are the animals closest to man and thinks that the origins of humanity has to be found in Africa


The Evolution of Darwinian Theory

The first debates on the nature of human evolution remain quarrels, because there is a lack of clearly dated human fossils to argue the discussions


The Red Lady of Paviland discovered in Wales in 1823, male skeletons discovered in 1829 in Engis in Belgium and then fossils discovered in the quarry of Forbes in Gibraltar in 1848, were subsequently identified as Neanderthals

In 1856 human bones were discovered in the Neander Valley near Düsseldorf

Johann Carl Fuhlrott defined them as ancient and primitive bones

This is the subject of great controversies because the idea that other types of men could have existed was not yet admitted

Then the discoveries succeed one another to flesh out the argumentation of the Darwinist evolution and to prove the existence and the antiquity of an human type of different morphology from that of the present man


The missing link

Beginning in 1860, Huxley, Broca and Ernst Haeckel model the evolution of the monkey to the man

Named anthropopithecus by Gabriel de Mortillet and Pithecanthropus by Haeckel, the search for the “missing link” begins


Eugène Dubois thought to discover it in 1891 in Trinil in Indonesia with the man-monkey of Java

The discovery of one of his femurs demonstrates that he must stand and walk

He baptizes it Pithecanthropus erectus, the monkey-man standing

In 1925, Raymond Dart described his “missing link” as the child of Taung, an Australopithecus africanus, discovered in Taung, South Africa

Mary and Louis discovered in 1959 their “Dear boy”, also called Mister Zinj, a Australopithecus

By applying a new technique of dating, they push back to 1.8 million years the birth of humanity, estimated until then only a few hundreds of thousands of years

In 1974 in Ethiopia, the discovery of Lucy, an Australopithecus afarensis, demonstrates that the bipedal walk dates from 3 to 4 million years


The debate on the missing link is far from closed


Way out from the waters

As we saw in the previous chapter, from amino acids to multicellular life, it is already evolution in progress

This multicellular life will give rise to the whole aquatic life, from the plankton to the most evolved fishes and in particular the tetrapods

This diversification of species occurs mainly in coastal seas where shallow depth allows photosynthesis and where it will evolve for 1 billion years


All species, whether plants, mushrooms or animals, are going to have to leave the water

It seems that the first to do it are mushrooms, followed by plants and long time after animals

As this book tells the story of man, we will mainly focus our study on the exit of water from animals


About 542 million years ago, geological events will boost this evolution by forcing many plants, mushrooms and animals, among those who have not yet done so, to get out of water to colonize the submerged lands

This exit of the waters was constrained and forced, mainly because of the glaciation of the end of the Ordovician

Marine fauna and flora have had to adapt themselves gradually to terrestrial life, which will cause the extinction of many species unable to adapt to their new environment


From extinction of species to terrestrial life


Marine genus biodiversity: Extintion intensity

Photo Wikipedia CC: Author Rursus


The extinction of the Ordovician-Silurian will cause the second largest mass extinction of the Phanerozoic, that is to say – 542 million years to the present day, with an estimate of extinction of about 85% of the cash

The most important being the Permian-Triassic which will take place about 200 million years later


It will start with peaks of extinction in – 517, – 502 and – 488, millions of years, of course

This period of extinction will continue with the glaciation of the Ordovician-Silurian, which will last about 30 million years, from – 450 to – 420 million years


This glaciation will lead to a decline of sea level, that is to say a marine regression which will cause a withdrawal of the sea over hundreds of kilometers and will also increase the freshwater environments and extend the course of the rivers to reach the seas

Then the deglaciation will lead to a rise in sea level, ie a major global marine transgression

This transgression will create an oceanic anoxic event

Anoxia is the decrease in available oxygen in the medium, which results in the lack of dioxygen in the water


This regression and then this transgression will lead to ecological disorders that will make it difficult for many species to be adapted at their new ecosystems

The marine environment will be reduced and the food will decrease

Then for those who have moved to the land and would like to return to the marine environment, this one will be shallower and less oxygenated


These major climate changes will profoundly disrupt aquatic environments and oblige species to evolve into terrestrial life

This operation will lead to the extinction of the many species that cannot evolve


From tetrapods to mammals

Tetrapoda, are vertebrate animals with two pairs of limbs and benefit from pulmonary respiration

The first tetrapods were aquatic


The appearance of aquatic tetrapods dates from about 380 million years ago

To colonize terrestrial environments, the tetrapods will develop pulmonary respiration and they will then be able to breathe directly the oxygen of the air thanks to a lung

Primitive tetrapods have a brain with two lobes and fins connected to the bony skeleton that will become legs


The first discovered fossil legs are types of paddles, adapted to movements in submerged shores and swamps

The first outflows of water from vertebrate tetrapods date from about 365 million years ago, with Ichthyostega:

“The oldest known vertebrate with adaptations for locomotion other than swimming”

Ichthyostega was able to evolve to life out of the water thanks to his lungs, his forelegs able to support his weight out of the water and his elongated ribs avoiding the crushing of his lungs by the weight of his body


From – 359 million years ago, adaptation to the terrestrial environment has improved for species that have conquered the terrestrial environment, notably thanks to four walking legs


Towards – 320 million years, the amniotic egg will appear, which thanks to its aquatic environment, will allow the development of the embryo, which previously had to be deposited in water

The quadrupeds can thus emancipate themselves from the aquatic environment


Towards – 315 million years, Hylonomus lyelli is the first reptile identified laying amniotic eggs

From that time on, reptiles will give birth to crocodilians, birds, dinosaurs, turtles, lizards, snakes, mammals, etc.

The current tetrapods are amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals


The mammals

Mammalian reptiles appeared about 250 million years ago

They are the origin of mammals

The earliest known fossils date from the Triassic period, about 220 million years ago


Mammals, or Mammalia, are vertebrate animals

Their main feature is the breastfeeding of newborns

As their digestive system is not functional at birth, breast milk is their vital and obligatory source of food


The first mammals had a terrestrial way of life, but during their diversification, some branches evolved differently

The bats acquired beating and echolocation

Others, such as seals, polar bears, beavers, hippos, otters, amphibian voles, platypus, etc., have developed a partial aquatic lifestyle

Others like cetaceans, sirenians, etc., have returned to a total aquatic way of life


Mammals are all homeothermic, I.E. they are endowed with an organism that keeps them constant body temperature independently of the external environment

Most of them are endothermic, that means that heat is produced by the body itself


Some species are able to survive a long time at low temperatures in a seasonal lethargic state such as hibernation

Some species are not able to regulate their temperature at birth, so it is the parents who have to provide their thermoregulation until their autonomy


Most mammals communicate by cries, odors and pheromons, but also by posture and mimicry such as aggression, bending their heads in sympathy, or putting their tails between their legs in a sign of fear and Submission, etc …


From mammals to primates

Excerpts from the list of subclasses and orders of mammals according to ITIS and Mammal Species of the World, in its 2005 edition, revised in 2007:


Subclass: Theria


Infra-class: Eutheria



Afrosoricida: gilded moles, tenrecs, limnogales, microgales

Carnivora: caniforms (wolves, bears, ferrets, seals …) and felids (cats, hyenas, civets …)

Cetartiodactyla: cetaceans, ruminants, pigs, camels

Chiroptera: bat

Cingulata: armadillos (21 species)

Dermoptera: colugos (2 species)

Erinaceomorpha: hedgehogs

Hyracoidea: damans (4 species)

Lagomorpha: hares, rabbit, pika

Macroscelidea: sengis or trunk shrews

Perissodactyla: equines, rhinoceros, tapirs

Pholidota: pangolins (7 species)

Pilosa: anteaters, lazy

Primates: primates

Proboscidea: elephants

Rodentia: rodents

Scandentia: ptilocerques, toupayes

Sirenia: dugongs, manatees

Soricomorpha: moles, shrews, solenodons

Tubulidentata: oryctéropes


From primates to Hominids

Primates diverged from other mammals about 85 million years ago

Primates are divided into two groups:

The Strepsirrhines

The Haplorrhinians


The Haplorrhinians are divided into two groups:

The Tarsiiformes

The Simiiformes


The Simiiformes are divided into two groups:

The Platypins, the Apes of the New World

The Catarhinists, the monkeys of the Old World

The earliest known Simiiforms appeared in Asia, including Burma, Thailand and China, about 50 to 45 million years ago


The Catarrhines or monkeys of the old world are split into two


The superfamily of Cercopithecoids, or monkeys with tails

The superfamily of Hominoids, or monkeys without a tail


The superfamily of Hominoids consists of two families:

The Hylobatidaes , which includes gibbons

The Hominids


The Hominids

Hominids are divided into two families:

The families of Ponginaes , which includes orangs outans

The family of Homoninaes

The hominids are believed to originate from Africa, but the discovery in Catalonia of a hominid fossil indicates that their dispersion could certainly be more extensive


The family of Homoninaes is divided into two families:

The Gorillinis which includes gorillas

The Homininis

The bipedalism appeared with the Homininis


The family of Homininis is divided into two families:

The Panins which includes chimpanzees and bonobos

The Hominins

The first bipedal hominini would be Sahelanthropus tchadensis or Orrorin tugenensis

They are probably the last common ancestors between chimpanzees and humans


The family of Hominins is divided into two families:

The Australopithecines

The Homos




money is the human predator
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