Part 1: The people of the Gobi , Chapter 3: The Nenets

Nenets summer camp …
Earth is the aim 6 , Exoduses and survivors

Part 5: The people of the Gobi

Chapter 3: The Nenets


Nenets and yukaguirs

Whether or yukaguirs the Nenets, I want to clarify that I am not talking about ethnic today, but native populations Gobi around – 2500 When these people have had to flee the valley of the Gobi, they are scattered in the vast northern They are simultaneously mixed with Inuit Their culture has advanced that it is their culture that prevailed, even if it is enriched plots animist cult Inuit
And this has continued since that time until today So that today very few remaining legends and original ethnic Nenets or yukaguirs current does little to resemble those of that time But also because it remains that their territories are kindly let them: the north north too inhospitable … Although … Today everything is called into question their territories are rich in oil, gas and other natural …


The Nenets

Nenets means: man The Nenets, Samoyed people of Russia, living near the Arctic Circle Is their traditional reindeer herding and fishing They are nomads The house is traditional Nenets tchoum: a conical tent of reindeer skin, as Indian tepee
The population is estimated at about 41,302 people at the last census in 2002, for a current territory of about 600,000 square kilometers, an area larger than France Their original territory was five times larger: about 3,000,000 km ² … The social structure of society is clan-like Nenets

Nenets language

The Nenets language is a Uralic language group Samoyed, as enètse the selkup and nganassan There are two main dialects: the Nenets and Forest Nenets tundra of       During the Soviet era, the Nenets were Russified and a whole generation has not used his native language Despite the preponderance of Russian, the Nenets is again used It is taught again in schools and reindeer herders use Nenets languages ​​are spoken today by more than 27,000 people

History of the Nenets

Historians agree that 3000 years before Christ, the Nenets were detached from the population group of Finno-Ugric language to migrate northward and eastward They came from the Gobi Valley after crossing the mountains of the Altai Sayan Mountains and, as did the enetses the Sayan-ostiakses and ketses They are integrated ienisseïennes populations, Inuit of Altai

They left many traces, monuments and objects in their path, which date back to the Bronze Age, thus demonstrating their advanced culture Scientists say that the iron was unknown to them, but because they did not find any iron objects Iron objects have a shelf life of 2 to 3000 years … Should be exceptional conditions for conservation of the order of 5000 years
They excelled in the work of bronze, silver and gold, much more difficult and complicated to produce and work as iron Jewelery and objects found show a great artistic sense, and their fields covering large areas, irrigation systems had Many mounds, ovens and other archaeological evidence of dense occupation in southern Siberia at this time

Religion of the Nenets

The religion of the Nenets is a mixture of their original beliefs of extraterrestrial gods and animistic beliefs of the Inuit
Noumea, god of the sky and storms, reigns over the seven heavens of the tundra He saw farther than the moon, the sun, the stars Although we recognize the address of the celestial emperor édeniste Nga’s brother, Noumea, is the god of death and disease He reigns over the seven sub-soil of the earth Looks like the sacred tree Ygdrasil The universe is vertical All that is good comes from above, all that is bad comes from below ground
Their animist beliefs consider that any element of earth is animated by a spirit man must seek to establish harmonious relations with the surrounding elements, not to harm them and their willingness to reconcile them with offerings The earth is alive In spring, when the grass appears, the Nenets say that the earth is revived In the autumn, when the grass yellows, earth dies The Nenets are forbidden to plant anything in the ground for fear of disturbing the gods of the earth
Remarkable landscapes: hills, hillocks, rivers, lakes, seas, islands, especially if they have large rocks are sacred places All lakes and large islands are sacred Each of these places of worship has its legend
All religious and cultural heritage is seriously threatened by oil and gas, and many holy places have been destroyed


The shaman is highly respected in the Nenets as in yukaguirs He is the mediator between the spirit world and the earthly world If a man is ill, it is a spirit attacked To appease the shaman must contact the responsible attitude and convince them to abandon their evil actions In his bag, it retains its magical objects: tambourine, bells, mask, magic stones and especially the stick, wand of our legends
The shaman must not make himself a stick They make them for each other Stick with a length of 120 cm, is covered with snake skin or silk At the top of the stick, we set a metal figurine mind bolo mala as a bearded old man It is the spirit of the master shaman stick that shows the way Basically, we set a knife is fashioned iron or a bulge The stick symbolizes the horse or deer With the horse, the shaman went into the worlds below and deer in the worlds above
The shaman is the living memory of the history of the Nenets he transmits to his clan singing legends fireside


Nenets legends

There are many stories and legends Nenets, but unfortunately we have no texts to offer, making the transmission is orally
There are tales of animals, where all the characters are animals, tales of deities or spirits that affect human life, tales of giants, witches or other extraordinary characters, storytelling straddles the world of the dead and the living
Legends are historical narratives that have been or could have happened The legends explain the origins of things or people They are also warnings They tell the story of the clans

The Legend of Sikhirtias

This is a documentary film 1993 Russian Andrei Golovnev Sikhirtias evokes the legend of a population that date according to the archaeological remains found in the tundra of Siberia to the west, before installing the nomadic Nenets
Film Synopsis translated by Helen Fara:
“The Sikhirtias small legendary people are considered the predecessors of the tundra énètses They hunted wild reindeer, and were commercial whaling and walrus
The Sikhirtias live forever, but underground They belong to the world of the dead They only appear at night or in fog They wear metallic clothes and move on dogs or Mamontov, reindeer land They have white eyes, they are blind Sometimes they come to see the living, but only at night or in fog They leave in their wake metallic objects When the shaman calls the fire by his crackling, warned of their coming Then the shaman enters into a relationship with the realm of the dead and the spirit N’ga Sometimes people say they met and they talked about their
These are very similar to Sikhirtias Dropa, the little men legends of the white island in the Gobi Valley …


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Part 1: The people of the Gobi , Chapter 2: Yukagirs

A couple youkaguir …


Earth is the aim 6 , Exoduses and survivors

Part 5: The people of the Gobi

Chapter 2: Yukagirs

The exodus

Chiyou wars and Yi, lasted from – 2650 – 2350, about …

The Tocharian massacred villagers édenistes Gobi

As long conflict, this exodus of many generations

One by one, ethnicities covered by the ground war and hungry for the destruction of nuclear weapons and air had to leave this valley became a hell Gobi

Geographically, there were not many options for the leak: to the east, Tocharian, west édénistes other to the south, the Altai Mountains, it remains that the North: Siberia

Tell the order in which ethnic groups are parts occupy a new territory is not really known, so we will simply describe the movement of people from east to west

The Yukagirs

The Yukagirs, ethnicity édeniste Valley Gobi, went into exile in Yakutia, Sakha Republic today, is part of Siberia

There are about 4500 years, they occupied the eastern Siberian Yenisey River to the Kolyma River

They apparently well integrated with the Inuit people, the first inhabitants of this region, they have improved the lifestyle of nomadic seminomadic

The Inuit were nomadic hunters of wild reindeer

The Yukagirs brought them their technical mastery and reindeer herding

In winter, they settled in houses half-buried, covered with earth and snow

This new population has since undergone many new invasions, and the current populations of the region are from only a very small percentage of its first occupants

Language Yukagir

Their language is related to Finno-Ugric languages, at least what’s left …

Indeed, the Yukagirs as their language, are endangered

There would be a little less than 200 Yukagirs over 4 million km ² …

It is quite normal when you consider the mixtures more or less forced population as diverse since more than 4000 years


The Finno-Ugric languages ​​are so called by modern linguists of the 18th and 19th century

It is common roots and languages ​​of different Indo-European languages, Altaic, Turkish, Semitic or other

These languages ​​mainly spoken in Finland and two sides of the Urals, are still in use today


But what attracts the world in Siberia?

Until the 19th century, immigrants are mostly from being coerced, forced off their land by war

From the 20th century, immigrants came and forced labor by the Soviet government or misery, to exploit the immense potential mining and energy in this region

Siberia, an area of ​​13.1 million square kilometers, or about 24 times the size of France, has a population of 39 million or about 3 per km ²

It extends from the Urals in the west to the Pacific Ocean to the east, and the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Altai Mountains in southern

The climate is cold and continental, low relief is crossed by huge rivers

Siberia is rich in oil and natural gas

It represents 25% of world diamond production

There are also deposits of virtually all metals due to the lack of ice cover during the Quaternary: gold, silver, lead, molybdenum, zinc, etc …

Inuit mythology

Inuit mythology is animistic and shamanistic

It has neither gods nor cosmogony

It therefore relates to the earth, the elements, animals and spirits, including those of the deceased ancestors

It is of course directly related to their harsh environment

Current Inuit have adapted Christianity to their traditional beliefs

The creation of the Inuit world

In the beginning, there was a man and a woman

The woman asked Kaila, spirit of heaven, to populate the earth

He sent a hole in the ice to fish

Women then left the hole, one by one, all the animals

Caribou was the last

Kaila said that the caribou was his gift, the best he can do as he would feed his people

Caribou multiplied and the son could hunt, eat her flesh, clothing and tents make his skin

The son of the woman always chose the big fat caribou

One day, he remained only the weak and sick whose Inuit would not

The woman then complained to Kaila, who sent on ice to dig a hole

She fished the wolf, sent by Amarok, spirit wolf, for he eats the weak and sick animals

Thus according to Inuit mythology, the caribou feeds the wolf, but the wolf that keeps the caribou healthy

The shaman

The shaman is the intermediary between man and nature spirits

He is the wise, counselor, healer and seer

To assert his will he wears ornaments ritual

It communicates with the spirit world by ceremonies and trances

The secret of his powers is protected to guarantee him his high status in the community

The shamans of Siberia

Siberian shamans are very powerful as they travel between worlds climbing in the world tree or flying

Siberian shamans have a cosmogonic mythology

Shamanism was born at the same time that the world

The first shaman was the son of the sky god

He would come to earth in the form of an eagle

This gift of shamanism it is too difficult to bear, he returned to évenque

This woman was then sent this gift to her husband Buryat

The cult of the sacred eagle is widespread among all Siberian shamans

Eagle feathers adorned the hats of traditional shamans of Tuva

On Olkhon Island, lives in the head of 13 inhabitants of heaven

There is the sacred mount Jima, peaking at 1274 meters, where shamans live in the northern leaders called the blond-headed eagle


Morgon-Kara, Buryat shaman of the Baikal region, has the power to bring the dead back to life

The lord of the dead was very angry against men because they complained upstairs, the god of the sky, the death of one of their

The sky god had locked the soul of this man in a bottle

With its magical tambourine, Morgon-Kara went to the world of spirits and found the man’s soul trapped in the bottle

He then turned wasp stung and the sky god in front

The god of the sky was so surprised that he freed the soul trapped in a false move

The shaman could then bring man on earth

Siberian legends

Siberians are the people on the ground like in the middle of a series of three, five or seven worlds, stacked one above the other

Worlds above belong to the good gods and spirits and those below to bad gods and spirits

A shaft connects these worlds as the tree Yggdrasil

One of the legends of creation of the earth tells us that the gods and Chagan Shukuty Otshirvani descended from heaven and found the land covered by water

Otshirvani and Chagan-Shukuty a frog sitting on a turtle pushed repeatedly to the bottom, which dropped a little mud whenever the shell

When the gods have piled enough mud on the back of the turtle, it sank, leaving the earth to the surface of the water

Otshirvani also took the form of a giant bird that fought a great evil serpent called Losy

But to live on the earth, he had to destroy the sun and moons that have made the world too hot and too cold

The hero who will fight called the god of the sea, which melts the iron kettle to make iron arrows

The heroes used to draw on the sun and the moon

The hero could then follow a golden bird to the world tree

The bird changed after many forms, has become a woman, wanted to marry the hero

Another legend speaks of a great Siberian flood and a hero who saved his family

The creator god Ulgen told a man named Nama to build a boat

In the boat, Nama is accompanied by his wife and his three son, other people and many animals

The boat has all the saved from the flood and they could live on the land once it was dry Years later, when Nama was close to his death, his wife told him that if he had killed all animals and people he had saved in his boat, he would become king of the dead in the afterlife

The son of Nama argued that the killing was a sin, then Nama killed his wife and son took the righteous to heaven, where he became a star constellation

Siberian mythology

Siberian mythology speaks of a world where humans and animals and respect each other, where the animals had souls and could change shape

Mythologies of Siberia are derived from the beliefs and myths of a number of different peoples mixed with animist and shamanic bases Inuit

We find the tree Yggdrasil, the Norse legends, that is to say Atlanteans, probably transmitted by kelts, Tocharian allies in the wars of Gobi, and whose presence is attested by triskells found in this area

It is also possible that they were sent by the Vanir and Aesir when contacting people who migrated to northern Norway and have returned to Siberia

Gods and Chagan Shukuty Otshirvani are from the Japanese Kojiki, that is to say Atlantean

Transmission could be in the wars of the Gobi where the Atlanteans were allies of japan Tocharian or by subsequent Japanese invasion

The adaptation of the legends of Yi and the 10 suns clearly designates the enemy are the Atlanteans who attack with their suns

The Yukagirs are indeed a people édeniste Valley Gobi and war is well described as a nuclear first too hot, then too cold …

The legend of the flood and Noah, here called Nama, it confirms that it is a nation of origin édeniste

What is interesting in this story is the death of Noah who went to heaven, accompanied by his son to become a constellation: one must understand that they have been frozen for back into space

These are the same stories we content aborigines we describe the technology gods for their eyes

As soon as the stories of the Bible legends, compiled – 700 to + 358, we reach populations by unpolluted by Christianity, we obtain versions closer to reality gods: that is to say, consistent with Technology of the gods …

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Part 1: The people of the Gobi , Chapter 1: The Valley of the Gobi

Duns of the Gobi desert


Earth is the aim 6 , Exoduses and survivors

Part 5: The people of the Gobi

Chapter 1: The Valley of the Gobi

The Gobi Desert
The Gobi Desert is the largest desert in Asia (see Part 3, Chapters 4 and 5)
It is bounded by the Altai Mountains, the steppes of Mongolia, the Tibetan Plateau and the northern plain, along the Great Wall of China
The Gobi extends about 1600 km from southwest to northeast and 800 km from north to south, covering an area of ​​approximately 1.3 million square kilometers, more than 2 ½ times the size of France!
The Gobi Desert is growing by more than 10 000 km ² per year …

The average altitude of over 1000 m, causing scorching summers and freezing winters, a mean temperature difference of about 90 ° C between the two seasons
In the canyon Yollin Am, you can see blocks of ice in July

The amount of radioactivity in the Gobi Desert, according to Western technicians from the measure, is 50 times higher than normal, or 82 ms / year …

Valley of the Gobi
But it has not always been a desert …
Before accusing a radioactivity level of 82 ms / year, it was an immense fertile territory of nearly 1.3 million square kilometers, inhabited by people édenistes

Legends speak of the displaced population of an earthly paradise before being driven out by fighting saucers Yi, spreading terror and desolation, and burning of entire regions
These legends also tell the hail of fire to the villages suffered by many passages of dragons and giant crows from the belly of these saucers …

Before édenistes, the kingdom of heaven, take the measure of nuisance caused by the Atlanteans, the damage was considerable and have forced people to flee
Yet another exodus …

The wars of the Gobi
They are narrated in Chinese legend, Huangdi and Nu Ba-cons Chiyou, and wars of Yi, winner of 10 suns …
See Book I, Part 4, Chapters 9 and 15 …
It was these nuclear wars that transformed the vast fertile territory of nearly 1.3 million square kilometers in one of the largest desert of the earth …
The wars of the Gobi Valley took place at about – 2650 to – 2350 BC

Chiyou wanting to invade – 2650 the territory of Huangdi, the celestial emperor, it triggered a terrible war
The protagonists have used weapons technology as effective as destructive burned everything
The fertile valleys have become an arid desert
And it was not finished …

After the victory of Huangdi, a peace treaty was concluded, but quickly ignored by Atlantean
Towards – 2350, war resumed the Gobi …
The Atlanteans then pulled out the stops: the heavily armed spaceships in nuclear …

Huang Yi then handed a red bow and a quiver of ten white arrows
Yi took his bow and banda
The arrow went off like a shooting star
A violent explosion reverberated in the sky, the sun hit by the arrow Yi, turned into a fireball and fell
Each time a sun was touched, he fell in a black raven to 3 feet
He destroyed the nine suns and who terrorized the region

But this new nuclear war has wiped out permanently, and for thousands of years, the fertile valleys of the Gobi …

Legends of the wars of the Gobi
Legends of Chiyou and Yi are not only interesting in the details of these nuclear wars authorities, but also because they tell good history of this region at this time

Found in populations of Atlantis, the same legends, views across …
We also find, in the legends of displaced populations, the history of terror suffered during successive invasion of Atlantis

It seems well established that these legends have told so many facts that actually occurred about 4500 years ago …

The exodus
In all cases, mass exoduses of populations that occurred at that time are a reality!
We recover all these ethnic groups in new geographic territories, at that time
And this is the story of these ethnic groups, we will study in later chapters

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Part 4: The Indo-European , Chapter 33: The Semites

Amarna letter, written in Akkadian cuneiform, from the royal archives of Pharaoh Amenhotep III …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 33: The Semites

The Semites

The term Semite creates many and ardent polemicsIt does however mean that:Descendants of Shem, son of NoahNoah was 500 years when he had ShemNoah was 600 years old when the flood occurredShem is born around – 5000 BCFor over 7000 years, it has been about 300 generations …And much mixity …This means that virtually the whole earth is SemiticThe argument also applies to any ethnic group living in – 5000 …Ethnographically speaking Semitic does not say so …

Semitic languages

When we speak of Semitic languages, the definition is much clearer:The Semitic languages ​​are a group of languages ​​spoken in antiquity in the Middle East, the Middle East and North AfricaAs regards languages, the first concept to note is that a language is a living languageMan being particularly lazy, he will always go to the easierIn the fourth millennium BC, in the geographical area concerned, there were two kinds of writing: cuneiform and SemiticThe wedge is less convenient, the people of the region have gradually adopted the Semitic writingWe have seen in previous chapters, this region was the fourth to the first millennium BC, the region most commercially developedIt was therefore vital to have the same writing and same language, or at least toeasily understandThus, little by little, writing became common SemiticLanguages ​​have acquired many related terms, making them more understandableWe have the same problem today with words of various origins: English, German, Arabic, Russian, etc. …This is what makes a language is aliveBut this is not because the French and English speaking Franglais a long way from Shakespeare and Molière that the English have become French, or vice versa …

Hebrew and Jewish

We have demonstrated in the first part of this book are the Hattis who broke into Amorite and AramaicThe Aramaic of the tribe of Abraham became HebrewAbraham was the inventor of religion to his tribe and since the Hebrews became JewsThe term now refers to a Jewish person of Jewish religion, which must be added the geographical nationality of the person

The Arabs

Arabs are mostly Indo-Europeans, Sumerians, Egyptians and Canaanites, as we have shown in previous chaptersFew tribes can be of Hebrew origin: one derived from Aramaic and AmoriteHowever, we can add in reserves from the tribes of IshmaelBut across the Arab world, from Turkey to Pakistan, the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt to Morocco, and Sudan, this represents only a small percentage of human contribution in any mix this enormous areaAnyway, Ishmael, is neither Jewish nor Hebrew: it is EgyptianIshmael is the son of Abraham, Jewish, and Hagar, Egyptian princess enslaved by the HebrewsBut among Jews, Jewishness, or another source is transmitted only by the mother and the mother is Egyptian …And Hagar as a wife gives to his son Ishmael: an Egyptian!

Diversity and population displacement

It is worth recalling the pattern of population movements during this period:The Nubians of Sudan, édenistes, were integrated by the Egyptian, Atlantean, and mostly pushed eastward, that is to say, North Africa and CanaanThe Canaanites were pushed north by the Hebrews, édenistes, and became PhoenicianThe Hattis, Amorite and Aramaic, édenistes, were pushed southward and are integrated with populations Sumerian and Indo-European, Scythian and Aryan AtlanteanExcept for the Hebrew of Abraham who became Jews who left the region to Egypt and CanaanAll this mixing of populations over several millennia has created a mix undeniableSo now we can for these people, talk about nationalities, even for minority groups, but not ethnicity

The Semitic peoples

The Semites do not exist!The German philologist August Ludwig von Schlözer the late 19th century, coined the term Semitic, from Shem, son of Noah, to designate the peoples of the Middle East who speak similar languagesThis pejorative designation, following the Essay on the Inequality of Human Races in 1855 by Joseph Arthur de Gobineau, will be immediately approved by the Western world, because it will justify colonialism …

The Indo-European

It is this spirit that will influence and guide the archaeological and linguistic 19th and 20th century to crown the Kurgan Theory of Marija Gimbutas in 1956: it’s not that India is the origin of Indo -European, it is the Europeans who are the source of India!The history, legends, archeology and even linguistics, prove otherwise:They are the Scythian and Aryan, falsely called Indo-Europeans, who came from India to Europe of kelts

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Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 32: Sites of the ancient kingdom of Sheba

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 32: Sites of the ancient kingdom of Sheba

Published June 27, 2012

Petra, the rose carved wall …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 32: Sites of the ancient kingdom of Sheba


Aden is a natural port, built on an old volcanic site, used since ancient times The legend says that human occupation dating back to the flood and that Cain and Abel are buried The pre-Islamic civilizations, kingdoms or Himyarite Sabean had to build port facilities and watchtowers, but it remains no trace The strategic position of the port, between India and Europe since ancient times in fact a place of significant trade


The oasis of Aflaj is 312 km southeast of Al-Riyadh The site of Al-Ayoun is composed of the remains of a large city, dated the 3rd millennium BC Been found there graves, mounds and large quantities of pottery remains The site also includes a system of irrigation canals Al-Baidatain It is a rocky outcrop on which are engraved with inscriptions and petroglyphs Talmudic representing animals An ancient settlement site is located at the base of the hill Al-Bujadiyyah This is a site located about 68 km west of Ad-Dawadmi Several mounds and remains of tombs have inscriptions Talmudic There were found numerous fragments of pottery and iron slag It is thought that this was a mine site of the Neolithic


The excavations in the region of Zabid in Tihama, have discovered the megalithic site of al-Midamman which occupies an area of ​​over 8 sq. km Under a menhir, 15 objects were found in copper and bronze dating from the 5th to the 3rd millennium BC


Amman, the city of 19 hills, was called Rabbath-Ammon in ancient times The site of the earliest fortifications found the ruins from the Neolithic to the Hellenistic period It is a city of the Incense Route


Aqaba or Eilat, has been inhabited since 4000 BC. , Due to its strategic location at the crossroads of trade routes between Asia, Africa and Europe It was an Edomite city before becoming Nabataean The Bible mentions the place: “King Solomon also built ships at Ezion Geber, near Elath in Edom country, bordering the Red Sea” South of Amman the white begins the road of kings, dating back over 5,000 years, ranging from the Red Sea to Aqaba port It is believed today that the Port of Leuce Come described by the Greek geographer Strabo is Aqaba, for all his account corresponds exactly to the city of Elath, including the early kings of the road He tells us that the fees charged by Elath were a quarter of goods!

Dumat Al-Jandal

Dumat Al-Jandal is an ancient city northwest of Saudi Arabia, in the province of Al Jawf The name al-Jandal Dumat literally means “Duma stone” because it was the territory of Duma, a son of Ishmael twelve The Akkadian name of the city was Adummatu The age of ruins is attested by the fact that the city had an Akkadian name and it was the city state Duma

Cave of Burma

In this cave 66 km north of Al-Riyadh, many petroglyphs are carved on the rocks They are dated to ~ 2400 before J.C.


The Nabatean city of Hegra Madâin Salih or Madain Saleh, 400 km from Medina, is at the crossroads between the Arabian Peninsula, Syria, Jordan and Mesopotamia The oasis was located on the caravan route linking Petra in southern Arabia, the Incense Route As Petra, the Nabatean have built over the remains of the city Tokharian, there are over two thousand years, 138 monumental tombs Construction methods were the same: the builders from the top of the facade, destroying after each stage of building the platform carved into the sandstone It was a town of about fifty acres surrounded by an earthen rampart She was surrounded by farmland equipped with an ingenious irrigation system through a network of wells


Ubar, current name, also called Wabar, Irem, Iram, Iram dhat al-`Imad or the city of a thousand pillars, is a lost city of the Arabian Peninsula Iram is mentioned in ancient writings and oral tradition as an important city of the desert of Rub ‘al Khali, south of the Arabian Peninsula Is estimated to have existed from -3000 BC to first century The Quran says Iram was built by the tribe of ʿ ad, great-grand-child of Noah It was a rich and decadent city, whose inhabitants, polytheists, practiced the occult Its king, Shaddad, refused to take the warnings of the prophet Hud God then destroyed the city by burying under the sand with a roaring and furious The legend became history after it was translated the Ebla tablets which explicitly mention the name of Iram The photos of the Persian Gulf by the Space Shuttle Columbia is clear footsteps of several destroyed towns along the incense route between the years – 2800 and + 100 To the east of Oman, in the province of Dhofar, Ubar was identified as Iram Ubar was accidentally discovered by a team that searched the ruins of Fort Shis’r 16th century Under the fort, they find it the remains of the Atlantis of the Sands Ubar was not the name of the city, but that of the region Legend has used the name of the region to designate the city of Iram

Jebel Braqa

This hill about 70k m north of Al-Bujadiyyah is a site of many tombs and remains of an ancient city in the Neolithic A circle of standing stones makes this remarkable

Jebel Jidran

The necropolis of Jebel includes more than 1,500 graves and is similar to Jebel Ruwaik In the necropolis was uncovered many ceramic jars and pots as well as nearly a thousand beads of carnelian, granite, bone, clay, soapstone, bone and shell, as in Jebel Ruwaik Dating and uses have also given the same results: the beginning of the third millennium BC to the early second millennium

Jebel Khanuqa

There is a cave dating back several thousand years and in which there are many petroglyphs and inscriptions

Jebel Ruwaik

The dating of the graves date back to the construction of towers early third millennium BC and confirm occupation of the cemetery until the early second millennium There are over 3000 graves in this cemetery The furniture that accompanies the dead is rare, the widespread looting of In the cemetery of Jebel Ruwaik we uncovered many ceramic jars and pots as well as nearly a thousand beads of carnelian, granite, bone, clay, soapstone, bone and shell In one of the tombs a bronze awl was unearthed The presence of metal objects in the early 3rd millennium BC. AD in this region is not common, but not exceptional The small number of beads readily available materials such as clay or bone, and a taste for the exotic or precious materials such as shells or carnelian indicate that the builders of these towers graves were richer than the remains Archaeological can show it This architecture has endured for nearly 1500 years and gradually disappeared at the turn of the second millennium BC. AD In the first millennium BC. BC, men have reused these graves towers to bury their dead


After Petra Hegra, Jerash is an ancient Jordanian city occupied for over 6500 years Hidden under the sand for centuries before being excavated and restored over 70 years, Jerash is a city in northern Incense Route connecting Petra in Tyre


Jubbah is located in the region of Hail, 350 km north of Riyadh The town was built there over 7000 years. Jubbah, Sakaka and Al-‘Ula petroglyph sites are the most famous of Saudi Arabia A Jubbah the first drawings and inscriptions carved on rocks dating from 5,500 years ago and ranged up to 2000 years BC At that time Jubbah was near a lake inside The drawings reveal a fauna composed of ibex, oryx, antelope from Arabia and Pets Human representations tell us about their lifestyle: hunting, herding and agriculture


This megalithic site dated to the first third millennium BC. AD Monumental buildings were superimposed on these sites for reuse The organization of the site reflects a sustainable activity and a diversified business Analysis of ornaments and other objects discovered is being

Khawlan al-Tiyâl

The site has Tiyâl Khawlan al-identified data to determine the Bronze Age and Neolithic in the Arabian Peninsula through ceramics and lithic remains In this site the domestication of animals has been demonstrated through the bones of bison, cattle, goats and domestic sheep The dating site we confirm a pastoral economy based on cattle breeding between the sixth and the fourth millennium BC


Mecca was already an ancient religious capital In fact, Mecca is a choke point: what is the point of the region’s water … The gods that are worshiped are Hubal and his three daughters al-Lat, Al-Uzza and Manat The people of the region and to the nearby major city of Yathrib, to make a pilgrimage, during which there was a truce of four months The Ka’aba was a simple primitive stone enclosure, surrounding the black meteorite, sacred stone embedded in the current Ka’aba, located near the spring of Zamzam, which saved Ishmael, the baby of Hagar and Abraham The neighbors had brought them the statues of their gods With the advent of Islam, the Kaaba contained more than 360 statues of deities

Mahram Balquis

4 km from Mairb, the Mahram Balquis, Awwam temple is a temple dedicated to Lord Almaqah, god of the Moon It is oval-shaped The major axis is 84 meters, the minor axis of 82.1 meters, a width of 3.90 meters, wall height of 9 meters At 10 meters from the entrance, we see eight monumental pillars Online The dating site is not certain, but certainly before the second millennium BC


The capital of the kingdom of Sheba is the city of Marib It is located near the Yemeni capital Sana’a Marib was built in the early third millennium BC Marib at the time consisted of approximately 20 000 inhabitants The location of Marib, on the left bank of the valley of Dhana, which flows into the desert Saihad, has controlled the trade route of incense Marib was surrounded by a stone wall with three gates, north, west and south-east It is believed that the current village was built on the ruins of the palace Sabean In the old town, there are four temples, two in the north and one in the southern part of the huge stone columns near the palace are the fourth temple. A Marib was built around 1500 BC, a dam 580 meters long to four meters high, and that irrigated land can meet the needs of 50,000 people It was rebuilt several times in 350 BC to 550 AD to irrigate an area estimated at over 72 km ²


This is an ancient seaport on the Red Sea coast in the vicinity of the current Mocha or Mokka, birthplace of coffee, but most likely imported from Ethiopia According to the journey of the Erythraean Sea, Muza is on the road of Arsinoe / Cléopatris: Suez This is the first port safely on the Arabian coast, over 1000 nautical miles south of leuke Kome: Aqaba Muza was the capital of the province of Mafar Muza maintained close trade relations with Africa and India Muza controlled Azania, on the coast of Ajan, on behalf of the Sabeans


Discoveries at the site of Beidha, a few kilometers from Petra, have demonstrated the existence of sedentary facilities dating from 10,000 to around 1000 BC Petra has been built by the Tocharian and after their collapse in the middle of the second millennium, the Nabatean replaced them to control the Incense Route The capital of the kingdom of Sheba, Marib was replaced by Petra, the new capital of the Incense Route, conquered by the Nabatean The Nabataeans were a nomadic warrior tribe of Arabia, plundering the caravans crossing the kingdom of Sheba In the first millennium BC, they took control of trade routes and took Petra as the capital They developed this town while they were away, intentionally or unintentionally, in the footsteps of their predecessors Then the city declined against the might of Rome, which annexed the region in 106 AD

Qariya al Faw

Qariya al Faw located about 700 kilometers south of the city of Riyadh, in the Wadi Ad-Dawasir, is located on the crossing of Wadi Ad-Dawasir and mountain Tuwaiq The excavations at Al-Faw Qariya testified a significant presence from the Neolithic In fact the development of the city has been constant since it was conveniently placed on the ancient trade route Gerha-Najran The archaeological site contains houses, warehouses, streets, temples, tombs and an important market The market consists of three floors with seven towers in the corners of the market and three in the middle The only entry was a small door into a small square The irrigation system and canals of the site are very well preserved It was the capital of Kindah, kingdom of the late first millennium BC, which developed after the destruction of the Marib dam which caused the fall of the kingdom of Sheba The Kindah was one of three provinces of the kingdom of Sheba who was able to take its independence


The site of Rawk, in Hadramawt, in the Wadi ‘Idim, which has a megalithic standing stones remain 2 It is a walled enclosure of rectangular monoliths upright, rounded on top Inside, stone benches are backed against the wall The remains of the site is approximately 5 meters long and 1 meter wide They consist of five standing stones, P1 to P5, and four slabs stacked two by two, D1 to D4 The rescue excavation showed that it was a monumental it lacks the west The ages determined in the sixth millennium occupation and the erection of the monument took place between 3499 and 3198 BC To the west of the standing stone P4, D3 under the slab, was discovered a fragment of metal folded 11.6 x 7.58 mm Standing stones, limestone cold light gray, are oriented north-south This rock comes off the cliffs surrounding the form of blocks of thickness 20 to 40 cm The upper part of standing stones is the result of a size The lower portions of standing stones are thinned The tiles are hard limestone creamy white with dark gray tasks These rocks are on the tops of cliffs The slab dimensions are almost all identical They were wedged at the same level close to 2 mm All tiles have their rounded On some faces are visible reddish cast, probably iron oxide, reflecting the use of metal tools

As a result of erosion caused by flooding of a river, the inhabitants of Rawk 5 anthropomorphic statuettes discovered at the foot of standing stones The discovery of other statues in several Yemeni websites to over 400 kilometers from Rawk, meaning they are not unique to the people of Wadi ‘Idim It seems that the 04 statuette, carved in a rock alien, was imported and copied locally In Yemen, ten statuettes of this type have been discovered They were unearthed in illegal excavations, work planning or pickups surface They were assigned to the 3rd millennium BCE, because of their similarity with the statuette from Wadi Sulay’h which was found on the surface of a settlement site of the Bronze Age


This temple of the god of the moon date in the second millennium BC The eastern part of the temple is still standing It has a semicircular shape and a height of 7 m He stands a stone column The west wall was connected to 4 columns There is a central table, altar, surrounded by stone seats There is also a tower 10 meters high and the ruins of another temple


Shabwa, capital of the kingdom of Hadramawt, located on the incense route, the start of the second millennium The city was built of brick raw Numerous tower houses, over 130 in the area west of the city, two to four levels, were perched on stone bases, types of raised foundations, ensuring the stability of the building in the soft ground The royal castle of Shabwa, consists of a central tower house and a building surrounding a courtyard The floors were constructed of wood, and was found about 300 beams, often in good condition, with their joints and sometimes their décor The royal palace, Shaqir, is known by coins in his name The deities represented in Shabwa are Athtar, chief god, Shams, the sun goddess, Almaqah, god of agriculture and irrigation


Tayma, also called Tema, Teema, Tiamat, Teymeite, an oasis located northwest of Saudi Arabia 400 km north of Medina, on the Incense Route Recent archaeological discoveries show that Tayma has been inhabited since the Bronze Age The second millennium BC, there was built a wall of earth and sandstone about 10 feet high and a length of 15 km, surrounding an area of ​​about 20 hectares, for achieve an oasis of palm trees His strength is impressive even in the 11th century Arab historian Abu Abdullah al-Bakri Exterior walls of the tombs found within the oasis include wooden decorations and ivory shaped flowers, dating from the late second millennium BC Cuneiform inscriptions acquaint us a divine triad Salm, and Ashima Sengalla Salm, the sun god, Sengalla, god of the moon and Ashima, symbolized by Venus It was discovered in the area, a rock with an inscription of the Egyptian pharaoh Ramses III The hieroglyphic inscription on Saudi soil suggests that Tayma was a stage town on the road linking the Red Sea and the Nile Valley Assyrian inscriptions of the eighth century BC, mention the oasis town of Tiamat, thriving city, rich in beautiful buildings and wells Tiglath Pileser III, king of Assyria, reports receiving a tribute of Tayma Sennacherib named one of the gates of Nineveh: the door of the desert, for the gifts of ‘Sumu’anite Teymeite and enter through it The city is quite rich and proud, in the seventh century BC, that Jeremiah prophesied against her: Jeremiah 25:23

Throne Balquis

The throne of Bilquis, Bar’an the temple, al-Amaid, is devoted to Almaqah, god of the Moon It is square with an open courtyard with a holy well and a pond fed by water from the mouth of a bull We must climb 12 stairs to the hall, the sacred chamber, which has in front of the west wall of marble seats He remains standing 5 columns, each of 17.350 tons, 12 m high and 80 × 60 cm thick The temple is surrounded by a brick wall with towers The construction of this temple has undergone two phases: The first phase began during the second millennium BC The second phase took place during the 4th century AD


As Yathrib, also known as Yathrib, Medina or Madina, was an important market town and its inhabitants were making annual pilgrimages to the temples of Manat at Mecca, chief god of both cities This was an important city on the Incense Route

Sites of the ancient kingdom of Sheba

The list of sites of the ancient kingdom of Sheba is far to be closed … Most sites have summers buried under the sand or covered by subsequent occupation When they have not only been re-used or cannibalized … We can say that the Arabian Peninsula was a country teeming with activity and filled at least 10 times more than today This was the obligatory passage of goods between Africa, India, Middle East and Europe This population could live through technology Tocharian: irrigation, agriculture, animal husbandry, metallurgy, etc. … Tocharian and when collapsed, the Nabataeans transformed themselves from looters and wreckers, road manager in market … A caravan had a choice between the inner road and the sea route The inland route was safer but more expensive! The earliest stories we learn that each checkpoint levied a tax of one quarter of goods … This explains the attempts to save the steps despite the dangers The sea route was cheaper, but far more dangerous There are only two crossing points and thus taxes only 2 points: Aden and Aqaba The sea route, Saudi side, is extremely dangerous for its coral and wreckers who lit lanterns to lure ships on the shoals to the plunder As soon as we moved away from the coast of Arabia, we had to deal with African pirates … Yep, nothing has changed today … A maritime expedition tells qu’arrivée in Aqaba, from Aden, she had lost three quarters of its ships from pirates, wreckers and the perils of the sea! A tax of one quarter of goods means a complex and centralized administration But also a police and army But also a communication network between cities But also an agriculture that can feed all these people … We know that Tocharian used wells, rivers, lakes and dams, to form an efficient irrigation system, efficient and reliable

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Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 31: The kingdoms of Arabia, Sheba

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 31: The kingdoms of Arabia, Sheba

Published June 26, 2012

The terraced fields, agricultural tradition of the kingdom of Sheba, since time immemorial …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 31: The kingdoms of Arabia, Saba

The kingdom of Sheba

It is clear that the kingdoms of Dilmun and Magan consist of city-states, which are actually counters the valley of the Thar, the Marhashi, from Elam, the Sumerians, the Scythian and Aryan, he is also clear that the kingdom of Sheba, west of Arabia, was founded by Tocharian The proof is that it is mainly in the realm of the Arabian Peninsula found most of petroglyphs and megalithic constructions that characterize them, although the presence of established communities tokhariennes is also within certain cities -states of Magan and Dilmun The Kingdom of Sheba includes the southwest and west of the Arabian Peninsula From 3000 BC, there are idols of bronze in the sites of villages that were already practicing irrigated agriculture With this irrigation, they already got the double harvest year on the terraces of the mountains Archaeologists recognize in this kingdom, at the age of bronze, important social groups, structurally complex, and interconnected with the rest of the world Atlantean They practiced farming, developed and manufactured a ceramic mastered metallurgy It recognizes both the technology Tokharian, petroglyphs and megaliths in this kingdom

Megalithic sites in Saudi

The megalithic Saudi occupy the land from the west of Oman and Yemen, western Saudi Arabia to Sinai and Jordan, Syria and Lebanon They have been dated from the beginning of the third millennium BC, thanks to painted jars imported from Mesopotamia The high circular tombs, tumuli and sets of standing stones are ordered similar construction throughout Saudi, confirming a structured and homogeneous civilization Their location is generally as follows: The tombs are circular on high plateaus, along cliff The tumuli are perched on the hills The standing stones are at the foot of jebels, high hills or mountains The trilithons are located in the wadis, plains of rivers that can be seasonally dry The many megalithic sites dating from the Bronze Age located along the Incense Route, prove permanent contacts across the Arabian Peninsula

From the Ramlat Dahm  to Ramlat Sab’atayn

The Ramlat Dahm and Ramlat Sab’atayn, located north of Yemen, are dotted with megalithic tombs The necropolis of jabal Ruwaik, the wadi Nushur, circular tombs Surla high road Sana’a-Sa’ada, the site Mawr near Saada, the sites of the road to Sanaa Sa’ada, Sana’a to Marib and Mu, the tumuli of jabal Ruwaik the mound to the plate Sayyun Mukalla, etc. … There are many high circular tombs, called in Arabic: dirm But also standing stones, tumuli and cists: small dolmens, standing stones sites, of trilithons, tombs walls, kind of big walls in two walls, between which is a burial chamber box-shaped, of rectangular tombs with one or two standing stones to the east of the tomb, tombs square, funeral chains formed by rectangular boxes and rows of standing stones of more than one hundred meters These structures are of very large dimensions The mapping of high circular tombs revealed the strategic position of these cemeteries: along trails through the desert that connect to Shabwa Jaw They are dated the 3rd and 2nd millennium BC This further confirms the commercial links between Lebanon, Yemen and Oman


In the plains of Dhamar, to over 2000 meters, there are standing stones and dolmens, and a covered walkway to 8 feet long by seven horizontal slabs covered the middle one missing A city with its water reclamation system is large tanks, a testament to the technology and wealth of the region


In the plain of Tihama was discovered 126 sites of 30 km2 These are mostly cluster shells and mounds of broken pottery The shells are composed of clusters remains of shells Terebralia palustris, a mangrove snail, mainly used as bait and as feedstock for the manufacture of lime Many bones of horses and Caprinae, proves the practice of farming There are also bits of pottery and fragments of bronze The mass shells are dated 7th millennium and ceramic shards and bones of the third millennium BC C. There are the standing stones of Hamili But also several stone alignments of more than a kilometer, 1 to 3 meters high, perfectly tapered at the foot of Jabal al-Mahandar North of the city of Zabid, there is still a site of standing stones The excavation of the front of a monolith unearthed two copper plates, two ax heads, two points of spears, dating from 2500 BC C. Ceramic, copper, bronze, livestock, megaliths, it is the technology of Tocharian!

Mahra and Dhofar

The Mahra in Yemen and Dhofar in Oman, form a narrow coastal strip of about 40 km south of the Arabian Peninsula Have been discovered many trilithons along the wadis But also tumuli on the road that connects to Sayhut Qishn This region also revealed cysts or small dolmens and standing stones The most distinctive landmark is the site of al-Mahdi In Mahra and Dhofar, many are prepared trilithons The remains of pottery that are found can be dated to the megaliths of the third and second millennium BC

Wadi Was’sha

In the Wadi Wa’sha, funerary remains and traces of habitat surveys are dated from the late fourth millennium to the mid third millennium BC Tombs have been found circular towers, tombs wall, mounds, cists and dolmens The megaliths are trapezoidal form structures and include alignments trilithons One of the most important site trilithons, listed HDOR 592, has over fourteen alignments that span over 300 m long Small circular structures associated with these alignments The orientation of the alignment follows that of the bed of the Wadi

Wadi Rum

Wadi Rum or Wadi Ramm is located south of the Arabah, Jordan There are many canyons, natural arches, cliffs and caves Drawings, inscriptions and archaeological evidence of 12,000 years of human occupation It is listed more than 25,000 petroglyphs and more than 20,000 entries that can trace the beginnings of alphabetic writing


Hadramawt is mentioned in the Book of Genesis and its capital is Shabwa Shabwa, with its 10 m high mound would be before the middle of the second millennium In the Hadramawt there are traces of earlier occupation in the second millennium, but its ancient history is totally unknown to us today Its history is known from various foreign sources, but only from the seventh century BC, long after the Tocharian have established the kingdom of Sheba The inhabitants of Hadramawt practiced irrigated agriculture, built houses and palaces of brick, manufactured ceramics red slip Other ancient cities of the region show the same culture and have one or more palaces Many towns dotted along the coast of the Indian Ocean and Red Sea, and along overland trade routes, including Habban, Naqab al-Hajar al-Bina, Bir Ali


Dadan, Dedan, or Dedanim, designates a people of Idumea or Arabia, according to Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, the 7th and 6th century BC They believe that people lived in Saudi desert the dédanites were traders who had trafficked with Tyre was considerable They came by caravan to bring in ivory, ebony and beautiful covers horses, products undoubtedly foreign to their country, but they received from more distant nations through the various ports of Arabia Isaiah threatened invasion of Saudi, and asserted that trade which was the richness of these populations, and among others those of Dedan, will be annihilated Barbie du Bocage, founder in 1821 of the Geographical Society, Dedan place in the Persian Gulf, in one of the islands of Bahrain For him, Idumea is in Africa, in a country where the eastern boundary does not exceed the 34th degree of longitude Thus we find traces of ancient texts which asserted that the kingdom of Sheba was located on the east coast of Africa and on the west coast of Saudi This territorial coverage matches the Tocharian

Road of Kings

Route of Kings is a passage along 335 kilometers which connects Amman to Aqaba It is bordered on both sides of a rich chain of archaeological sites with prehistoric settlements of the Stone Age, biblical towns of the kingdoms of Ammon, Moab and Edom, Crusader castles, some of the finest early Christian Byzantine mosaics from the Middle east, a Roman fortress Herodian, several Nabatean temples, two major Roman fortresses, ancient Islamic cities and the Nabatean capital carved into the rock, Petra Mentioned in the bible, kings of the road was the one that Moses wanted to borrow to take his people north through the region of Edom In Genesis 14, an alliance of “four kings of the North” led his troops on the road to do battle against the five kings of the cities of the plain, including the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah These statements prove the antiquity of this road of kings, small part of the Incense Route

The Incense Route

The Incense Route connected Egypt to Saudi and India It was created in the early 3rd millennium BC The Aryan Valley Thar sent incense to the ports of Arabia and Egypt: Cane, and Muza Aden in the south and Berenice, Philotera, Myos Hormos, Leuce Kome and Aila in the north. The incense which arrived in the ports of Arabia was then sent by caravan to Petra in the desert, where he transited to Gaza and Damascus Ports of Egypt, he was transported to Alexandria via Coptos The incense route was also used in international trade of myrrh, Indian spices, ebony, silk, rare woods, feathers, skins, etc. …   Several towns were founded in the oases along the road, including Saba and Iram In the Negev desert, were founded the cities of Avdat, Haluza, Mamshit and Shivta We built this city on the road, sophisticated irrigation systems

History of the kingdom of Sheba

There are over 5000 years, archaeological excavations in the Arabian Peninsula, have demonstrated the existence of links with the civilizations of the Levant, Mesopotamia and India These are the Tocharian who founded the kingdom of Sheba The reconstruction of the route of the old roads showed that the cities were founded on the banks of one of the many tracks Fakra caravans The largest of these ancient roads left Aden crossing the Hijaz and Asir to the north, then the watering and feeding of Mecca, to continue northward It is along these old roads, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Sinai, Lebanon, Syria, more than 10,000 sets of funerary architecture common This funerary architecture is not a particularity: it is recognized throughout the peninsula and into the Levant The proven presence of agriculture, irrigation, livestock, ceramics, metallurgy, petroglyphs and megaliths at the time of the Neolithic, corresponds to a kingdom Tocharian After the wars of Yi and the collapse of Aryan and Tocharian, the Nabatean inherited the secrets of the trade routes in and took control The city of Petra became their capital instead of Marib

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Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 30: The kingdoms of Arabia, Magan

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 30: The kingdoms of Arabia, Magan

Published June 25, 2012

The tower-tombs at the foot of Jebel Misht near the site of Umm Nar year …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 30: The kingdoms of Arabia, Magan

The kingdom of Magan

Magan or Makkan, the southern kingdom of the Arabian Peninsula, Oman is now Colony Sumerian tablets tell us that much of their wealth to reach the colony: copper, timber, gold, silver, etc. … Military expeditions may be needed to stop the desire for independence counters The son of Sargon, Man-Ishtushu, may well bring back the stone blocks Naram-Sin will also be imposed by a war party But it will also take technical aids such as road construction by Urnammu of Ur around 2100 BC Sumer, Ur, Akkad, were the patrons of Magan in the 3rd millennium BC It should not be excluded that some city-states were ruled by Tocharian and by Aryan Valley Thar The remains of petroglyphs and megalithic monuments are there to attest

Umm an-Nar

Umm-an-Nar, near Abu Dhabi, was a port counter Sumerian around 2500 BC Have been found pottery imported from all over the Middle East and weight of the system used by the Sumerians Tablets dating from about 2000 BC, we show that exchange of copper exported, we got to Magan textiles, barley, sesame oil, etc. … Umm an-Nar-réexpédiait by these products to the caravan oasis within There were found many fragments of bitumen caulking reed boats The boats of this type were known under the name of Magan boats The texts mention cargo of twelve tons of copper and shipped in Sumer, which gives an idea of ​​the size of vessels


The oasis of Al Ain, Abu Dhabi, home to the site of Hili In most oases, modern cities have grown in the same place, thus destroying the ancient traces In Al Ain, the city developed near Hili, which has preserved the site The site of Hili reflects the prosperity experienced by the Magan early in the third millennium BC, through its international trade, mainly between the middle east and the valley of Thar Hili is a city of Bronze Age circular containing graves, wells, residential buildings, towers, palaces and administrative buildings Hili has a Aflaj of a sophisticated system of irrigation of the Bronze Age Agriculture and livestock are highly developed They grow all year round, thanks to irrigation, the date palm, wheat, barley, sorghum and legumes Were bred cows, donkeys, camels, goats and sheep Around 3100-2700 BC, the tombs in stone cairn had settled on hills overlooking the oasis The necropolis of Hili is remarkable for its monumental circular graves with sculpted walls They date from the period known as Umm an-Nar, from 2 500 to 2 000 BC We discovered a mass grave inviolate body of nearly 700 The grave was intact: Sumerian vases, lapis lazuli Scythian Elamite pottery, and objects of local manufacture Ade’s grave Hili North the tombs of Umm an-Nar-type are similar habitats and become monumental, even megalithic tomb like this A Hili North In addition, the number of burials there is increasing significantly, up to several hundred at the end of the third millennium. Aya is found vases from Bactria of Scythians Nde Hili tomb has already delivered more than 300 pottery, stone vessels and objects of bronze and numerous items of adornment

Samad al-Shan

Samad al-Shan is located in the central part of Oman in the near Al-Sharqiyah Maysar 260 graves have been found in the Bronze Age to the Iron Age The grave is mostly made of pottery and jewelry from local and imported, as in other cemeteries in Saudi


At Selme Ibri, we uncovered many vases and copper weapons and jewelry, bracelets and other decorative objects, reminiscent of Scythian tombs 508 metal objects and 82 stone, plus ceramic containers, make up the contents of the hidden tomb The dates indicate the age of the grave as the third millennium BC

Tell Abraq

The site of Tell Abraq was occupied from the third to first millennium BC The hill about 1 acres peaks at about 10 meters On the site, there was also a tower of 40 meters in diameter Tell Abraq is at a strategic point between Mesopotamia, Elam and the valley of the Thar Found there Harappan weights, pottery Barbar, two cylinder seals, fragments of soapstone vessels, etc. … One of the graves of six meters in diameter, has been dated between 2200 and 2000 BC, at the time of the third empire of Ur There were the remains of 413 people in the grave It found tools of copper and linen fabrics The ruins of Qalhat, 25 km north-west of Sur, are prominent Situated on a terrace high above-the present day village. The site is still Imposing, enclosed Within Clearly recognisable defensive walls.


In Qatar, before oil, the population was farming and fishing, especially of the pearl oyster With oil, Danish archaeologists came and discovered numerous mounds and quantity of prehistoric tools They emerge from oblivion several mounds on the peninsula Abruq Then the English update to Da’asa Al-Obeid pottery fragments, that is to say, Mesopotamian origin and dating from the 5th millennium French archaeologists have found thousands of mounds of shells of sea snails crushed These snails produce a brilliant red dye prized noble Babylonians The dye house is older than those in Lebanon. Many petroglyphs have been discovered in the Jebel They are mostly boats, some of which are characteristic of the Neolithic

Jebel Jassassiyeh

The rocky ridge of Jebel Jassassiyeh is famous for its rock carvings They date the Bronze Age, but their significance is unknown There are many sculptures in the shape of an eye It is perhaps an eye, or a boat, or an insect, or something else In any case it is indeed a sign Tocharian Nobody would think of materializing the same sign carved into the rock in large quantities without a valid reason This technique was already Tokharian developed at length throughout the third second part of this book and I invite you to refer to them


Dubai, in the 7th millennium BC, was a mangrove swamp The mangrove was covered by sand years ago 5000 There are few objects exhumed from the Bronze Age

Ra’s al-Hamra

In Ras al-Hamra, Muscat, was unearthed graves, tombs high circular, dated the 3rd millennium BC These graves indicate the existence of funeral rites and discovered there Harappan pottery fragments This proves the contacts with the cities of Muscat Valley Thar

Ras Al Hadd

Excavations at Ras Al Hadd have revealed many archaeological sites: villages and burial sites It has updated many remains as the first Omani ship and the oldest incense burner from the Arabian Peninsula The many objects discovered confirm the trade with oases of the interior and the kingdoms of Mesopotamia, India, Africa and China

Archaeology in Oman and the UAE

As in Saudi Arabia, are recent archaeological research But given the strategic importance of the region, there remains a large number of sites to visit and search For the first discoveries have confirmed the appearance of a large agriculture through irrigation techniques soon – 3200 BC, as well as regular contact with all major and Atlantean civilizations of the time Today with our modern means of investigation, but also with our spirit of respect for things of the past, we are able to read our past The work to be done is huge, but  promising very good results

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