Part 4: The Indo-European , Chapter 33: The Semites

Amarna letter, written in Akkadian cuneiform, from the royal archives of Pharaoh Amenhotep III …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 33: The Semites

The Semites

The term Semite creates many and ardent polemicsIt does however mean that:Descendants of Shem, son of NoahNoah was 500 years when he had ShemNoah was 600 years old when the flood occurredShem is born around – 5000 BCFor over 7000 years, it has been about 300 generations …And much mixity …This means that virtually the whole earth is SemiticThe argument also applies to any ethnic group living in – 5000 …Ethnographically speaking Semitic does not say so …

Semitic languages

When we speak of Semitic languages, the definition is much clearer:The Semitic languages ​​are a group of languages ​​spoken in antiquity in the Middle East, the Middle East and North AfricaAs regards languages, the first concept to note is that a language is a living languageMan being particularly lazy, he will always go to the easierIn the fourth millennium BC, in the geographical area concerned, there were two kinds of writing: cuneiform and SemiticThe wedge is less convenient, the people of the region have gradually adopted the Semitic writingWe have seen in previous chapters, this region was the fourth to the first millennium BC, the region most commercially developedIt was therefore vital to have the same writing and same language, or at least toeasily understandThus, little by little, writing became common SemiticLanguages ​​have acquired many related terms, making them more understandableWe have the same problem today with words of various origins: English, German, Arabic, Russian, etc. …This is what makes a language is aliveBut this is not because the French and English speaking Franglais a long way from Shakespeare and Molière that the English have become French, or vice versa …

Hebrew and Jewish

We have demonstrated in the first part of this book are the Hattis who broke into Amorite and AramaicThe Aramaic of the tribe of Abraham became HebrewAbraham was the inventor of religion to his tribe and since the Hebrews became JewsThe term now refers to a Jewish person of Jewish religion, which must be added the geographical nationality of the person

The Arabs

Arabs are mostly Indo-Europeans, Sumerians, Egyptians and Canaanites, as we have shown in previous chaptersFew tribes can be of Hebrew origin: one derived from Aramaic and AmoriteHowever, we can add in reserves from the tribes of IshmaelBut across the Arab world, from Turkey to Pakistan, the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt to Morocco, and Sudan, this represents only a small percentage of human contribution in any mix this enormous areaAnyway, Ishmael, is neither Jewish nor Hebrew: it is EgyptianIshmael is the son of Abraham, Jewish, and Hagar, Egyptian princess enslaved by the HebrewsBut among Jews, Jewishness, or another source is transmitted only by the mother and the mother is Egyptian …And Hagar as a wife gives to his son Ishmael: an Egyptian!

Diversity and population displacement

It is worth recalling the pattern of population movements during this period:The Nubians of Sudan, édenistes, were integrated by the Egyptian, Atlantean, and mostly pushed eastward, that is to say, North Africa and CanaanThe Canaanites were pushed north by the Hebrews, édenistes, and became PhoenicianThe Hattis, Amorite and Aramaic, édenistes, were pushed southward and are integrated with populations Sumerian and Indo-European, Scythian and Aryan AtlanteanExcept for the Hebrew of Abraham who became Jews who left the region to Egypt and CanaanAll this mixing of populations over several millennia has created a mix undeniableSo now we can for these people, talk about nationalities, even for minority groups, but not ethnicity

The Semitic peoples

The Semites do not exist!The German philologist August Ludwig von Schlözer the late 19th century, coined the term Semitic, from Shem, son of Noah, to designate the peoples of the Middle East who speak similar languagesThis pejorative designation, following the Essay on the Inequality of Human Races in 1855 by Joseph Arthur de Gobineau, will be immediately approved by the Western world, because it will justify colonialism …

The Indo-European

It is this spirit that will influence and guide the archaeological and linguistic 19th and 20th century to crown the Kurgan Theory of Marija Gimbutas in 1956: it’s not that India is the origin of Indo -European, it is the Europeans who are the source of India!The history, legends, archeology and even linguistics, prove otherwise:They are the Scythian and Aryan, falsely called Indo-Europeans, who came from India to Europe of kelts

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Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 32: Sites of the ancient kingdom of Sheba

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 32: Sites of the ancient kingdom of Sheba

Published June 27, 2012

Petra, the rose carved wall …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 32: Sites of the ancient kingdom of Sheba


Aden is a natural port, built on an old volcanic site, used since ancient times The legend says that human occupation dating back to the flood and that Cain and Abel are buried The pre-Islamic civilizations, kingdoms or Himyarite Sabean had to build port facilities and watchtowers, but it remains no trace The strategic position of the port, between India and Europe since ancient times in fact a place of significant trade


The oasis of Aflaj is 312 km southeast of Al-Riyadh The site of Al-Ayoun is composed of the remains of a large city, dated the 3rd millennium BC Been found there graves, mounds and large quantities of pottery remains The site also includes a system of irrigation canals Al-Baidatain It is a rocky outcrop on which are engraved with inscriptions and petroglyphs Talmudic representing animals An ancient settlement site is located at the base of the hill Al-Bujadiyyah This is a site located about 68 km west of Ad-Dawadmi Several mounds and remains of tombs have inscriptions Talmudic There were found numerous fragments of pottery and iron slag It is thought that this was a mine site of the Neolithic


The excavations in the region of Zabid in Tihama, have discovered the megalithic site of al-Midamman which occupies an area of ​​over 8 sq. km Under a menhir, 15 objects were found in copper and bronze dating from the 5th to the 3rd millennium BC


Amman, the city of 19 hills, was called Rabbath-Ammon in ancient times The site of the earliest fortifications found the ruins from the Neolithic to the Hellenistic period It is a city of the Incense Route


Aqaba or Eilat, has been inhabited since 4000 BC. , Due to its strategic location at the crossroads of trade routes between Asia, Africa and Europe It was an Edomite city before becoming Nabataean The Bible mentions the place: “King Solomon also built ships at Ezion Geber, near Elath in Edom country, bordering the Red Sea” South of Amman the white begins the road of kings, dating back over 5,000 years, ranging from the Red Sea to Aqaba port It is believed today that the Port of Leuce Come described by the Greek geographer Strabo is Aqaba, for all his account corresponds exactly to the city of Elath, including the early kings of the road He tells us that the fees charged by Elath were a quarter of goods!

Dumat Al-Jandal

Dumat Al-Jandal is an ancient city northwest of Saudi Arabia, in the province of Al Jawf The name al-Jandal Dumat literally means “Duma stone” because it was the territory of Duma, a son of Ishmael twelve The Akkadian name of the city was Adummatu The age of ruins is attested by the fact that the city had an Akkadian name and it was the city state Duma

Cave of Burma

In this cave 66 km north of Al-Riyadh, many petroglyphs are carved on the rocks They are dated to ~ 2400 before J.C.


The Nabatean city of Hegra Madâin Salih or Madain Saleh, 400 km from Medina, is at the crossroads between the Arabian Peninsula, Syria, Jordan and Mesopotamia The oasis was located on the caravan route linking Petra in southern Arabia, the Incense Route As Petra, the Nabatean have built over the remains of the city Tokharian, there are over two thousand years, 138 monumental tombs Construction methods were the same: the builders from the top of the facade, destroying after each stage of building the platform carved into the sandstone It was a town of about fifty acres surrounded by an earthen rampart She was surrounded by farmland equipped with an ingenious irrigation system through a network of wells


Ubar, current name, also called Wabar, Irem, Iram, Iram dhat al-`Imad or the city of a thousand pillars, is a lost city of the Arabian Peninsula Iram is mentioned in ancient writings and oral tradition as an important city of the desert of Rub ‘al Khali, south of the Arabian Peninsula Is estimated to have existed from -3000 BC to first century The Quran says Iram was built by the tribe of ʿ ad, great-grand-child of Noah It was a rich and decadent city, whose inhabitants, polytheists, practiced the occult Its king, Shaddad, refused to take the warnings of the prophet Hud God then destroyed the city by burying under the sand with a roaring and furious The legend became history after it was translated the Ebla tablets which explicitly mention the name of Iram The photos of the Persian Gulf by the Space Shuttle Columbia is clear footsteps of several destroyed towns along the incense route between the years – 2800 and + 100 To the east of Oman, in the province of Dhofar, Ubar was identified as Iram Ubar was accidentally discovered by a team that searched the ruins of Fort Shis’r 16th century Under the fort, they find it the remains of the Atlantis of the Sands Ubar was not the name of the city, but that of the region Legend has used the name of the region to designate the city of Iram

Jebel Braqa

This hill about 70k m north of Al-Bujadiyyah is a site of many tombs and remains of an ancient city in the Neolithic A circle of standing stones makes this remarkable

Jebel Jidran

The necropolis of Jebel includes more than 1,500 graves and is similar to Jebel Ruwaik In the necropolis was uncovered many ceramic jars and pots as well as nearly a thousand beads of carnelian, granite, bone, clay, soapstone, bone and shell, as in Jebel Ruwaik Dating and uses have also given the same results: the beginning of the third millennium BC to the early second millennium

Jebel Khanuqa

There is a cave dating back several thousand years and in which there are many petroglyphs and inscriptions

Jebel Ruwaik

The dating of the graves date back to the construction of towers early third millennium BC and confirm occupation of the cemetery until the early second millennium There are over 3000 graves in this cemetery The furniture that accompanies the dead is rare, the widespread looting of In the cemetery of Jebel Ruwaik we uncovered many ceramic jars and pots as well as nearly a thousand beads of carnelian, granite, bone, clay, soapstone, bone and shell In one of the tombs a bronze awl was unearthed The presence of metal objects in the early 3rd millennium BC. AD in this region is not common, but not exceptional The small number of beads readily available materials such as clay or bone, and a taste for the exotic or precious materials such as shells or carnelian indicate that the builders of these towers graves were richer than the remains Archaeological can show it This architecture has endured for nearly 1500 years and gradually disappeared at the turn of the second millennium BC. AD In the first millennium BC. BC, men have reused these graves towers to bury their dead


After Petra Hegra, Jerash is an ancient Jordanian city occupied for over 6500 years Hidden under the sand for centuries before being excavated and restored over 70 years, Jerash is a city in northern Incense Route connecting Petra in Tyre


Jubbah is located in the region of Hail, 350 km north of Riyadh The town was built there over 7000 years. Jubbah, Sakaka and Al-‘Ula petroglyph sites are the most famous of Saudi Arabia A Jubbah the first drawings and inscriptions carved on rocks dating from 5,500 years ago and ranged up to 2000 years BC At that time Jubbah was near a lake inside The drawings reveal a fauna composed of ibex, oryx, antelope from Arabia and Pets Human representations tell us about their lifestyle: hunting, herding and agriculture


This megalithic site dated to the first third millennium BC. AD Monumental buildings were superimposed on these sites for reuse The organization of the site reflects a sustainable activity and a diversified business Analysis of ornaments and other objects discovered is being

Khawlan al-Tiyâl

The site has Tiyâl Khawlan al-identified data to determine the Bronze Age and Neolithic in the Arabian Peninsula through ceramics and lithic remains In this site the domestication of animals has been demonstrated through the bones of bison, cattle, goats and domestic sheep The dating site we confirm a pastoral economy based on cattle breeding between the sixth and the fourth millennium BC


Mecca was already an ancient religious capital In fact, Mecca is a choke point: what is the point of the region’s water … The gods that are worshiped are Hubal and his three daughters al-Lat, Al-Uzza and Manat The people of the region and to the nearby major city of Yathrib, to make a pilgrimage, during which there was a truce of four months The Ka’aba was a simple primitive stone enclosure, surrounding the black meteorite, sacred stone embedded in the current Ka’aba, located near the spring of Zamzam, which saved Ishmael, the baby of Hagar and Abraham The neighbors had brought them the statues of their gods With the advent of Islam, the Kaaba contained more than 360 statues of deities

Mahram Balquis

4 km from Mairb, the Mahram Balquis, Awwam temple is a temple dedicated to Lord Almaqah, god of the Moon It is oval-shaped The major axis is 84 meters, the minor axis of 82.1 meters, a width of 3.90 meters, wall height of 9 meters At 10 meters from the entrance, we see eight monumental pillars Online The dating site is not certain, but certainly before the second millennium BC


The capital of the kingdom of Sheba is the city of Marib It is located near the Yemeni capital Sana’a Marib was built in the early third millennium BC Marib at the time consisted of approximately 20 000 inhabitants The location of Marib, on the left bank of the valley of Dhana, which flows into the desert Saihad, has controlled the trade route of incense Marib was surrounded by a stone wall with three gates, north, west and south-east It is believed that the current village was built on the ruins of the palace Sabean In the old town, there are four temples, two in the north and one in the southern part of the huge stone columns near the palace are the fourth temple. A Marib was built around 1500 BC, a dam 580 meters long to four meters high, and that irrigated land can meet the needs of 50,000 people It was rebuilt several times in 350 BC to 550 AD to irrigate an area estimated at over 72 km ²


This is an ancient seaport on the Red Sea coast in the vicinity of the current Mocha or Mokka, birthplace of coffee, but most likely imported from Ethiopia According to the journey of the Erythraean Sea, Muza is on the road of Arsinoe / Cléopatris: Suez This is the first port safely on the Arabian coast, over 1000 nautical miles south of leuke Kome: Aqaba Muza was the capital of the province of Mafar Muza maintained close trade relations with Africa and India Muza controlled Azania, on the coast of Ajan, on behalf of the Sabeans


Discoveries at the site of Beidha, a few kilometers from Petra, have demonstrated the existence of sedentary facilities dating from 10,000 to around 1000 BC Petra has been built by the Tocharian and after their collapse in the middle of the second millennium, the Nabatean replaced them to control the Incense Route The capital of the kingdom of Sheba, Marib was replaced by Petra, the new capital of the Incense Route, conquered by the Nabatean The Nabataeans were a nomadic warrior tribe of Arabia, plundering the caravans crossing the kingdom of Sheba In the first millennium BC, they took control of trade routes and took Petra as the capital They developed this town while they were away, intentionally or unintentionally, in the footsteps of their predecessors Then the city declined against the might of Rome, which annexed the region in 106 AD

Qariya al Faw

Qariya al Faw located about 700 kilometers south of the city of Riyadh, in the Wadi Ad-Dawasir, is located on the crossing of Wadi Ad-Dawasir and mountain Tuwaiq The excavations at Al-Faw Qariya testified a significant presence from the Neolithic In fact the development of the city has been constant since it was conveniently placed on the ancient trade route Gerha-Najran The archaeological site contains houses, warehouses, streets, temples, tombs and an important market The market consists of three floors with seven towers in the corners of the market and three in the middle The only entry was a small door into a small square The irrigation system and canals of the site are very well preserved It was the capital of Kindah, kingdom of the late first millennium BC, which developed after the destruction of the Marib dam which caused the fall of the kingdom of Sheba The Kindah was one of three provinces of the kingdom of Sheba who was able to take its independence


The site of Rawk, in Hadramawt, in the Wadi ‘Idim, which has a megalithic standing stones remain 2 It is a walled enclosure of rectangular monoliths upright, rounded on top Inside, stone benches are backed against the wall The remains of the site is approximately 5 meters long and 1 meter wide They consist of five standing stones, P1 to P5, and four slabs stacked two by two, D1 to D4 The rescue excavation showed that it was a monumental it lacks the west The ages determined in the sixth millennium occupation and the erection of the monument took place between 3499 and 3198 BC To the west of the standing stone P4, D3 under the slab, was discovered a fragment of metal folded 11.6 x 7.58 mm Standing stones, limestone cold light gray, are oriented north-south This rock comes off the cliffs surrounding the form of blocks of thickness 20 to 40 cm The upper part of standing stones is the result of a size The lower portions of standing stones are thinned The tiles are hard limestone creamy white with dark gray tasks These rocks are on the tops of cliffs The slab dimensions are almost all identical They were wedged at the same level close to 2 mm All tiles have their rounded On some faces are visible reddish cast, probably iron oxide, reflecting the use of metal tools

As a result of erosion caused by flooding of a river, the inhabitants of Rawk 5 anthropomorphic statuettes discovered at the foot of standing stones The discovery of other statues in several Yemeni websites to over 400 kilometers from Rawk, meaning they are not unique to the people of Wadi ‘Idim It seems that the 04 statuette, carved in a rock alien, was imported and copied locally In Yemen, ten statuettes of this type have been discovered They were unearthed in illegal excavations, work planning or pickups surface They were assigned to the 3rd millennium BCE, because of their similarity with the statuette from Wadi Sulay’h which was found on the surface of a settlement site of the Bronze Age


This temple of the god of the moon date in the second millennium BC The eastern part of the temple is still standing It has a semicircular shape and a height of 7 m He stands a stone column The west wall was connected to 4 columns There is a central table, altar, surrounded by stone seats There is also a tower 10 meters high and the ruins of another temple


Shabwa, capital of the kingdom of Hadramawt, located on the incense route, the start of the second millennium The city was built of brick raw Numerous tower houses, over 130 in the area west of the city, two to four levels, were perched on stone bases, types of raised foundations, ensuring the stability of the building in the soft ground The royal castle of Shabwa, consists of a central tower house and a building surrounding a courtyard The floors were constructed of wood, and was found about 300 beams, often in good condition, with their joints and sometimes their décor The royal palace, Shaqir, is known by coins in his name The deities represented in Shabwa are Athtar, chief god, Shams, the sun goddess, Almaqah, god of agriculture and irrigation


Tayma, also called Tema, Teema, Tiamat, Teymeite, an oasis located northwest of Saudi Arabia 400 km north of Medina, on the Incense Route Recent archaeological discoveries show that Tayma has been inhabited since the Bronze Age The second millennium BC, there was built a wall of earth and sandstone about 10 feet high and a length of 15 km, surrounding an area of ​​about 20 hectares, for achieve an oasis of palm trees His strength is impressive even in the 11th century Arab historian Abu Abdullah al-Bakri Exterior walls of the tombs found within the oasis include wooden decorations and ivory shaped flowers, dating from the late second millennium BC Cuneiform inscriptions acquaint us a divine triad Salm, and Ashima Sengalla Salm, the sun god, Sengalla, god of the moon and Ashima, symbolized by Venus It was discovered in the area, a rock with an inscription of the Egyptian pharaoh Ramses III The hieroglyphic inscription on Saudi soil suggests that Tayma was a stage town on the road linking the Red Sea and the Nile Valley Assyrian inscriptions of the eighth century BC, mention the oasis town of Tiamat, thriving city, rich in beautiful buildings and wells Tiglath Pileser III, king of Assyria, reports receiving a tribute of Tayma Sennacherib named one of the gates of Nineveh: the door of the desert, for the gifts of ‘Sumu’anite Teymeite and enter through it The city is quite rich and proud, in the seventh century BC, that Jeremiah prophesied against her: Jeremiah 25:23

Throne Balquis

The throne of Bilquis, Bar’an the temple, al-Amaid, is devoted to Almaqah, god of the Moon It is square with an open courtyard with a holy well and a pond fed by water from the mouth of a bull We must climb 12 stairs to the hall, the sacred chamber, which has in front of the west wall of marble seats He remains standing 5 columns, each of 17.350 tons, 12 m high and 80 × 60 cm thick The temple is surrounded by a brick wall with towers The construction of this temple has undergone two phases: The first phase began during the second millennium BC The second phase took place during the 4th century AD


As Yathrib, also known as Yathrib, Medina or Madina, was an important market town and its inhabitants were making annual pilgrimages to the temples of Manat at Mecca, chief god of both cities This was an important city on the Incense Route

Sites of the ancient kingdom of Sheba

The list of sites of the ancient kingdom of Sheba is far to be closed … Most sites have summers buried under the sand or covered by subsequent occupation When they have not only been re-used or cannibalized … We can say that the Arabian Peninsula was a country teeming with activity and filled at least 10 times more than today This was the obligatory passage of goods between Africa, India, Middle East and Europe This population could live through technology Tocharian: irrigation, agriculture, animal husbandry, metallurgy, etc. … Tocharian and when collapsed, the Nabataeans transformed themselves from looters and wreckers, road manager in market … A caravan had a choice between the inner road and the sea route The inland route was safer but more expensive! The earliest stories we learn that each checkpoint levied a tax of one quarter of goods … This explains the attempts to save the steps despite the dangers The sea route was cheaper, but far more dangerous There are only two crossing points and thus taxes only 2 points: Aden and Aqaba The sea route, Saudi side, is extremely dangerous for its coral and wreckers who lit lanterns to lure ships on the shoals to the plunder As soon as we moved away from the coast of Arabia, we had to deal with African pirates … Yep, nothing has changed today … A maritime expedition tells qu’arrivée in Aqaba, from Aden, she had lost three quarters of its ships from pirates, wreckers and the perils of the sea! A tax of one quarter of goods means a complex and centralized administration But also a police and army But also a communication network between cities But also an agriculture that can feed all these people … We know that Tocharian used wells, rivers, lakes and dams, to form an efficient irrigation system, efficient and reliable

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Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 31: The kingdoms of Arabia, Sheba

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 31: The kingdoms of Arabia, Sheba

Published June 26, 2012

The terraced fields, agricultural tradition of the kingdom of Sheba, since time immemorial …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 31: The kingdoms of Arabia, Saba

The kingdom of Sheba

It is clear that the kingdoms of Dilmun and Magan consist of city-states, which are actually counters the valley of the Thar, the Marhashi, from Elam, the Sumerians, the Scythian and Aryan, he is also clear that the kingdom of Sheba, west of Arabia, was founded by Tocharian The proof is that it is mainly in the realm of the Arabian Peninsula found most of petroglyphs and megalithic constructions that characterize them, although the presence of established communities tokhariennes is also within certain cities -states of Magan and Dilmun The Kingdom of Sheba includes the southwest and west of the Arabian Peninsula From 3000 BC, there are idols of bronze in the sites of villages that were already practicing irrigated agriculture With this irrigation, they already got the double harvest year on the terraces of the mountains Archaeologists recognize in this kingdom, at the age of bronze, important social groups, structurally complex, and interconnected with the rest of the world Atlantean They practiced farming, developed and manufactured a ceramic mastered metallurgy It recognizes both the technology Tokharian, petroglyphs and megaliths in this kingdom

Megalithic sites in Saudi

The megalithic Saudi occupy the land from the west of Oman and Yemen, western Saudi Arabia to Sinai and Jordan, Syria and Lebanon They have been dated from the beginning of the third millennium BC, thanks to painted jars imported from Mesopotamia The high circular tombs, tumuli and sets of standing stones are ordered similar construction throughout Saudi, confirming a structured and homogeneous civilization Their location is generally as follows: The tombs are circular on high plateaus, along cliff The tumuli are perched on the hills The standing stones are at the foot of jebels, high hills or mountains The trilithons are located in the wadis, plains of rivers that can be seasonally dry The many megalithic sites dating from the Bronze Age located along the Incense Route, prove permanent contacts across the Arabian Peninsula

From the Ramlat Dahm  to Ramlat Sab’atayn

The Ramlat Dahm and Ramlat Sab’atayn, located north of Yemen, are dotted with megalithic tombs The necropolis of jabal Ruwaik, the wadi Nushur, circular tombs Surla high road Sana’a-Sa’ada, the site Mawr near Saada, the sites of the road to Sanaa Sa’ada, Sana’a to Marib and Mu, the tumuli of jabal Ruwaik the mound to the plate Sayyun Mukalla, etc. … There are many high circular tombs, called in Arabic: dirm But also standing stones, tumuli and cists: small dolmens, standing stones sites, of trilithons, tombs walls, kind of big walls in two walls, between which is a burial chamber box-shaped, of rectangular tombs with one or two standing stones to the east of the tomb, tombs square, funeral chains formed by rectangular boxes and rows of standing stones of more than one hundred meters These structures are of very large dimensions The mapping of high circular tombs revealed the strategic position of these cemeteries: along trails through the desert that connect to Shabwa Jaw They are dated the 3rd and 2nd millennium BC This further confirms the commercial links between Lebanon, Yemen and Oman


In the plains of Dhamar, to over 2000 meters, there are standing stones and dolmens, and a covered walkway to 8 feet long by seven horizontal slabs covered the middle one missing A city with its water reclamation system is large tanks, a testament to the technology and wealth of the region


In the plain of Tihama was discovered 126 sites of 30 km2 These are mostly cluster shells and mounds of broken pottery The shells are composed of clusters remains of shells Terebralia palustris, a mangrove snail, mainly used as bait and as feedstock for the manufacture of lime Many bones of horses and Caprinae, proves the practice of farming There are also bits of pottery and fragments of bronze The mass shells are dated 7th millennium and ceramic shards and bones of the third millennium BC C. There are the standing stones of Hamili But also several stone alignments of more than a kilometer, 1 to 3 meters high, perfectly tapered at the foot of Jabal al-Mahandar North of the city of Zabid, there is still a site of standing stones The excavation of the front of a monolith unearthed two copper plates, two ax heads, two points of spears, dating from 2500 BC C. Ceramic, copper, bronze, livestock, megaliths, it is the technology of Tocharian!

Mahra and Dhofar

The Mahra in Yemen and Dhofar in Oman, form a narrow coastal strip of about 40 km south of the Arabian Peninsula Have been discovered many trilithons along the wadis But also tumuli on the road that connects to Sayhut Qishn This region also revealed cysts or small dolmens and standing stones The most distinctive landmark is the site of al-Mahdi In Mahra and Dhofar, many are prepared trilithons The remains of pottery that are found can be dated to the megaliths of the third and second millennium BC

Wadi Was’sha

In the Wadi Wa’sha, funerary remains and traces of habitat surveys are dated from the late fourth millennium to the mid third millennium BC Tombs have been found circular towers, tombs wall, mounds, cists and dolmens The megaliths are trapezoidal form structures and include alignments trilithons One of the most important site trilithons, listed HDOR 592, has over fourteen alignments that span over 300 m long Small circular structures associated with these alignments The orientation of the alignment follows that of the bed of the Wadi

Wadi Rum

Wadi Rum or Wadi Ramm is located south of the Arabah, Jordan There are many canyons, natural arches, cliffs and caves Drawings, inscriptions and archaeological evidence of 12,000 years of human occupation It is listed more than 25,000 petroglyphs and more than 20,000 entries that can trace the beginnings of alphabetic writing


Hadramawt is mentioned in the Book of Genesis and its capital is Shabwa Shabwa, with its 10 m high mound would be before the middle of the second millennium In the Hadramawt there are traces of earlier occupation in the second millennium, but its ancient history is totally unknown to us today Its history is known from various foreign sources, but only from the seventh century BC, long after the Tocharian have established the kingdom of Sheba The inhabitants of Hadramawt practiced irrigated agriculture, built houses and palaces of brick, manufactured ceramics red slip Other ancient cities of the region show the same culture and have one or more palaces Many towns dotted along the coast of the Indian Ocean and Red Sea, and along overland trade routes, including Habban, Naqab al-Hajar al-Bina, Bir Ali


Dadan, Dedan, or Dedanim, designates a people of Idumea or Arabia, according to Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, the 7th and 6th century BC They believe that people lived in Saudi desert the dédanites were traders who had trafficked with Tyre was considerable They came by caravan to bring in ivory, ebony and beautiful covers horses, products undoubtedly foreign to their country, but they received from more distant nations through the various ports of Arabia Isaiah threatened invasion of Saudi, and asserted that trade which was the richness of these populations, and among others those of Dedan, will be annihilated Barbie du Bocage, founder in 1821 of the Geographical Society, Dedan place in the Persian Gulf, in one of the islands of Bahrain For him, Idumea is in Africa, in a country where the eastern boundary does not exceed the 34th degree of longitude Thus we find traces of ancient texts which asserted that the kingdom of Sheba was located on the east coast of Africa and on the west coast of Saudi This territorial coverage matches the Tocharian

Road of Kings

Route of Kings is a passage along 335 kilometers which connects Amman to Aqaba It is bordered on both sides of a rich chain of archaeological sites with prehistoric settlements of the Stone Age, biblical towns of the kingdoms of Ammon, Moab and Edom, Crusader castles, some of the finest early Christian Byzantine mosaics from the Middle east, a Roman fortress Herodian, several Nabatean temples, two major Roman fortresses, ancient Islamic cities and the Nabatean capital carved into the rock, Petra Mentioned in the bible, kings of the road was the one that Moses wanted to borrow to take his people north through the region of Edom In Genesis 14, an alliance of “four kings of the North” led his troops on the road to do battle against the five kings of the cities of the plain, including the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah These statements prove the antiquity of this road of kings, small part of the Incense Route

The Incense Route

The Incense Route connected Egypt to Saudi and India It was created in the early 3rd millennium BC The Aryan Valley Thar sent incense to the ports of Arabia and Egypt: Cane, and Muza Aden in the south and Berenice, Philotera, Myos Hormos, Leuce Kome and Aila in the north. The incense which arrived in the ports of Arabia was then sent by caravan to Petra in the desert, where he transited to Gaza and Damascus Ports of Egypt, he was transported to Alexandria via Coptos The incense route was also used in international trade of myrrh, Indian spices, ebony, silk, rare woods, feathers, skins, etc. …   Several towns were founded in the oases along the road, including Saba and Iram In the Negev desert, were founded the cities of Avdat, Haluza, Mamshit and Shivta We built this city on the road, sophisticated irrigation systems

History of the kingdom of Sheba

There are over 5000 years, archaeological excavations in the Arabian Peninsula, have demonstrated the existence of links with the civilizations of the Levant, Mesopotamia and India These are the Tocharian who founded the kingdom of Sheba The reconstruction of the route of the old roads showed that the cities were founded on the banks of one of the many tracks Fakra caravans The largest of these ancient roads left Aden crossing the Hijaz and Asir to the north, then the watering and feeding of Mecca, to continue northward It is along these old roads, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Sinai, Lebanon, Syria, more than 10,000 sets of funerary architecture common This funerary architecture is not a particularity: it is recognized throughout the peninsula and into the Levant The proven presence of agriculture, irrigation, livestock, ceramics, metallurgy, petroglyphs and megaliths at the time of the Neolithic, corresponds to a kingdom Tocharian After the wars of Yi and the collapse of Aryan and Tocharian, the Nabatean inherited the secrets of the trade routes in and took control The city of Petra became their capital instead of Marib

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Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 30: The kingdoms of Arabia, Magan

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 30: The kingdoms of Arabia, Magan

Published June 25, 2012

The tower-tombs at the foot of Jebel Misht near the site of Umm Nar year …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 30: The kingdoms of Arabia, Magan

The kingdom of Magan

Magan or Makkan, the southern kingdom of the Arabian Peninsula, Oman is now Colony Sumerian tablets tell us that much of their wealth to reach the colony: copper, timber, gold, silver, etc. … Military expeditions may be needed to stop the desire for independence counters The son of Sargon, Man-Ishtushu, may well bring back the stone blocks Naram-Sin will also be imposed by a war party But it will also take technical aids such as road construction by Urnammu of Ur around 2100 BC Sumer, Ur, Akkad, were the patrons of Magan in the 3rd millennium BC It should not be excluded that some city-states were ruled by Tocharian and by Aryan Valley Thar The remains of petroglyphs and megalithic monuments are there to attest

Umm an-Nar

Umm-an-Nar, near Abu Dhabi, was a port counter Sumerian around 2500 BC Have been found pottery imported from all over the Middle East and weight of the system used by the Sumerians Tablets dating from about 2000 BC, we show that exchange of copper exported, we got to Magan textiles, barley, sesame oil, etc. … Umm an-Nar-réexpédiait by these products to the caravan oasis within There were found many fragments of bitumen caulking reed boats The boats of this type were known under the name of Magan boats The texts mention cargo of twelve tons of copper and shipped in Sumer, which gives an idea of ​​the size of vessels


The oasis of Al Ain, Abu Dhabi, home to the site of Hili In most oases, modern cities have grown in the same place, thus destroying the ancient traces In Al Ain, the city developed near Hili, which has preserved the site The site of Hili reflects the prosperity experienced by the Magan early in the third millennium BC, through its international trade, mainly between the middle east and the valley of Thar Hili is a city of Bronze Age circular containing graves, wells, residential buildings, towers, palaces and administrative buildings Hili has a Aflaj of a sophisticated system of irrigation of the Bronze Age Agriculture and livestock are highly developed They grow all year round, thanks to irrigation, the date palm, wheat, barley, sorghum and legumes Were bred cows, donkeys, camels, goats and sheep Around 3100-2700 BC, the tombs in stone cairn had settled on hills overlooking the oasis The necropolis of Hili is remarkable for its monumental circular graves with sculpted walls They date from the period known as Umm an-Nar, from 2 500 to 2 000 BC We discovered a mass grave inviolate body of nearly 700 The grave was intact: Sumerian vases, lapis lazuli Scythian Elamite pottery, and objects of local manufacture Ade’s grave Hili North the tombs of Umm an-Nar-type are similar habitats and become monumental, even megalithic tomb like this A Hili North In addition, the number of burials there is increasing significantly, up to several hundred at the end of the third millennium. Aya is found vases from Bactria of Scythians Nde Hili tomb has already delivered more than 300 pottery, stone vessels and objects of bronze and numerous items of adornment

Samad al-Shan

Samad al-Shan is located in the central part of Oman in the near Al-Sharqiyah Maysar 260 graves have been found in the Bronze Age to the Iron Age The grave is mostly made of pottery and jewelry from local and imported, as in other cemeteries in Saudi


At Selme Ibri, we uncovered many vases and copper weapons and jewelry, bracelets and other decorative objects, reminiscent of Scythian tombs 508 metal objects and 82 stone, plus ceramic containers, make up the contents of the hidden tomb The dates indicate the age of the grave as the third millennium BC

Tell Abraq

The site of Tell Abraq was occupied from the third to first millennium BC The hill about 1 acres peaks at about 10 meters On the site, there was also a tower of 40 meters in diameter Tell Abraq is at a strategic point between Mesopotamia, Elam and the valley of the Thar Found there Harappan weights, pottery Barbar, two cylinder seals, fragments of soapstone vessels, etc. … One of the graves of six meters in diameter, has been dated between 2200 and 2000 BC, at the time of the third empire of Ur There were the remains of 413 people in the grave It found tools of copper and linen fabrics The ruins of Qalhat, 25 km north-west of Sur, are prominent Situated on a terrace high above-the present day village. The site is still Imposing, enclosed Within Clearly recognisable defensive walls.


In Qatar, before oil, the population was farming and fishing, especially of the pearl oyster With oil, Danish archaeologists came and discovered numerous mounds and quantity of prehistoric tools They emerge from oblivion several mounds on the peninsula Abruq Then the English update to Da’asa Al-Obeid pottery fragments, that is to say, Mesopotamian origin and dating from the 5th millennium French archaeologists have found thousands of mounds of shells of sea snails crushed These snails produce a brilliant red dye prized noble Babylonians The dye house is older than those in Lebanon. Many petroglyphs have been discovered in the Jebel They are mostly boats, some of which are characteristic of the Neolithic

Jebel Jassassiyeh

The rocky ridge of Jebel Jassassiyeh is famous for its rock carvings They date the Bronze Age, but their significance is unknown There are many sculptures in the shape of an eye It is perhaps an eye, or a boat, or an insect, or something else In any case it is indeed a sign Tocharian Nobody would think of materializing the same sign carved into the rock in large quantities without a valid reason This technique was already Tokharian developed at length throughout the third second part of this book and I invite you to refer to them


Dubai, in the 7th millennium BC, was a mangrove swamp The mangrove was covered by sand years ago 5000 There are few objects exhumed from the Bronze Age

Ra’s al-Hamra

In Ras al-Hamra, Muscat, was unearthed graves, tombs high circular, dated the 3rd millennium BC These graves indicate the existence of funeral rites and discovered there Harappan pottery fragments This proves the contacts with the cities of Muscat Valley Thar

Ras Al Hadd

Excavations at Ras Al Hadd have revealed many archaeological sites: villages and burial sites It has updated many remains as the first Omani ship and the oldest incense burner from the Arabian Peninsula The many objects discovered confirm the trade with oases of the interior and the kingdoms of Mesopotamia, India, Africa and China

Archaeology in Oman and the UAE

As in Saudi Arabia, are recent archaeological research But given the strategic importance of the region, there remains a large number of sites to visit and search For the first discoveries have confirmed the appearance of a large agriculture through irrigation techniques soon – 3200 BC, as well as regular contact with all major and Atlantean civilizations of the time Today with our modern means of investigation, but also with our spirit of respect for things of the past, we are able to read our past The work to be done is huge, but  promising very good results

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Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 29: The kingdoms of Arabia Dilmun

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 29: The kingdoms of Arabia : Dilmun

Published June 24, 2012

Copper bull’s head, discovered in the temple of Barbar, dated the 3rd millennium BC …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 29: The kingdoms of Arabia : Dilmun

The kingdoms of Arabia

The Arabian Peninsula to the Neolithic, represented the maritime link of the Atlanteans from Africa of Egyptian and Tocharian, India and the Aryans of the Middle Eastern Sumerian The center of the peninsula is occupied by an arid desert, but Atlantis countertops occupy the entire edge of the Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden and Red Sea The main vital centers of the region have not moved and are always in the same place today Each realm is made up of smaller and larger counters, which occupy an island or archipelago on earth and who stop at the counter neighbor Archaeology in the region has never been a priority and most of our knowledge of its history from ancient to recent findings Especially that one should not seek to own civilization, but colony counters neighboring civilizations That’s why all these discoveries allow us to know who was primarily what So we can say of Arabia of that time, – in 5000 – 1500 BC, it is composed of three kingdoms, east Dilmun, Magan south and west Saba Each realm is comprised of many city-states more or less independent

The kingdom of Dilmun

Dilmun is the Arabian coast of the Persian Gulf island of Bahrain, Tarut Island, Failaka Island and other islands Dilmun is a Sumerian colony mentioned in the Ebla archives It mentions a tax collector There were found many cuneiform tablets and cylinder seals which we describe the life and administration of its ports Ships are transiting Dilmun wood, construction materials, copper, silver, pottery, dates, grain, oil, precious stones, among the products most cited Merchants Idin-Nin-Ea-nasir Inzak and left their names in the tablets The strategic importance and richness of these counters has natural treasures and caused many wars of occupation This results in many changes of owner: Sumer, Ur, Larsa, Susa, Babylon, Assyria, Aratta, etc. … Dilmun is mentioned in the Sumerian mythological texts as a divine place: When the god Enki settled there with his wife, the country became pure and bright In Dilmun no cawing crow zero, not zero cacabait francolin, no lion killed, no wolf pounced on lambs This is Dilmun, where the sun rises, as the god moved there to live Ziusudra its eternity, that is to say: his retirement … When the Indus Valley loses its influence from the middle of the second millennium BC, Dilmun loses its importance In the eighth century BC, Dilmun was a vassal of Assyria in 600 BC and it was part of the Neo-Babylonian Empire


In Bahrain, two important sites are listed: Qal’at al-Bahrain and the Temple of Barbar Qal’at al Bahrain is located north of the island This is a tell, an artificial hill of 300 m by 600 m, created by many successive layers of human occupation It is inhabited from the 3rd millennium BC to AD 17èmesiècle At the top of the mound 12 meters in height is a Portuguese fort, which gave its name to the entire website, meaning high Qal’a About a quarter of the site was excavated The buildings are excavated in residential, public, commercial, religious and military They demonstrate the importance of wearing through the centuries A large amount of seals has been found Barbar Temple is located in the village of Barbar, northwest of the island This is actually three temples built in honor of the god Enki, lord of fresh groundwater and wisdom, and his wife Ninhursag The three temples were built one above the other The first temple dates from about 3000 BC The second temple was built about 500 years after The third temple was built about 500 years after the second is at about 2000 BC The temples were built with limestone blocks carved from Jidda Island, northwest of the island of Bahrain One of the temples contains two altars and a natural water source The excavations have unearthed many tools, weapons, pottery and small gold items The most famous of the finds is a bronze bull’s head


Tarut Island in the Persian Gulf, faces the town of Qatif The Canaanite and Phoenician goddess of love and war gave him this name: Ashtarut, which means bounty and beauty First vassal of Canaanite and Phoenician, it was then dominated by Sumer, the Mahrashi, Akkad and Assyria Tarut Castle was built by the Portuguese in the 16th century on the ruins of an earlier building of 5000 years An archaeological mission has unearthed a Danish pottery dating from 6500 to 5 000 years The antiques are mainly found in Foundation Engineering A mechanic discovered tombs older than 4000 years A farmer discovered gems and pots A janitor found engraved rocks Sabaean language for a street cleaning service Qatif Municipal discovered pottery, metal utensils, and a stone statue dating from the Neolithic When building a bridge between Qatif and Tarout, a business of installing water pipes found an old pot filled with silver coins In a grove of palm trees, it was discovered graves of the third millennium BC, where one has updated the ceramic crockery and metal objects, cartridges with designs carved in chlorite Scythian and Aryan style In the farm Alaiyashi was found a limestone statue, headless, fixed on base, about three feet high representing a young girl plump body, wearing shoes The Statue of Tarut or Khadem Abid, invoice Sumerian exhibited at the National Museum in Riyadh, is limestone, 94 cm high and represents a man standing


Archaeological excavations on Failaka Island have discovered a village southwest of the island dating from about 2000 BC It consists of residential houses dominated by a shrine on a tower and terrace There is also a large residence built a little further north, with workshops They were equipped with ovens to work copper and ceramics The inscriptions of the sanctuary indicate that the temple is dedicated divinity Ala Inzak On Failaka Island, was found more cylinder seals and pottery on the island of Bahrain Levels in the first half of the first millennium of Failaka, was found a stele written by Nebuchadnezzar II and a bowl dedicated by this king to the local temple, proving the Babylonian stranglehold on this place at this time

Archaeology in Saudi Arabia

As too often, considering that things of the past is the past … Yet the potential is huge! Most known sites have been excavated only a quarter and a maximum of only half The views satellite and aircraft were driven from many sites to search It would be easy to organize systematic excavations under the control of Saudi academics: many countries would love to participate virtually volunteer We now know the value of antiques and impact of cultural tourism well organized The visit of Dilmun would quickly pay for itself …

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Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 28: Legends of Marhashi

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 28: Legends of Marhashi
Published April 25, 2012

The lion-headed bird Anzu …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 28: Legends of Marhashi

The Sumerian legends

The Sumerian legends tell us the relationship between turbulent and warlike kingdom of Sumer and Marhashi, for the period from the fourth millennium to the second millennium Four legends tell of these conflicts: Enmerkar and Ensuhkeshdanna Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta Lugalbanda in the cave of the mountain Lugalbanda and Anzu As legends tell the story seen from the side of Sumer, it is obviously the Sumerian kings and Enmerkar Lugalbanda that the right role The Sumerian powerful must still admit the dificulties to achieve the annexation of Marhashi, and recognize that despite the high cost of these campaigns, their domination of Marhashi hardly have lasted over time In fact, it seems that the real cause of these conflicts, either due to excessive wealth of Marhashi, and vassal colony of Sumer The Marhashi advantage of its location close to the Aryan Valley Thar for their alliance and protection and no longer pay his tribute to Sumer … The Marhashi seems dependent on Sumer for his wheat, but the reverse is true for construction materials, minerals, gold, silver and precious stones

Enmerkar and Ensuhkeshdanna

This legend begins with a description of the richness and beauty of Uruk, which is higher than that of Aratta We learn qu’Ansigaria is the Chief Minister and Ensuhkeshdanna Namena-tuma that of Enmerkar Enmerkar Unug is lord of the other name of Uruk, and Kulaba the city that goes from heaven to earth This confirms the spatial origin of Sumerian direct, that is to say without going through the base of Sanchi Aryan Ensuhkeshdanna is also called Ensukushsiranna or Ensuhgirana Ensuhkeshdanna, priest-king of Marashi, sent a messenger to Enmerkar, priest-king of Uruk, asking him to submit to Aratta It boasts support for that of the goddess Inanna, his wife, the great goddess of love and war Enmerkar is furious because he is the priest-king of Uruk and the husband of Inanna Enmerkar meets Ensuhkeshdanna Inanna left the temple with him and she will not go to Aratta, even for only five or ten years In his reply he even adds a few details like sex “even if it is not a duckling, she cries so much” When the messenger returned with this message to Aratta, Ensuhkeshdanna feels rejected His advisors asked him to step back and avoid confrontation with Enmerkar He vows never to submit to Enmerkar although Aratta must be completely destroyed The sorcerer Urgirinuna who had to leave his city state Hamazi, destroyed by the Sumerians, comes to take refuge in Aratta Urgirinuna Ansigaria ensures that it can be overcome Enmerkar and thus avenge the Sumerian Ansigaria accepts his proposal and the sorcerer goes to Eresh, City Nisaba, also called Nidaba, goddess of writing, learning and harvesting, but also closely linked to Inanna friend The action of the sorcerer will dry milk production of Eresh, the leading provider of Uruk It was a fatal error that déclancha anger of Inanna who called his Sagburu witch to the rescue Then began a contest of witches: Urgirinuna turns his magic with an animal with fish roe River First a giant carp is soon captured and eaten by an eagle created by Sagburu Urgirinuna Then the lamb is seized by a wolf A cow and her calf are removed by a lion A goat and a ram are carried away by a leopard Finally, the foal of a gazelle is kidnapped by two wild beasts The witch who defeated Sagburu Urgirinuna, its magic is higher, she refuses to spare the life of the sorcerer, and flows into the Euphrates The rites of Dumuzi tell us that the old hag becomes a beautiful girl after a stay in the mountains and she married Enmerkar When Ensuhkeshdanna learn it, he admits defeat and submits to Enmerkar The rest of the text is too fragmentary to be construed to, but did not destroy Uruk and Aratta burned as the goddess Inanna would have been entitled to require their Aratta was far too precious …

Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta

The Sumerian legend seems based on real events that occurred during the early third millennium BC Enmerkar, son of the sun god Utu, who reigned 420 years or 900 years depending certtains texts, wants to annex the rich city of Aratta, fitted with gold, silver, tin and lapis lazuli He asked his sister and wife, the goddess Inanna, to help get the people of Aratta tribute intended to restore the temple of Enki in Eridu: the Apsu Inanna Enmerkar advised to send a messenger who will cross the mountains and the land of Anshan, Elam, to communicate its requirements to the lord of Aratta The messenger over the mountains and arrived in Aratta where he asks the Lord to deliver the tribute and send his people to build the Apsu, under penalty of reprisals The lord of Aratta refused Enmerkar the messenger returns to Aratta, where he recites the incantation of Enki, to impress the lord of Aratta that he agrees to pay the tribute for the Apsu He hoped that the confirmation of his coalition with Enki, the lord of Aratta folds and agrees to pay the requested tribute But he still refuses Despite threats of Enmerkar, the lord of Aratta is inflexible because it is the equal of the king of Uruk and Inanna’s husband, who lived at earlier Aratta before joining his brother in Uruk The messenger told him then that Inanna has left and is now married to Uruk and has promised to help Enmerkar to submit Aratta The lord of Aratta then agrees to submit to Uruk and send him riches and materials, if Enmerkar sends a large amount of grain in large-mesh nets and not in bags Enmerkar solves the challenge of using grain germination But he refuses again and submit a new challenge Enmerkar still accepts the challenge but provided that in the premium large additional quantities of precious stones The lord of Aratta refused and asked him to Enmerkar matter who gets these gems to Aratta in compensation for the abandonment of Inanna When the king of Uruk finds out, he returns to Uruk the messenger, not message, but with his scepter: scepter of Sumer, the scepter of Gilgamesh, king of Kulaba rallying of all Sumerian It requires him to cut a second scepter at the base of his It should then show off the new scepter as his own and thus recognize vassal of Enmerkar The lord of Aratta is shaken, but does not yield Enmerkar and offers a single combat between two champions of the two cities to determine the winner of the conflict The king of Uruk accepts the challenge, but increases its demands, asking the people of Aratta to make significant additional offerings for the temple of Inanna at Uruk, the Eanna Enmerkar this time sends the message in writing, the Sumerian formula: the nail is driven, which means that discussions are completed, in case of refusal, up to the war … The text becomes partly missing, and it is unclear how Enmerkar becomes the winner, but we learn later that the lord of Aratta accept defeat Aratta receives the help of Ishkur, the storm god, who offered him large quantities of wheat The assistance of Aryan god Hurrian proves the aid promised by the Allies at Marhashi Valley Thar With this new support, it can raise its head The following text is missing and can not know the steps that lead to the final victory of Enmerkar The people of Aratta then the tribute book and provides the materials to build the Apsu, the temple of Inanna, the Eanna of Uruk


Lugalbanda, the second king according to the Sumerian King List, reigned 1200 years Its name means: young king and he was nicknamed the shepherd Lugalbanda is the hero of two legends compiled the Ur III period, the twenty-first century BC: Lugalbanda in the cave of the mountain and Lugalbanda and Anzu In these two legends, Lugalbanda is an army officer of Enmerkar, the first King according to Sumerian King List The legends we are best known in the 18th century versions Part of the story still comes from the Ur III period, and it is very different from those versions of 18th century This confirms the christiannisation text …

Lugalbanda and Ninsun

The fragmentary tablets Abu Salabikh, dating from about – 2600 BC, describe the relationship between love and Lugalbanda Ninsun goddess, goddess of wild cow, which give birth to Gilgamesh At the Ur III period, we find Lugalbanda deified in many city-states such as Nippur, Ur, Umma and Puzrish-Dagan

Lugalbanda in the cave of the mountain

The Sumerian king Enmerkar wants to conquer the land of Aratta, the Marhashi At the head of his army, march to Enmerkar Aratta, located in the highlands of eastern Lugalbanda is a young army officer sumérienned’Uruk As the army marches towards the city of Aratta, he fell ill in the mountains, on Mount Hurrum His companions, thinking it close to his death, decided to leave it in a cave with his weapons and supplies They plan to bring the body back to Uruk with them upon their return Simply to protect to improve its end and think the repatriation of the body, proves that even if it currently has the rank of officer, it is still a high-ranking Lugalbanda, very sick and seriously weakened, prayed to the gods: Nanna the Moon god, Utu, the sun god, and Inanna, the goddess of love and war, to ask his recovery When he wakes up, two days later he remembers the dream he saw in his sleep Lugalbanda then obeyed the requests sent by the gods of dreams It captures and sacrificed a buffalo and a goat and prepares a banquet for the gods He dedicates the sacrifices to the great Sumerian gods: An, Enlil, Enki and Ninurshag The gods offer him then healing … He then resumed the road and joined the army on the march The end of the text is fragmentary But these texts shed light on these gods who possess such great power They use it mainly to satisfy their desires They do not help anyone for free …

Lugalbanda and Anzu

During his march to join the army of Enmerkar, Lugalbanda is lost in the mountains He then takes the decision to seek the nest of fearsome Anzu The nest is located near the tree the eagle of Enlil This tree grows atop a huge mountain Anzu, or Zu Imdugud, is a lion-headed eagle, that is to say, provided a lion’s head This attribute also indicates that this is a god Anzu, the thunderbird, so called because it could unleash lightning, was the servant of the mighty god Enlil Lugalbanda found the nest, but was absent Anzu There was a chick … Anzu was out hunting to feed his little Lugalbanda then busied himself with care and respect to feed the chick He gave her cakes, honey, salt beef and mutton fat He adorned his head with strands of white cedar and painted his eyes with koh He hid near by and waited cautiously Shortly after, Anzu returned with his partner, bringing a bull in his talons and another on his shoulder He called his chick, but there was no response Fearing the worst, Anzu and his companion uttered a cry of pain so piercing that the gods of the mountain have crept into the crevices like ants But when they atteignèrent the nest, he saw the child sitting quietly The parents were delighted and Anzu then said “Whoever did this to my chick, if you are a god, I give you my friendship, if you are a man, I hope your exaucerais” Lugalbanda then approached and introduced himself with respect to Anzu The god of this bird happy warrior who had befriended her chick offered her to choose a wish, whatever it was Lugalbanda asked him to have the ability to jog very quickly and without fatigue, regardless of the path length Anzu, with only a word, he granted his wish Lugalbanda thus able to quickly leave the mountains and join Enmerkar siege of the city of Aratta The conflict was long and laborious A year passed, but there was no sign of afaiblissement defense of Aratta Their walls, the besieged rained spears as thick as rain For Enmerkar, there was only one explanation: he had lost the favor of Inanna So he asked a volunteer to return to Uruk bring a message to Goddess If she helped him to return safely, he promised to give up his spear and his shield to give it the breeze Lugalbanda, provided his tireless legs, claimed the honor of carrying the message He decided to travel alone, despite warnings from his companions, who told him “you can not cross the great mountains, those who go there, do not return” But thanks to the power given him by Anzu, Lugalbanda Uruk reached before midnight the same day, just when the offerings were made to the goddess in her temple He conveyed the message of his king The Great Goddess did not want qu’Enmerkar renounces war Inanna told him how Enmerkar should proceed to beat the rich city of Aratta, which has brick walls of green crystal, manufactured with cassiterite extracted from the mountains where the cypress grow and decorated with lapis lazuli His reply was that inform Lugalbanda Enmerkar: It took him down a lonely tree, tamarisk, who grew up in one of the sacred pools of the goddess, near Aratta It can then catch the fish with his hands that lives It will then offer him a sacrifice All this is done, the victory was assured of Aratta and Uruk Enmerkar could return with his loot: precious metals and precious stones for which he had declared war to Aratta She also advises to removing all Enmerkar metallurgists craftsmen, goldsmiths, stonemasons, not to mention all the molds And what was said, was made …

Funny gods

Inanna, illustration of Diego Barlock History tells us of gods their life: from 400 to 1200 years! Although their life is long, they do not last forever … They may be gods, they also get sick and need to be treated for cure! They may be gods, they have needs: food, sex, housing, gold and jewelry … Remind you, the Mayan gods demanded food for people, young virgins and gold! They are very human these gods …

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Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 27: The Marhashi

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 27: The Marhashi

Published April 23, 2012

The zigurrat of Ur …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 27: The Marhashi

The Marhashi

The Marhashi is an ancient kingdom of Iran and Pakistan, between Elam and the Indus Valley, the southern Zagros Mountains to the west of the Indus, with part of southern Afghanistan It has been inhabited since the 6th millennium by the Sumerians: The Marhashi is a Sumerian colony The Indo-European Aryans, they were joined from the valley near the Thar, from the fourth millennium All this is evidenced by its business activity, its architecture, but also by the Sumerian, Elamite, and those found in Marhashi The Marhashi exports semiprecious stones: soapstone, chlorite, agate, carnelian and lapis lazuli, but also animals: sheep, bears, dogs, monkeys, elephants and zebu This mineral wealth and agricultural confirms what we said in the Sumerian legends

History of Marhashi

His story is almost unknown, and for good reason, the kingdom has suffered the brunt of the wars of Yi, and was totally destroyed around – 2000 BC As little as we connaissont comes from outside, because the tablets found at Marhashi have not yet been fully translated The language of Marhaschi seems close to the Elamite or rather proto-Elamite It has still been possible to decipher the information on these shelves They cite our commercial connections with the valley of Marhashi Thar, Elam and the kingdoms of Arabia, including Dilmun For the period from 4000 to 2600 BC, it was the Sumerian legends that tell the story of Marhashi, but that’s another story … To be continued … For the period from 2600 to 1700 BC, it was the Sumerian tablets of which Lugalannemundu tell the story of Marhashi

The Sumerian tablets

Lugalannemundu shelves, king of the Sumerian city of Adab, around 2600 BC,we recount his battles against the king of Enlil-Marhashi Migir The first kings of the Akkadian empire fighting a coalition of Elamite kings of Awan and their traditional allies, the kings of Marhashi Sargon of Akkad was the first to defeat them in the late 24th century BC The king of Akkad Rimush, to 2270 BC, defeated the king of Marhashi Abalgamash, allied to the king of Awan, Khita or Luhî-Ishshan The king of Akkad, Naram-Sin, ca 2240 BC, defeated the king of Awan Khita or Hishep Ratep-ally the King of Marhashi Hubshumkipi In the late 22nd century BC, the kings of Ur face a coalition of Marhashi and Elamite kingdoms of Simashki, the Anshan and Zabshali The king of Ur Shulgi, to – 2070, tries to stop the progression of Simashki Elamite dynasty by marrying one of her daughters, Nialimmidashu, the king of Marhashi Libanukshabash and another to the king of Anshan His successor Amar-Sin, around 2040 BC, must again fight the new king of Arwilukpi Marhashi After the fall of the Empire of Ur around 2004 BC, the kingdom of Elam and Marhashi dominate the Iranian plateau Towards 1800/1700 BC, these kingdoms collapsed along with their larger neighbor, the Valley Civilization Thar, erroneously called, Indus civilization

Sites of Marhashi

The main sites of the Bronze Age of Marhashi, currently known, are those of: Shahdad, Shahr-e Sukhteh, Tepe Bampur, Espiedej, Shahi Tump, Tal-e Iblis, and Tepe Yahya Konar Sandal Konar Sandal is thought to be the site of the capital’s legendary Marhashi: Aratta


Shahdad in Kerman province, is located in the oasis of Dasht-i Lut, on the edge of the Lut desert, north of the city of Aratta, and has been occupied since – 6000 BC It is found the oldest metal banner of the world dated back nearly 4000 years This is a banner of 22 cm by 25 cm, on a staff of 1m09, representing two palm trees, a cow, a lion and a goddess called upon by three women The excavations of Professor Ali Hakemi Archaeological Institute of Iran have shown the existence of a highly advanced and refined civilization They mastered the technology of metallurgy, writing, and had proceeded with the funeral rites in the third millennium BC There are many uncovered ceramics, stone vessels and chlorite and metallic, bronze and copper including

Shahr-e Sukhteh

Shahr-e Sūkhté, or Shahr-e Sukhteh, or Shahr-i Shōkhta, in Persian means: She burned the city is located in the province of Sistan-Balutchistan It is the archaeological site of a city of culture of Jiroft Covering 151 hectares, Shahr-i Sokhta was a very large city In the western part of the site there is a huge cemetery, dating from around – 3200 BC and contains 25,000 to 40,000 graves The city had four periods of peak and was burned three times before being abandoned – 2100 BC In December 2006, archaeologists have discovered the first artificial eye of the world! The woman who wore the artificial eye was 1.82 m, much larger than the women of her time, but as great as the noble women of the sites Ikshvaku … Its skeleton has been dated to between 2900 and 2800 BC In a hemispherical shape and a diameter of just over 2.5 cm, the eye was made with a very light material, not yet determined The surface of the artificial eye is covered with a thin layer of gold engraved with a central circle to represent the iris and decorated with gold lines representing sunlight Both sides of the eye are pierced with small holes, through which a gold wire held the eyeball in place Controls the microscope showed that the eyeball was increased during the life of this woman On other skeletons, skulls have been found which supports the practice of trepanation, in which patients survived … It is also found in a cup earth, dating back there over 5000 years, decorated along five images representing the movements of a goat scampers It was enough to turn the cup to see the animated image … Seeds have been found, evidence of an agriculture-led It is also found of metallurgical slags, residues of cast iron and steel Archaeologists have always placed in the Iron Age – 1000, approximately, and the Bronze Age to the Neolithic and Copper For them the hard copper metallurgy is the carved stone! For them, they did not know the iron! They did not take into account the short life of the iron: 2000 years maximum The dairy found in many sites of cities Aryan therefore prove their mastery of iron and steel as copper and bronze We found a backgammon game dated back more than 5000 years The game consisted of two dice and 60 pieces whose fields are decorated with undulating serpents The backgammon game is already mentioned in the Vedic Puranas The use of dice for the game confirms its Indian origin, relations Marhaschi Valley and Thar, and also the age of the Vedas It was recently discovered the skeleton of a messenger who traveled by camel The human skeleton reveals signs of bony trauma, suggesting that this was a professional cyclist who spent his life on a camel Approximately 5,000 medals made with pebbles were found in graves of women, while the medals are clearly attributed to significant This shows clearly the equal status of women in society Aryan The excavations of the city of Shahr-e Sūkhté us discover a race of civilized people of farmers and artisans No weapon was found on the site …

Tepe Bampur

Located in Iranian Baluchistan, Bampur Valley is a natural route linking the Iranian plateau with the Indus Valley It is occupied from the 4th millennium BC The valley cities Bampur have obviously thrived on international trade The site of Tepe Bampur delivered numerous pottery identical to other sites and also to Marhaschi excavation sites of Bahrain and Oman In addition to the site of Tepe Bampur, most importantly, 12 other inhabited sites were discovered in the valley of Bampur

Shahi Tump

Shahi Tump is a site in the valley of Kechi crossing the Makran in southern Pakistan It found, dating from the fourth millennium BC, a weight-filled copper lead, weighing 13.5 kg, ovoid, with a hanging loop at the top It is decorated with mosaics of shells 2 representing a leopard pursuing a gazelle This proves the mastery of copper technology in lost wax casting and that of lead, in addition to the artistic skill of the mosaic The excavations also be said that the locals were engaged at the fourth millennium, a sophisticated and developed agriculture and livestock Found there remains of wheat and barley 6-row

Tal-e Iblis

Excavations at Tal-i-Iblis Bardsir today, revealed many objects of copper, cast using the lost wax dating from the fourth millennium BC It should be remembered that the technique of lost wax casting requires treatment with very high melting temperature and controlled to the degree that it could not be controlled until the late 19th century!

Tepe Yahya

Tepe Yahya is located in the valley of the river Kish-e Shur, near Jiroft in Kerman province, Iran It has been occupied since the 6th millennium BC In large workshops searched, they found many ceramics and metals, especially copper and bronze But chlorite vases and cylinder seals of steatite There were also tablets, written in cuneiform The site is abandoned, then reoccupied and was finally abandoned sometime in the second half of the third millennium BC , At about the time of the wars of Yi …

Konar Sandal

Konar Sandal in the valley of the Halil Rud, in Kerman, is located near the town of Jiroft This site is divided into two tells part of the same city, split by a river The tell B is a high terrace In the workshops unearthed were found numerous tablets in an unknown This is the wedge that resembles the linear Elamite or Proto-Elamite In the graves were found many vases chlorite Konar Sandal should be the main center of production of these vases found throughout the Iranian plateau to Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley and around the Persian Gulf

Marashi civilization or civilization of Jiroft

The civilization of the region is called by archaeologists: Jiroft civilization, arguing that the sites are located around the present city of Jiroft It’s as if Paris was called civilization, the civilization of the Gauls … Archaeologists admit however that the discovery of an ancient civilization could change their view of ancient history … In the early 2000s, many objects dating from the Bronze Age, are found in Western auction houses Customs chains back to Iran, in Kerman province The Iranian customs uncover clandestine excavations along the river banks Halil Five great cemeteries are operated clandestinely, and deliver vases, pottery, objects in lapis lazuli statuettes of chlorite, marble and bronze The army put an end to looting in 2002 The Iranian archaeologist is responsible for Youssef Madjidzadeh expertise coins recovered It organizes regular excavations show that several dozen cemeteries similar to those already looted and two large mounds, the two tells of Konar Sandal


At Konar Sandal, the most impressive monument of this civilization is the large terrace of the mound B: the structure was built with more than four million mud bricks! Archaeologists excavated officials see it as the city of Aratta, capital of the ancient kingdom of Marhashi It is presented as a rich city of the Iranian plateau, with whom the kings of Uruk are in conflict, obviously motivated by his wealth, especially for its raw materials The Sumerian texts tell of the triumph of Uruk Aratta, which was however very difficult to achieve Aratta is well described in Sumerian literature: This is a fabulously wealthy city, full of gold, silver, lapis lazuli and other precious materials, with highly skilled artisans and skilled The town is remote and difficult to achieve This is the home of the goddess Inana, who transferred his allegiance to Uruk after our victory Inana was thus the patron goddess of Aratta The Marhaschi was then conquered by Enmerkar Uruk

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