EARTH IS THE AIM 6 : Exoduses and survivors ; Part 2 : Peoples of the Sea ; Chapter 12 : The 10th labor of Héraclès

EARTH IS THE AIM 6 : Exoduses and survivors

Part 2 : Peoples of the Sea

Chapter 12 : The 10th labor of Héraclès

 

The 10th labor of Héraclès

We have already examined in detail the back journey of the 10th work in the chapter 9 : Ligurians

You can read it, but to put you it in mind again, see hereunder a short summary

 

The tenth work of Héraclès was to seize without payment or compensation , the red giant herd of cattle of Géryon from the island of Tartessos and to bring it back to Mycenae

 

He left Mycenae by the sea and went to Libya, where he joined by land a way along North Méditerrané up to the Strait of Gibraltar, which he opened with a kick on the ground

Héraclès shot then an arrow against the sun god, but as he apologized Hélios gave to Héraclès the golden cup in a shape of water lily, with which he was able to navigate to get to the island of Tartessos

 

After killing the dog Orthrus and Eurytion the shepherd, he killed Géryon

He obtained then the herd without payment or compensation, and embarked it in the golden cup to return to the continent

 

He crossed Iberia and Liguria by the Héraclean way

After spending the Ligurian Alps, a bull left the herd plunged into the sea and swam away to Sicily

 

Leaving his army , he pursued it and brought him back into the herd

Héraclès continue then his way along the coast but at the entrance of the Gulf of the Adriatic, Héra sent him a gadfly who threw panic in the herd which spread in Thrace

 

Héraclès pursue them to return in possession his herd but he succeed to gain only half of his herd

He brought then this half herd back to Mycenae, where it was sacrificed to Héra

 

The legend of the 10th work of Héraclès

We saw in the Chapter on the Ligurian , that this legend could be dated thanks to the deluge, at around – 5000

 

Indeed, as the flood occurred in Anatolia towards – 4900, the breaking the Strait of Gibraltar took place at least a hundred years ago to put the Méditerranée Sea at about 100 meters higher, which opened the Bosphorus Strait and grow the Black Sea at about 100 meters higher and cause the sinking of Eden

 

A such precise legend with places and dates necessarily tells us a real story

And reality means also profitability …

 

An army expedition that made a round trip of almost 10 000 kms to recover cattle, even red and even giants : that’s not profitable !

 

The expedition has really taken place, but it was not for oxen , it was for orichalcum !

 

The orichalcum

The orichalcum as I explained to you in EARTH is the aim 2 , Atlantean gods, is a panel made of gypsum fiber between 2 sheets of gold, like a plaster panel

 

Plaster provides stiffness and as it is attached with plaster fibers and not full, it preserves its lightness

The gold leaves are as thin as possible in order to not increase the weight of the panel, which is possible thanks to the very high ductility of gold

 

These panels are absolutely necessary for spaceflight, as gold is a material which does not let pass cosmic radiations

They are fragile against shock and punctures and therefore need to be changed regularly

 

The Treaty of orichalcum

In Atlantis, gypsum must have been abundant and with the gold deliveries through their colonies, Atlanteans have set up there , their manufacturing plant of orichalcum, as said by Plato

 

Edenists also needed these orichalcum panels, so they concluded with the Atlanteans a treaty to obtain orichalcum probably by half , for the gold they provide

 

The Atlanteans deliver from Atlantis the orichalcum producted by sea to Tartessos, where it was conveyed to Didymus by land, then to Mycenae by the sea

For gold it was the same way but on return way

 

Edenists brought gold and in return received half of the orichalcum producted

They delivered the gold to Mycenae and returned there to search orichalcum

The orichalcum was then transported by land from Mycenae to their port in the Danube estuary in Thrace

There it was sent by sea from Thrace, to be delivered to the Edenist space base in Eden, just on the other side of the Black Sea in Anatolia

 

The real work of the 10th work of Héraclès

Examining the map of its complete journey from departure to arrival, we will try to show the reality into this legend

 

img058

10th labor of Héraclès

Wikipedia CC map: O H 237

 

Héraclès under the orders of Héra, sail from Minos, Edenist city for Mycenae, Atlantean city

There he had to recover the orichalcum of the Treaty and to convoy it up to Thrace

But the orichalcum was not there!

 

In fact, the leader of Tartessos, Géryon, rebelled for some unknown cause, against the agreement ,refused to deliver the orichalcum to Mycenae as per the agreement

 

Héraclès return then to Minos where he embarked with his army to Libya to join Tartessos

The expedition prefer the way by land as the control of the seas belonged to Atlanteans, some of whom could been able to be friend with Géryon

 

Arrived at the end of land linking Africa to Europe he was arrested by the troops of Géryon who had been informed of his arrival

 

The opening of the Strait of Gibraltar

The legend says it well: Héraclès gave a kick in the ground that separated Africa from Europe as this provoked an earthquake that opened the passage between the Atlantic and the Méditerranée which was at 100 meters lower

 

This is very similar to an act of war and to send a missile that freed the passage and helped Héraclès to join Tartessos

But orichalcum was on the island …

 

The earthquake caused by the missile inrush the movement of tectonic plates that engulfed the strip of land which separated the two continents

 

The Tartessans’s orichalcum

Furious against Atlantis that did not respect its treaty Héraclès sent a warning missile on Atlantis

In China also the Yi édenists nuclear missiles were baptized: Arrow …

 

The leader of Atlantis, Râ, Hélios in Greek, came to speek with Héraclès and recognized the betrayal of Géryon

He therefore offer a barge to Héraclès to allow him to join the island of Tartessos

Géryon seeing the Atlantean barge arriving was not suspicious and was caught by surprise by the army of Héraclès

 

Héraclès was then able to seize the orichalcum and join the continent Heracles could then convey orichalcum to Adriatic by the Héraclean way with the neutrality of Iberian and Ligurian guaranteed by Hélios

 

The robbery of orichalcum

In Adriatic an ally of Géryon robbed him one carriage of orichalcum

Leaving the army to let them continue the journey to Illyria, he went in pursuit of the thief to Sicily where he recovered his cart

 

More than 2000 km to get 1 beef!

It was at least gold …

This was the case as it was orichalcum

 

He was then able to return with the stolen carriage and join his army

 

Delivery of orichalcum

At this time, Hera, informed of the geographic position of the convoy and the success of the operation, through airway communication, gave instructions to Héraclès by sending a gadfly

 

The legend clearly indicates that the message has reached its destination by airway

 

The orders were clear:

No way to go to Mycenae, you have to deliver the port of Thrace first, and only then bring the part of the Atlantean to Mycenae

 

The Atlanteans could then sent by sea this orichalcum to Egypt who was an Atlantean territory

From there it was conveyed to the kingdom of Sheba, Atlantean territory also, up to the Gulf of Aden

 

The orichalcum continued then its route by sea to India to one of their ports is Northern India

 

It remained then only to send it by land to the Atlantis space base in Sânchî in India

 

See EARTH is the aim 1 , Gods of Eden and China , EARTH is the aim 2 , Atlantean gods and EARTH is the aim 5, Indo-Europeans

Posted in 10th work of Heracles, Atlantis, Eden, Hélios, Hera, Heracles, Minos, Mycènes, , Tartessos, Uncategorized | Leave a comment

EARTH IS THE AIM 6 : Exoduses and survivors ; Part 2 : Peoples of the Sea ; Chapter 11 : Tartessos

EARTH IS THE AIM 6 : Exoduses and survivors

Part 2 : Peoples of the Sea

Chapter 11 : Tartessos

 

Tartessos

The history of Tartessos was really difficult to reconstruct

So many researchers gave a multitude of documents to understand

I think I have succeeded, and I’ll book the result

The main obstacle that has prevented so long to unravel the course of history is the Kurgan theory, which now should be ignored

It was very difficult for scientists obliged to submit themselves to the dictatorship of the official theory

Tartessos is an Atlantean colony bridgehead at the entrance to the Mediterranean, established at about -6500

This explains their language, writing and technology

Tartessians gathered there European goods that could then safely join Atlantis

These 6000 years of service are confirmed by the writings of the Greek geographers

 

History of Tartessos

Towards – 6612, arrival of the Atlanteans who settled in Atlantis

Towards – 6500, the Atlantean of Atlantis create the counter of Tartessos

Towards – 5000, Hercules is stealing the red giant oxen

Towards – 4000, the Iberians, the Atlantean of the Thar Valley, begin their colonization on the coasts of Europe and have consolidated the Atlantean colony of Tartessos

Towards – 3800, 2nd Star Wars

Towards – 3500, arrival of kelts, Iberians north assigned North of Portugal and Galicia

Towards -3000, Atlantis is swallowed and the Iberians set up with the other Peoples of the Sea , their supremacy on the Atlantic and NorthMediterranean coast

In -2650, the first nuclear war Yi, and until – 2350 second nuclear war Yi, the Iberians arrive in number and settled on the coasts of Europe, from the Tagus valley up to the Rhone Valley

From – 1200, the decline of Iberian begun and Phoenician will be able to grab that coveted counter

Towards – 600, a tsunami following a dirt earthquake caused by tectonic plates movements, will engulf the city and turn the delta of Guadalquivir into an estuary

Tartessos carried the names of Gades, Gadir and Cádiz It is the oldest city of the West Its history and development are due to a unique geographical location between Europe and Africa and between Atlantic and Mediterranean

 

Evidence of the existence of Tartessos

Pliny confirms in his “Natural History”, book IV, “But really at the end of the Béthique, 25 miles from the entrance of the strait, there is the island of Cadiz, 12 miles long and wide 3, writes Polybius […] the island has a city with inhabitants of Roman citizenship, called the Giulia Augustani city of Cadiz (Gades). The side facing Spain, about 100 steps, is another island … in which he had first had the city of Cadiz. It is called … Junonide by natives. Timaeus says that the largest island is called by them Cotinusa; but our people call “Tartessos” and the Carthaginians Gadir, a Punic word meaning “hedge”. ”

Justin, author of a Compendium of philippics stories written by Pompey Trogus told us: “The wood of the Tartésians, where the Titans made, as they say, war to the gods, are inhabited by Cunètes: Gargoris, the oldest of their kings, taught them to collect honey . The weak of his daughter had given him a grandson, ashamed of this infamy, he tried various means to kill the child […] He [Gargorix] acknowledged his grandson in the likeness of traits and certain marks printed on its body at birth. Astonished for so many hazards and perils, he chose him to succeed to him. He receive the name of Habis. Hardly raised to the throne, he displayed so many virtues, that it let recognize the purpose of the gods whose hand had torn him from so many perils . He submitted to his laws still barbarous people;. He taught them the first to harness oxen to plow, to fertilize its furrows, and remembering his past sufferings, made them to abandon their wild food for softer foods. […]. He forbade his people all slave labor, and distributed in the seven cities. ”

Herodotus speaks of a people of Iberia, to which he gives the name of cunésians or cunètes He said the neighboring people of Celtic, lived the most western part of Europe, beyond the Pillars of Hercules

Herodorus confirms the occupation by cunètes of Lusitania, Portugal, up to Alentejo, thus comprising Tagus Valley

Pausanias the Périégète discovered in Greece in the 2nd century B.C. two rooms in the sanctuary of Olympia, which the people of Elis affirmed has been realized with bronze of Tartessos: “They say that Tartessos is a river in the Iberian land that flows into the sea by two mouths and between these two mouths lies a city of the same name. The river, which is the largest of Iberia, and knows the tide is called Baetis more recently, and some think that Tartessos was the old name of Carpia, a city of the Iberians ”

Excavations of Schulten of Erlangen , Bonsor and Jessen in 1923 let found strange inscriptions similar to the Greek and Etruscan alphabets

They also discovered a wall block that indicates the existence of two cities, one dated the 3rd millennium B.C. and the other towards – 1500

Tartessos had knowledge for its advanced technology

It was the main supplier of gold, silver, bronze, tin and iron in the Mediterranean area This stranglehold on metallurgy is confirmed in the Bible by Ezekiel

The Book of Kings mentions the ships of Tarshish, which delivers every three years gold, silver, ivory and monkeys and peacocks to the King Solomon’s court

 

The Treasure of El Carambolo

The Treasure of El Carambolo, attributed to the civilization of Tartessos, was discovered in 1958 in El Carambolo near Seville

These are 21 gold jewelry with a total weight of nearly 3 kg

The jewelry show floral patterns

They are a pendant necklace, two bracelets, two chest-shaped cowhide and 16 plates

The jewelry is dated by the Carriazo professor with a very wide range from the 8th century to the 3rd century BC.

He stated that this treasure is “A treasure worth of Argantoni” legendary king of Tartessos

mairena_treasury_-_3rd-1st_cent__b_c__-_seville_-_museo_arqueologico_de_sevilla

Tesouro Mairena – Seville Museum

Wikipedia CC Photo: José Luiz Ribeiro Bernardes

 

New Site excavations have unearthed a statue of the goddess Astarte

As this discovery has thrown a first doubt , further excavations have unearthed a temple considered Phoenician

But I still think that it is a Tartessian treasure , so I will date it from the 3rd millennium, and which was later recovered by the Phoenicians

Besides the style of jewelry always brings us back, as the Lady of Leche, to the Asian Atlantean of the Thar Valley, Scythian and Bactrian style

We cannot recognize Phoenician style in this jewelry , but it looks like treasures found in Scythians tombs

 

Didymus

Tartessos was considered an island by Greek and Roman writers

Antonio García y Bellido says: “The city had two urban centers, one in the islands and the other in the continent, this is where we get the name of Didymus as in Greek didyma means” twin ”

In reality, Tartessos was a single city with a center on the island and the suburbs on the mainland Didymus was indeed the twin city of Tartessos connected by land Tartessos received or distributed his goods to the Atlantic

They also needed a port on the Mediterranean side, just on the other side of the present Straits of Gibraltar, as existing since -6500, and up to -5000 , the Mediterranean sea was 100 meters lower than the Atlantic, and was a closed sea

It had to be somewhere between Gibraltar and Ceuta, at about 100 meters below the actual sea level

Of course when the Strait of Gibraltar become opened , the port of Didymus was engulfed

 

Legends, myths or reality?

If these are only fairy tales, why legends give specific dates and locations clearly identified?

The legends tell us clearly the HISTORY

The altered truths are mainly of two types:

Empower explainable history for indigenous for consistent technological prowess and used mainly to keep the secret of the real action

All Greek and Roman authors confirmed in their writings, at about -500, they have learned of Tartessos archive, which dates back to over 6000 years

Carthaginians when they seized in Tartessos in – 1100, destroyed the archives, but only after having carefully studied them to find navigation secrets

This is what has allowed us to have the knowledge of them

We saw in EARTH is the aim 2 , Atlantean gods, the first Atlantean populations arrived on Earth, are the Atlanteans of Atlantis

The Mayan calendar tells us when this happened : in -6612

Exactly 6000 years before the Greek and Roman writings:

What we had to prove …

Posted in atlant, Atlantis, Didyme, iberians, Tartessos, Treasure of El Carambolo, Uncategorized | Leave a comment

EARTH IS THE AIM 6 : Exoduses and survivors ; Part 2 : Peoples of the Sea ; Chapter 10 : Iberians

EARTH IS THE AIM 6 : Exoduses and survivors

Part 2 : Peoples of the Sea

Chapter 10 : Iberians

 

Iberians

Since from the 5th millennium, Iberians founded commercial counters in the future Iberia, but the massive colonization will happen from 3rd to 2nd millennium BC

At this time, we see the expansion of megalithic monuments, followed two millennia later by reusing them in funeral monuments

 

Iberians are hierarchical organized as evidenced by the significant differences in wealth graves

The study of the various objects found in the tombs has defined social structure and determine its hereditary

 

The leaders had halberds, swords, gold and silver jewelery items, terracotta vases

Women and children belonging to the elite were buried with axes, daggers and punches

 

For free peoples like as artisans, farmers, traders and employees, we found simple metal objects and pottery

For workers or slaves, the graves are devoid of any object

 

Aristotle described the Iberians as “warlike race” that plant “on the tomb of the warrior, as many iron stakes he enemies slain”

 

Their main gods were the mother goddess and a god represented by a bull

It was the same as for the Basques and Ligurians

Basques call him : Maya

We meet him again …

View Earth is the aim 4 , The Tokharians

 

Caucasus Iberians

The Greeks knew Iberians, a people from the Caucasus in Georgia, in the 8th century BC

In 1833, Julius Heinrich Klaproth, publishes the history of Georgia in its Asian Journal

Its main source is the abridged history of Georgian, compiled by Prince Davith in Tbilisi in 1800

 

These texts confirm that after the confusion of languages during Nimrod reign, king of Babylon, -2642, men scattered everywhere

When Georgia adopted Christianity, they were forced to relate their history to the Bible and the founder of the nation, kartlos, was becoming descendant of Noah …

 

Thargamos was a Scythian king who settled in Armenia and gave Georgia to his son kartlos

This happened to -2600

Same date as the first war of Yi in -2650 which occasioned these mass migrations

These outflows were still intensified after the 2nd Yi war in -2350

“The men were scattered everywhere” would therefore be done due to wars of Yi, rather than the confusion of languages …

Confusion of languages, what a pretty name for nuclear wars …

 

These outflows obviously followed the path of movement of expansion and colonization of the peoples from the Thar Valley which had started since about 2000 years earlier

As Caucasus could not house all the Iberians, the bulk of the population continued his exodus with the Thracian

Then with the Hittite, to finally become a people of the sea and settle in European Iberia

 

Colin Renfrew published in 1984, the Anatolian hypothesis which postulates that the Proto-Indo-Europeans lived 2000 years before the burial mounds in Anatolia and they later spread to Greece, Italy, Sicily, Corsica, the French part of the Mediterranean coast, Spain and Portugal

 

This Anatolian hypothesis contradicted the theory of the origin of the Indo-European as Kurgan

Immediately the French historian Bernard Sergent violently attack him by saying that Colin Renfrew has substituted a “model” with “distortions” and “arbitrary choice” to the observable realities and scientific findings that underpin the Kurgan hypothesis and that his work was “fundamentally dishonest ”

 

The scientific community forced Renfrew to reconsider his theory exactly like it was in Galilee time

Renfrew was obliged to rally to the proposal of Igor Diakonov saying the southeast of Europe was the cradle of Indo-Europeans

 

Back to the rank, Renfrew was made peer for life in 1991, titled Baron Renfrew of Kaimsthorn, and was awarded in prehistoric archeology in 2004 by the Balzan Prize

 

Today nobody can no longer defend this Kurgan theory of Indo-Europeans who defended the superiority of European and justified the colonialism

View Earth is the aim 5, Indo-Europeans

Colin Renfrew however, was not alone in defending this version of history

Greek writers of the 8th century BC, had already noticed the language and physical similarities of the peoples of the Caucasus and of the Pyrenees

That is why they called these Iberia Eastern countries as Caucasus Iberians and Western Iberians the Spanish peoples

Georgia has been for long time designated on maps as the kingdom of Iberia

 

Archaeologist Edward Philippon in 1909, assumed a Caucasus Iberian migration to the West at the time of the great migrations of the late Bronze Age

 

Archaeologists Tamaz Gamkrelidze and Vyacheslav Ivanov stated in 1984 that the Proto-Indo-European tribes of the Maikop culture lived in these territories from the southern Caucasus and northern Anatolia to find a haven

 

Iberian History

Their story is known by the stories of Greek and Roman writers, who confirm their Scythian origin and their huge presence in Mediterranean area

Reconstruction of the history of Iberian is difficult because they are, like the other Atlanteans peoples and peoples of the sea, city-states confederations

Depending on their size and geographical influence, these city-states have left more or less trace of their existence and relations between them

 

From Neolithic times, between – 4311 and – 3800, Iberians, people of the sea, settled in the current Portugal and Galicia, and then followed the coast up to the Rhone Valley where they joined the territories of Ligurians

They gradually simultaneously annexed inland along river valleys

 

But as evidenced by the Montelavar culture, Galicia and northern Portugal have also been attached to theim for their huge gold , lead and tin mines, essential to the manufacture of bronze

Very soon these territories were abandoned to the Kelts, ancestors of the Celts, as the profitability of these mines have declined by lower productivity and the transport costs becoming too high in comparison of Southern area mines

 

At the period of the nuclear wars of Yi, began a long exodus of Iberians remained in the Thar Valley up to Anatolia, then Illyria and finally arrive in their European colonies

 

Their colonization along the coast has been halted by the Ligurians at the Rhone valley, and they gradually pushed them back up to Valencia

These territories movements were not really warriors, as they are both people of the sea, but rather stemmed profitable arrangement for both parties

Towards the end of the 2nd millennium, their territories melted following the invasions of Phoenician populations, greek, Celtic, Roman, etc …

Then, the Iberian civilization collapsed suddenly around 1200/1100 BC

 

Iberian Sites

Iberians create their city-states nearby maritime and river communications and mines of gold, silver, copper, tin, and so on …

They also take into account the sources of drinking water and areas suitable for agriculture and livestock, but also easy to defend

 

They built up cities on high places like as top of hills and defended by stone walls and square or semi-circular towers like in Ullastret in Girona, Tivisia in Tarragona and Calaceite in Teruel

They also built larger cities which are real big cities like Sagunto, Tarragona and Numancia

Then they create outposts located in areas to exploit

 

Sites

The main ancient sites Iberians are:

 

Adra, Alcudia, Almería, Balazote, Barranco Almerin Cabezo Redondo, Calaceite, Castellar de Santisteban, Cerro de la Encina, Cerro de la Virgen, Cerro Las Viñas Coy, Cerro de los Santos, Cerro del Castillo de Lorca, Cerro del Nacimiento, Cuesta del Negro, El Hagar, El Castellón Alto Galera, El Malagón, El Oficio, El Rincón de Almendricos, Fuente Álamo, Gatas, Guainos Alto, Ifre of Mazarrón, Jaen, La Bastida de Totana, Las Angosturas, Los Cipreses Los Millares, Menorca, Motilla of Azuer, Motillas de la Mancha, Numancia, Pedriza, Peñalosa of Baños de la Encina, Puntarrón Chico Beniaján, Sagunto, Sierra Morena, Tarragona, Tivisia, Trebolar, Ullastret, Vila Nova de São Pedro , Zambujal, etc …

 

And also: Tartessos, as we will see in the next chapter

And many others sites not yet excavated or undiscovered

 

Tholos

The tholoi, plural tholos, the barrows, burial mounds, tombs dome, tombelles, cistus, taulas, etc …, are in fact the same thing

 

They are graves covered with a roof, often with slabs, maintained by a land mass that prevents their dislocation

Erosion sometimes scours the mound and the roof collapses

These monuments have been used since the 5th millennium BC by the Atlanteans people of the valley Thar

They continued to use them in their settlements and during the Indian exodus to the north and west

 

Los Millares

Los Millares at 17 km from Almería is an archaeological site of the Copper Age dated to the late fourth millennium BC

The village is located near the copper mines of the Sierra de Gador

los_millares_recreacion_cuadro

Reconstitution of Los Millares

Pintura situada en el centro de recepción de visitantes de los Millares

Photo Wikipédia CC : Jose Mª Yuste, autor de la fotografía (Tuor123) Miguel Salvatierra Cuenca, autor de la ilustración
It is an inner walled citadel, surrounded by three other walls, reinforced by semicircular towers and bastions

Los Milares is surrounded by at least 13 outer forts on the near hills and defended with walls

They were also used for the storage of cereals and others products

We find there again the nuraghi and brochs of the Sea Peoples

 

Inside the walls, simple dwellings around a large building in which we found traces of copper molding

 

Los Millares could house around 1,500 people

Ceramics discovery is varied and includes many plain or decorated items, including bowls decorated with eyes

Eyes are also represented on several stone idols

From the third millennium, they have already the campaniform ceramics, bell-shaped

 

The necropolis of Los Millares is of about 4 acres and contains nearly a hundred collective megalithic tombs, mostly tholoi

The tholos is a grave with a dome, covered with earth, like a tumulus

They are usually grouped in cemeteries outside the villages

 

Culture of Los Millares extends to Murcia, Andalusia and to the south of Portugal

 

Adra

Archaeological discoveries of Barranco Almerin, in the town of Adra, have been dated to the Bronze Age

Currently the site is under study and its area has been defined and implementation monitoring

What will be found will be exhibited in the Museum of Adra

 

The inhabitants of Adra discovered this tomb on the road to Barranco Almerin and they alerted authorities

It is the rain that dug this cavity and opened the grave

Ongoing excavations would reveal other burials

The tomb was covered with a slab

Funeral found objects are a small copper knife , a pot and some bones and ceramics

Tombs found at Trebolar and Barranco Almerin are identical to those found in Guainos Alto

 

The tomb of Alto Guainos was covered by six tiles

The deceased was found with a knife and a jug in bronze

At Pedriza we also found two dolmens that were reused in funeral monuments and gathering place

 

El Argar

The site of El Argar is dated to the Bronze Age and is located near Antas in the province of Almería

It was excavated in 1883 by Henri and Louis Siret brothers helped by the foreman Pedro Flores

They unearthed more than 1,000 graves

 

In the Grave 62, was unearthed a skull with a silver tiara, copper ear pendant and silver necklace in bone and serpentinite

 

Lorca

Lorca town of Murcia in the Guadalentín Valley, has been continuously inhabited since the Neolithic era, i.e. more than 5500 years

Lorca has the largest number of archaeological sites in the region

This is due to the presence of sources and because this valley is the natural communication channel between the Valencia and Andalusia region

 

There are many cists, individual burials of small dimensions, like as a box

A cist consists of several stone slabs defining the space of burial

It can be delimited by low walls

The tomb is sometimes covered by one or more horizontal slabs or stones forming the mounds that covers and protects all

 

Castellar de Santisteban

At Castellar Santistebanon they found many terracotta statues and bronze representing riders, naked warriors, women in tight dresses and bells skirts, stylized figurines and drawn

 

Castulo

Castulo is an ancient Iberian city located near Linares in the region of the Sierra Morena

It has been continuously inhabited since the end of the 3rd millennium BC to the 15th century when it was abandoned

This abandonment has promoted the conservation of archaeological heritage until today

 

Castulo was a metallurgical extraction site of copper, lead and silver

Cultural, commercial and industrial contacts are evidenced with Iberian metallurgical communities and surely El Argar

 

Castulo was also in contact with Tartessos , as he was probably a colony of them

 

Fortified hill Motillas

The buildings on this site are clearly connecting with the Anatolian bronze culture

We find the same cultural material and the same architectural type

 

The Lady of Elche

The Lady of Elche is the sculpture of a female bust, dated to around the 5th century BC.

It was discovered in 1897 on the Roman site of Alcudia, 2 km south of Elche, near Alicante

It is exhibited at the National Archaeological Museum of Spain in Madrid

At its discovering it was purchased by the Louvre

In 1941, the Franco repatriated it to Spain in exchange for a Velázquez portrait of Mariana of Austria and the tent of Francis the first in Pavia

 

This sculpture of 56 cm high has his back a spherical cavity of 18 cm diameter and 16 cm deep, to be used as an urn

It shows polychrome remains on face

Many Iberian statuettes found at other sites, have on their backs a similar cavity

 

It is also the subject of hard disputes:

First its dating

Then, according to an American art historian, John Moffitt, it would be a “fake”

 

Its dating to the late 1st millennium arranges the proponents of the Kurgan theory !

They found the statue in a Roman site, then they date it of the Roman time

Whether the Romans reused an ancient Iberian Site

 

But we clearly finds the sophisticated hairstyles of the Thar Valley

Mohenjo Daro and Harappa have fought many statuettes with headdresses of this style

That proves the Indian origin but also the Iberian Sea Peoples journey

 

DAMA DE ELCHE. Escultura ibera de piedra caliza del siglo V o IV a.C. Procedente de Elche (Alicante, España). En el Museo Arqueológico Nacional de España, en Madrid.

DAMA DE ELCHE. Escultura ibera de piedra caliza del siglo V o IV a.C. Procedente de Elche (Alicante, España). En el Museo Arqueológico Nacional de España, en Madrid.

Dama de Elche, National Archaeological Museum Madrid

Photographer Luis García, 2006

Photo Wikipedia CC: Zaqarbal, flickr.com

 

Many Iberian statuettes having on their backs a similar cavity were found in other dated sites of the Bronze Age

This fixes the two disputes: The statue of the Lady of Elche dates from the 3rd to the 2nd millennium BC and it’s not a fake because the forger could not know in 1897 that other statuettes had the same cavity as they were not excavated and he could not compare it to the Central Asian styles

 

John Moffitt with its protest against the Lady of Elche, was able to acquire knowledge that he would never have had otherwise, and that in any case he did not deserve

Bashing is easy, but he never came to see the statue to prove his words despite the invitation of the Madrid museum

Meanwhile the technological knowledge has advanced and confirmed the antiquity of polychrome paintings

 

Technology of Iberians

Residential sites are fortified and on the heights

Houses are grouped together in enclosures bounded by walls and towers are separated by streets

It was found inside houses, fire places, tools and containers

There are also storage buildings and mill for grains as evidenced by the presence of many millstones

 

Tankers were supplying water to homes and buildings for livestock through a pipeline network

 

These important storage structures which housed most of millstones, and the concentration of an agricultural production exceeding needs of the sites show it to be extensive agriculture whose surpluses were to be exchanged

 

Agriculture and livestock were very developped but hunting, gathering wild plants or collecting shellfish were also charged

The crops were mainly barley, wheat, pulses and flax

They practiced fallow regularly

Livestock concerned sheep, goats, pigs, cattle and horses

 

We could list many of silver, gold, tin and copper mines

They mastered the metallurgy of copper and bronze

Metals were employed for the realization of weapons

It was found artisan workshops with kilns for pottery and metallurgy

Ceramic is of good quality and often standardized, especially for cups, glasses, bowls and pots

It was unearthed beautiful terracotta vases painted with floral stylized patterns, animals, geometric, or characters

 

The Iberians were skilled goldsmiths and many jewels were discovered: tiaras, pendants, bracelets, necklaces, belts, all in finely carved reliefs gold openwork scrolls, palms, lilies, etc …

But also silver brooches depicting characters, cups and bowls sometimes inlaid patterns of gold

 

Textile production mainly linen base was highly developed

 

The handicrafts highly standardized, were distributed in specialized sites, some in metallurgy, in other agricultural products and others in the production of textiles

 

The evidence of distant international trade are many, like as Baltic amber and ivory and ostrich eggs from Africa

 

Women in the Iberian society

The situation of women in this society is based on the caste in which she is

Some female burials are extremely full of rich objects of great value as tiaras in gold, but they had never weapons

Daggers and punches are found in numbers and are probably tools

 

The Iberian government

Iberian society was like other Atlantean populations led by the king of each city-state

The interdependence of the various specialized sites spread throughout the country demonstrates a complex political organization

 

This required an agreement and effective coordination, in addition to a strong central government

Not having found the site which could be the capital of the government, and to see that this has yet worked for several millennia, it forces us to think that this city has disappeared

And when the city disappeared, the organization could withstand time

 

This is proof that this city has necessarily existed, then disappeared

It can therefore only be Tartessos

 

Iberian language

Their language is very poorly known, but it seems it does not belong to the Indo-European group

Before the Roman occupation existed in Iberia three alphabets:

The Tartessian language southwest of Andalusia, the bastetanne or high mastienne Andalusia and the Iberian east of Spain and southern France

The Iberian language is attested in inscriptions that have not yet been deciphered

 

The Greeks named the peninsula Iberia

We remember that the Iberians before their arrival made stopovers in Illyria

 

It is certain that many traders have used their language for their written Iberian transactions

Iberian language inscriptions are present on a wide variety of materials: silver coins and bronze, lead sheets, ceramics of Attica, ceramic black varnish, painted ceramics, amphorae, steles, stone slabs, tiles etc …

 

Today we can read about the texts in Iberian language, but they remain largely incomprehensible

The Basque language would translate certain Iberian language texts

 

We cannot identify the two languages, but there are many similarities between these two languages that appear to be from the same family

 

Posted in adra, Castellar de Santisteban, castulo, cistus, el argar, Fortified hill Motillas, iberians, iberians of Caucasus, lorca, los millares, The Lady of Elche, tholoi, tholos | Leave a comment

EARTH IS THE AIM 6 : Exoduses and survivors ; Part 2 : Peoples of the Sea ; Chapter 9 : Large Liguria

EARTH IS THE AIM 6 : Exoduses and survivors

Part 2 : Peoples of the sea

Chapter 9 : Large Liguria

 

 

History of Ligurians

Ligurians were a People of the Sea who moved from 3rd to 2nd millennium B.C., after the Venetian in the current actual regions of Piedmont and Liguria

 

They then advanced westward along the Mediterranean coast up to near Valencia in Spain

They gradually simultaneously annexed inland along river valleys

 

Their ancient story told by geographers and writers of ancient Greece confirms their Scythian origin and domination on North of Mediterranean Sea

 

Their advance was halted by the Iberians who gradually pushed them up the Rhone Valley

From the end of the second millennium, their territories have shrunk following the invasions of Celtic populations, Gallic, Phocean , Etruscan, Roman, etc …

 

Ligurian language

Although we have no text in Ligurian language, we know that this language had proper names and terms mentioned in ancient texts

 

Herodotus tells us that the word sigynna would have meant ” trader ”

For Pliny the Elder, the Ligurian called the Po Bodincus, which meant “bottomless” and rye was named asia

 

The Ligurian has affinities with the italicized language and is generally regarded as an Indo-European language

 

Place names revealed the presence of words in Ligurian origin in the Southern Alps, in the Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Tuscany, Umbria, Lazio, the Languedoc and Roussillon, and the Iberian Peninsula

But also in Sicily, Elym country, in the Rhone Valley and Corsica

 

The vallée des merveilles

The vallée des merveilles close to Tende, is a massive Mercantour Valley in the Alps, in which were discovered over 40,500 rock carvings and proto-historic petroglyphs of the Bronze Age

 

It is a Ligurian religious site dating from the 4th millennium BC.

For three thousand years from 4000 years before J.C., Ligurian came there to invoke the heavenly forces

In this impressive landscape are held spectacular and unpredictable storms throughout the year

 

Mount Bego rising to almost 3000 meters, captures lightning and thus helps to make of this place , the place where you can communicate with the heavenly gods

 

In addition to the rock engravings dating from – 10000 and more,

there are petroglyphs and menhirs, dating from the time of the Ligurian – 4000

 

The theme shown most often is the bull, but there are also many depictions of weapons: daggers, axes and halberds

Some anthropomorphic figures have inherited from nicknames like:

The Wizard, the Christ, the Chieftain, the dancer, etc …

 

The Researches of Henry de Lumley in this site, confirm my theory presented in EARTH IS THE AIM 4, the Tocharian:

Petroglyphs are stylized signs and symbols or pictograms

 

Vallée_des_Merveilles_101

Vallée des merveilles : The tribal chief.

Wikipedia CC Photo: Philippe Kurlapski

 

 

Ligurian Religion

Mount Bego was deified as beneficial because of the waters that descend and terrific by his frequent and violent storms

 

Emilia Masson, CNRS researcher, specialist of the Hittits writings, said:

“The highest stele shows the union between heaven and earth, the sky is represented as the image of haloed sun that straddles a ladder.

Earth raises his arms to receive the heavenly rain. The two parallel daggers drawn between the divine figures translate their union.

The second episode of the story, the separation of the primordial couple become essential to maintain the cosmic balance is raised using an anthropomorphic picture wielding two knives horizontal.

The third pillar, located at the lowest level, and at the very edge of the stream Wonderland, narrates the victory of the storm god and, through it, the birth of a new world where mortals will intervene. ”

 

According to the thesis of Jègues-Wolkiewiez, researcher at the University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, the hornformes or anthropomorphic symbols carved by the ancients would have a cosmic meaning

The Valley of Wonders is a giant observatory

At that time, the sun rose in the constellation of Taurus, which is found abundantly in the petroglyphs

 

It is true that the Ligurian are equipped like other Atlanteans with the major god: the god of the storm

 

 

Ligurian megaliths

Ligurian digging large common graves:

The tombs, of long form , are deep trenches maintained and covered with slabs, accessible by stairs

The monument is backfilled and covered by a mound of earth

It could house 50 to 200 dead

This is very similar to the monumentals funeral Etruscan cities, other People of the Sea

 

In small villages, they practiced individual burial in a shuttering stones in a field reserved for the deceased

 

The tradition was to bury the deceased with his favorite objects or weapons, but never with the tooling used to build or dig these graves

It was abandoned in the embankment

 

They also built dolmens on the burial sites

These are large rooms with stone walls, with paved floors and ceilings

Later, the dolmens were reused as funeral monuments and were then covered by a mound of earth

 

Ligurian Technology

Archaeology proves the rapid technological dévellopment of Ligurian populations from 4000 to 2000 years BC.

 

The floors are cleared for developing agriculture and livestock, mainly sheep

It also provides production of related products:

The skins and wool

Ligurian know spin and weave, like all Peoples of the Sea

 

They are also builders: we found many large rectangular houses, with thick stone walls bound by a clay mortar

 

They also know beer , metallurgy, copper and bronze, pottery, and all the technical progress of Atlantean populations from Asia

 

Ligurian and Etruscan

Industrial and commercial complementarity of the Peoples of Sea ensures their supremacy over northern Mediterranean basin for more than two millennia, the 4th at the end of the 2nd

 

If the Ligurian took to the river plains is to harvest timber

This precious wood that they will deliver to the marine ports, for resale to Etruscan, shipbuilders

 

Greek writers attest:

“The country is heavily wooded … they cut wood all day long provided powerful and heavy axes”

Diodorus

“They amount of wood that can be used for shipbuilding, huge trees that have up to 8 feet (2 meters 50) in diameter, and quantity of richly veined own wood to make beautiful tables (walnut) ”

Strabo

 

Apart from necessary dive understanding between different ethnic groups, this also implies developed logistics for the transport and transactions

 

The 10th of the 12 works of Heracles

For his tenth labor, Hercules must visit the island Erythrie, the current Cadiz, Andalusia, to steal the herd of cattle of Geryon, son of the Titan Oceanus, king of Tartessos, and bring it to Eurystheus at Mycenae

 

Heracles went through Libya to reach the western end of the Mediterranean, where Atlas supports the celestial sphere

Passing on the European continent, while still welded to Africa, he suddenly strikes the ground with his fists and triggers an earthquake

The earth is torn and two rock pillars since called the Pillars of Hercules, emerge from each side of the strait:

The promontory of Abyla Ceuta in Morocco and Mount Calpe in Gibraltar

This allows Atlantic waters waters flowing into the Mediterranean, causing the flood in the Black Sea

See EARTH IS THE AIM 1 , Eden and China’s gods

 

This also allows us to date the labors of Hercules:

There are about 6900 years

 

Arriving in Erythrie, Heracles perceives the huge herd of cattle kept by a two-headed dog and a dragon with seven mouths

With two sledgehammer, he kills the two-headed monster

Then he sent seven arrows to the seven mouths of the dragon who dies immediately

Warned by his cowherd Ménoitès, Geryon who had three heads and six hands, heading straight for the thief

Heracles take again his bow and plant a poisoned arrow in the middle of the forehead of each of the three heads

 

After many adventures, the hero arrives at Mycenae with almost all the flock of Geryon

Eurystheus seeing the beauty of the herd decides to sacrifice the oxen in honor of Hera

Thus ends the 10th labor of Heracles

 

The Heraclean way

Encyclopedia Daremberg and Saglio 1877, describes the return of Heracles, in particular out of translations of ancient Greek writers:

“To leave the island of Erythia Heracles sailed again with the horse he won on the cut of the Sun, and makes it after tackling the continent. He continues his journey across the continent, pushing ahead the herd; it first passes through Iberia and Celtic, where Alesia is a foundation of the hero; in the deserted area of Crau, east of the mouth of the Rhone, it has to undergo a terrible fight against Ligyens; his arrows were exhausted and himself about to faint from fatigue, Zeus dropped a shower of stones which serve to complete victory. He crossed the Alps, Liguria repels the attack of two son of Poseidon, and Alébion Derkymos who want to rob him of his cows through Etruria, arrived in Rome, where he overcomes Cacus reaches the Cuma area where it supports a struggle against the Giants in the Campi Flegrei, built the causeway that once separated the sea Lake Avernes and Lucrins. Around Rhegium, one of his bulls escaped and drags after him in Sicily, which is full of his exploits and memories. ”

 

Thus the land route used by Heracles was called: The Heraclean way

In reality, even if it is not a highway, it is a dirt road enough used to allow chariots crossing

img014

10th labor of Hercules

Wikipedia CC map: O H 237

 

We can see on this map the first part of the route from Cadiz to Ostia, the Heraclean way, and the second from Ostia to Mycenae via Sicily

 

Ligurian and Iberian

Given its ancieneté, this road has not been built by the People of the Sea

But the Iberians and the Ligurian have certainly expanded and maintained it to ensure the cohesion of economic relations between the Peoples of the Sea

 

The bold techniques used to cross the highest reliefs, will be “Admirated by the Gods” said Silius Italicus

 

Necessary way, long before the Roman world were being implanted in these regions, the Ligurian and Iberian hold an absolute monopole on all Land traffic on South of Spain, France, Italy, Balkans and Greece

Posted in 10th work of Heracles, Heraclean way, Heracles, Iberian, Large Liguria, Liguria, Vallée des merveilles | Leave a comment

EARTH IS THE AIM 6 : Exoduses and survivors ; Part 2 : Peoples of the sea ; Chapter 8 : The Italics of the South

EARTH IS THE AIM 6 : Exoduses and survivors

Part 2 : Peoples of the sea

Chapter 8 : The Italics of the South

Italians

You can now understand : All Italy was conquered about 3 to 4000 years before today by the people of the sea , more or less peacefully

The People of the Sea are composed by of a multitude of ethnic and sub-ethnic groups

The main ethnic group is the Venetian

The Venetian themselves are composed of many sub-ethnic groups

The official story based on linguistic backgrounds combined with the country of residence , called them : italics

Italic languages

The Italic languages were related to the Indo-European languages

They were mainly spoken in Italy but also in the Balkans and Central Europe

The people speaking these languages were called italics

The italicized language of Latium and Ancient Rome, was Latin

Its evolution created the Roman languages

All other Italic languages are extinct , supplanted by the Latin

The alphabet of the Italic languages is based on the Greek alphabet

The main influences are Greek , Venetian , Etruscan and Celtic

Main Italic languages are: Samnite, marse, marrucin, pélignien, vestinien, Sabine, equë, Volscian, Umbrian, picene, Lucan, Faliscan, Latin, Venetian, Liburnian, Szekler, Ligurian, Etruscan and Illyrian

Italics

The italics were not from Italy

They colonized Italy from 3rd to 2nd millennium coming from the Balkans, but also the south of France and the east coast of Spain up to the south of Valencia

The main emphasis ethnic groups are: Aurunci, Ausones, Bruttians Campanian Capenates, Elymi, Etruscan eques, Euganean, Faliscan, Frentani, Hernici histres, Iapyges, Latin, Lepontians, Ligurian, Lucan, Marrucini, Marsi, Messapii Oenotrians, Umbrian, Opics, Oscan, pélignien Picenians , Sabine Samnite, Sicani, siceliotes, Siculans, Sidicini, tauriniens, and Volscian Venetian Vestinians

Southern italics

The people of southern Italy have often changed places In summary, during the early invasions of the Sea Peoples, the Siculans occupied central and southern Italy

Then came the Oscan, who chased the Umbrian north and Siculans to South

When the pressure was too great, almost all of the Siculans leave for Sicily where they had to mix with the Sicanis Sicanis Sicanis arrived from Illyria, installed themselves on the banks of the river Sicanos, the current Jucar, in the present province of Valencia in Spain They will be pushed out more or less peacefully by the Ligurian, an other People of the Sea, which had colonize the north west of Italy, southern France and the Spanish coast up to the south of Valencia

They will then establish the Big Liguria

The Sicanis had then to take refuge in Trinacria

The name comes from the ancient Greek Trinakria, which means three points

The three points are: the Western tip of Trapani-Marsala, the Northeastern tip of Messina the Southeastern tip of Syracuse

They called the island conquered: Sicania

According Favorin of Arles, old Sicanis are regarded as the first inhabitants of Sicily

They will have then to absorb the migration of Elymis After the capture of Troy, Trojans, arriving by sea in Sicily and settled there

Thucydides wrote that they had fled from Troy and they are sons of Élymos, a bastard son of Anchises

After a tour in the Mediterranean area, they settled in Sicily relatively peacefully in the vicinity of Sicanis

Under the name of Elymis they founded Erice and Egesta

Siculans

The Sicanis then suffered the invasion of the Siculans at the 13th century B.C.

The Siculans, forced by Oscans and Opics, crossed the Straits of Messina

They defeated the Sicanis and drove them south and west of the island

They then called the conquered island: Sicily

They occupied the most fertile parts

But they were later invaded at their turn by the Phoenicians who set up the ports, then by Greeks who drove the inside of the island …

Oscans

Oscans, opsci in Latin, take their name from the goddess of fertility Ops , Venus of Illyria

They will gradually occupy the south of Italy

They had a unit of area measurement: The vorsus, which amounted to 8640 Roman square feet

Heinrich Nissen assessed the Oscan foot at 0.2749 meters

They practiced animals growing and fishery , and manufactured ceramics plates were recently discovered as well as vases decorated with fish motifs

It seems that they are politically organized in city-states

They spoke Oscan, an Italic language and used their alphabet or the Etruscan alphabet for those leaving near them A

ll these features and their religion including the mother goddess and other Hindu deities, prove that there are not a primitive people, but a population of the Peoples of the Sea

Messapiis

Messapiis, came from Illyria, and they had occupied the Southeastern Italy coast today Puglia

This invasion, more or less peaceful, will increase the pressure of the Oscans on the Siculans, which will then have to settle permanently in Sicily

Their capital was Brention, meaning “Deer horn” in Illyrian, which was Latinized by Brundǐsǐum, the current Brindisi, Adriatic port

Although they came from Illyria which does not seem questionable, Herodotus and Virgil attribute their a Cretan origin

Given that this is a People of the Sea, this hypothesis is not incompatible, since before arriving in Illyria, they were passed by Crete, and a rearguard was able to reach the Messapii later

Messapia, maritime civilization

In Messapus the most important port is Gnathie

But this is only one of many Messapii ports covering the Adriatic coast in southern Italy They line from north to south over almost 160 km

The Mediterranean maritime trade is attested by numerous archaeological finds from external and particularly large circular Mycenaean vases

Messapian Technology

In the ruins of the port of Gnathie have been found ceramic of the 16th century B.C. Metallurgy is also present

They had their own language: the Messapian

We found about 260 inscriptions in Messapian

Their megalithic culture and technology rank look like as Atlantean, and like all other Peoples of the Sea , They are mariners and merchants, and hence, also warriors

Dolmen_Placa2

Dolmen Placa in Provincia di Lecce (Salento), Puglia, Italia

Photo Wikipedia CC: Reame

Megaliths of Messapia

One of the best known is the dolmen Placa near Lecce

Many dolmens were reused by Christians

In Messapia were found many small dolmens, menhirs and individual mounds: the “mirrors”

They are called in Italian: specchia megalite

In fact they look like tombelles of Britain, they are many near the Gulf of Morbihan, including Bono and Baden But many tombelles are not listed as the owners of the land concerned do not want to suffer the fierce and costly tyranny of official Archaeological Services

And as well in Britain than in Puglia, we do not know their use

 

 

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EARTH IS THE AIM 6 : Exoduses and survivors ; Part 2 : Peoples of the sea ; Chapter 7 : The Sardinian

EARTH IS THE AIM 6 : Exoduses and survivors

Part 2 : Peoples of the sea

 

Chapter 7 : The Sardinian

 

Sardinia

Sardinia which is the country of Sardinian and Nuraghi , is a colony of the people of the sea , the Venetian

The Venetian conquered the island to include it in their international trade network from Anatolia to Scotland

 

Sardis

Sardis is a town of Anatolia , in Lydia , on the river Pactolus

The city is mentioned in The Persians by Aeschylus

Archaeological excavations prove its existence in the early Bronze , at about 3000 BC

Mentioned in the Bible among the seven churches of the Apocalypse , Sardis was the capital of the Lydian empire and one of the largest cities at this time

 

Lydia is one of the original peoples of the sea realms

Artemis , daughter of Zeus and sister of Apollo , was the goddess of the city

 

She was the goddess of the hunt , the moon and of fertility

 

Lydian is a language of Indo-European origin

The Lydian writing is Hittite cuneiform

 

The Sardinian

Everything proves that the Sardinian , mainly from Sardis , are a people of the sea , accompanying and supporting Venetian warrior in their exodus westward

 

While developing their territory in Sardinia , linking the Venetian network , they also settle in the province of Castello , North of the present province of Valencia

They will be driven out more or less peacefully with the expansion of Ligurian , an other people of the sea , who will built the Great Liguria

People who do not fuse with the Ligurian will then join their compatriots in Sardinia

 

Ancient Sardinia

The Sardinian Archaeological discoveries confirm us that the Sardinian are a Veneti ethnic groups , but also their alliance with the Kelt , now became Celtic

 

Bellbeaker_map_europe

DieKraft card : Data of RJ Harrison , The Beaker Folk

Copper Age : Occurence of the Bell Beaker Finds of Culture

Photo Wikipedia : Public domain

 

This card of archaeological finds attributed to the Beaker culture , virtually covers all European Venetian territories

 

The culture of Bonnanaro , named from the town of Bonnanaro in the province of Sassari , is considered by archaeologists as the regionalization of the Beaker culture in Sardinia

 

Bonnanaro culture , from the early second millennium BC , around 1800 to 1600 BC , is considered as the first step of the Nuragic civilization

The culture of Bonnanaro brings metallurgical and ceramic technology and an Indo-European language

 

Megaliths dating

Archaeological excavations dating performed on ALL levels in Sardinia sites , confirm the evolution of megalithic monuments :

– Approximately 3500 BC : Building of megaliths

– 2800 BC about : Reuses as religious site and beginning of recoveries mound for some monuments

– Approximately 1800 BC : Reuse in tombs and funerary monuments

 

The pre-Nuragic civilization

The civilization of Bonuighinu from -3730 to -3300 BC , is characterized by the appearance of Dee Madre , the mother goddess , with female deities represented by obese stone figurines

 

On that date the domus de Janas , artificial caves dug into the rock , will serve as tombs

They grow wheat and keep livestock

 

During the construction of a canal , the remains let discover a village dating from -3400 BC

The huts of this village were semi-buried

It also had many graves

 

Then during the Ozieri culture , from -3300 to -2480 BC , we can note a

sudden technical evolution

This period gives us a high quality of vases , ceramics , colorful decorative items and tools for hunting

 

The circular houses are grouped in villages , built of stone and placed on top of hills

They are no fortifications , which proves that people had no fear of enemies

 

This confirms the unit , despite the large number of different ethnic groups , and the government on all the northern territories of the Mediterranean by the Peoples of the Sea

 

Then the culture of Abealzu-Filigosa from -2480 to -1855 BC , is the beginning of the emergence of building to defend the villages and the manufacture of weapons

 

The Nuragic civilization

It seems that the nuragic languages ​​have similarities with Basque and Etruscan and belong to the Indo-European language system

 

Nuragic Culture begins around the 18th century BC

In Nuragic I , from the 18th to 16th century BC , we found corridor nuraghis

In Nuragic II , from the 17th to the 14th century BC , appear the tholos nuraghis , characterized by a truncated conical tower with one or more superposed rooms covered by a false ceiling

In Nuragic III , from the 14th to the 9th century BC , was discovered 3 to 5 towers connected by walls , being then fortresses

In the courtyard was a usually a well

 

Archaeologists agree to consider that the nuraghis were building both civilian and military , used for the storage of goods and their protection

 

It looks quite brochs in the Scottish areas …

 

Nuraghi

Nuraghe_Losa

Nuraghe of Losa – Northern view

Photo Wikipédia CC : Jack Aubrey

 

There are brochs in Scotland

There are nuraghis in Sardinia

 

In fact , apart the names of these fortified towers we find in the Venetian territories , there is almost no difference , otherwise the local nature of building materials

 

Use and strategic locations are also similar

 

Nuraghe Technology

We found many bronze objects representing men and women , animals , boat models , nuraghis , fantastic creatures , miniature reproductions of everyday objects , and so on …

 

It was also revealed many finely decorated vases

 

So they perfectly mastered metallurgy and ceramics , of course accompanied by the necessary logistics for these activities

 

Nuraghe Population

Nuraghi were gathered in chiefdoms

The bronze statuettes often show tribal leaders who hold a stick , symbol of command

Posted in Nuraghi, Nuragic civilization, sardes, Sardinia, sardis | Leave a comment

EARTH IS THE AIM 6 : Exoduses and survivors ; Part 2 : Peoples of the sea ; Chapter 6 : Umbrian

EARTH IS THE AIM 6 : Exoduses and survivors

Part 2 : Peoples of the sea

 

Chapter 6 : Umbrian

 

History of Italy

History of Italy , is the story of numbers of ethnic groups !

Only under the Roman Empire from – 27 up to + 476 , and since the reunification of Italy in 1871 up to today , the country we now call Italy is unified in one country

 

During all other periods , it was only a mix of large and small regions

The origin of this political situation is the physical geography of this country

These are only mountains and valleys , sometimes connected by passes and closed to the sea:

From one end to the other, these are natural boundaries …

 

Italics

Italics peoples are among the Sea Peoples

They arrived in Italy from 3rd to 2nd millennium BC, coming from Illyria

As every time , the people of the sea all invade a country , then a part of them stays there when the others leave to new countries , maintaining a comfortable rear base

 

So follows the story of Dorian , Illyrian , Venetian and Etruscan …

It is also called Apennine culture or Vucedol culture

 

Italic languages ​​are based on the Greek alphabet , influenced by Etruscan and Venetian

With the expansion of the Roman Empire , Latin impregnated with other Italic languages ​​became the main language

Other languages ​​declined and disappeared around the 1st century BC to make way for the vulgar Latin

 

Umbrian

The Umbrian or Umbri , people of the sea , coming from Illyria , entered Italy from the northeast at the beginning of the Bronze Age , while the Etruscan occupy only the North of the peninsula , and they founded the great Umbrian

 

Iron_Age_Italy-fr

Iron Age Italy Ewan ar born

Dbachmann : Wikipedia CC Photo

 

Strabo and Eugubine tablets found in Gubbio , describe a people evolved and organized in a federation of city-states

Here we find again , the organization of Atlantean peoples from which they are derived

 

They spoke an Indo-European language of the Osco-Umbrian group

 

Religion of Umbria is known to us mainly by the Tables of Gubbio , written between the 5th and 1st century BC

They describe us a priest assembly , the Atiedii Fratres , consisting of twelve priests dedicated to Ju-pater god (Jupiter in Latin)

Jupiter wife is Cubrar , the Mother Goddess

He is part of the triad : Ju , Mart and Viofonus or Jupiter , Mars and Quirinus

 

In the 2nd millennium BC , it was a peaceful people with an economy based on agriculture , breeding and processing of metals

That is to say : with the sea peoples technology

 

Theopompus , in the 4th century BC , tells us :

“People from Umbria who lived along the Adriatic have a standard of living comparable to the Lydian one’s , with good land , which earned them prosperity.”

Lydia is located in Anatolia , country of origin of the Sea Peoples

 

Decreasing of territories

Following the emergence of neighboring peoples and their military power, the vast Umbrian territory began to shrink

Tuscany is lost in favor of Etruscan

 

Pliny the Elder tells us:

“The Umbrian population is estimated to be the oldest in Italy , it is thought that the Umbrians were called” Ombrici “by the Greeks as they would have survived the rain when the earth was flooded .

There is evidence that the Etruscans have submitted three hundred Umbrian cities ”

 

Pliny the Elder , also states that : “The Sicilian and the Liburnian occupied many territories they take off to the Umbrian

 

Sicilians are the Szekler and the Liburnian the Oscan

Then the Sabin , the Latin and Picenian , are Umbrian peoples who took their independence

 

Legend of the founding of Rome by Tite-Live

Rome was founded by Romulus and Remus, fed by a wolf

Romulus founded the city of Rome on the Palatine Hill location on the Tiber 21 April 753 BC

 

Procas king of Alba Longa , had two sons : Numitor and Amulius

On the death of their father , the inheritance was shared equally :

The eldest , Numitor , obtained the throne , while Amulius , the youngest , inherited wealth

 

Disappointed by the sharing , Amulius overthrew his brother and killed all his male descendants

To be sure that the Numitor family disappears , he made from his niece Rhea Silvia , a vestal , whose priesthood obliged her to remain a virgin throughout her life

The god Mars fell in love with the vestal virgin who gave birth to twins , Romulus and Remus

 

Amulius then made walling the vestal and ordered that the children will be thrown into the Tiber

The children were thrown on the bank of the river in flood by the servant responsible for implementing the sentence

They were then collected by a female wolf who suckled them in the cave of Lupercal at the foot of the Palatine

The shepherd Faustulus , then gathered up the twins and raised them with Acca Laurentia , the female wolf which he made his wife

Acca Laurentia was a prostitute , which is nicknamed lupa , Latin word for “wolf” or “prostitute”

 

Once adults , Romulus and Remus decided to found a city that took its name from Romulus , chosen by the augurs

As he traces the pomoerium sacred groove delimiting the city , his brother Remus , to mock the weakness of the new town , crosses a step this symbolic bastion

Immediately Romulus kills him as the saying goes : Insociabile regnum

“The power is not divided”

It marks the intransigence against forbidden entry to Rome

 

Summaries of the founding of Rome by Dionysius of Halicarnassus

Dionysius of Halicarnassus tells us the different existing versions in his time , – 50 , of the legends of the founding of Rome

 

According Cephalon Gergis , Demagoras and Agathyllos , Rome was founded by Romos , Aeneas son and brother of Ascanio , and Euryleon Romulos

According Hellanicus and his disciple Sigeum Damastes , Rome was founded by Aeneas himself , on his arrival in Italy after been in the land of Molosses

According Xenagoras , Rome was founded by Romos , son of Ulysses and Circe

According to Dionysius of Chalcis , Rome was founded by Romos , son of Ascanius or Emathion

According to other authors , Rome was founded by Romos , son of Italus and Leucaria , daughter of Latinus

 

History of the foundation of Rome

Archaeology has shown that the site of Rome was occupied before the 2nd millennium BC

The site of Rome was inhabited at its foundation in – 753

Lazio was then inhabited by at least 3 people who occupied the Alban Hills

Rome was then a group of villages spread over the hills

 

In 1902-1903 , 41 tombs were found near the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina with Proto-Corinthian vases of the 7th century BC

On the Quirinal , 5 tombs , and Esquiline , 86 graves , which contained rich furnishings :

Weapons, helmets, shields and even a battle tank

 

The dating’s realized ranging from the 10th to the 8th century BC

This is consistent with the tradition of the foundation – 753

 

The foundation of Rome

The Tables of Gubbio confirm that the religion of the Umbrian includes the triad : Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus

Jupiter chief of the heavenly gods , Mars the warrior god and Quirinus the god of crops

 

Terrestrial gods love live among men , Quirinus would have done it under the name of Romulus

 

Most ancient writers attest that Mars fertilized Rhea Silvia when she was sleeping

 

Dionysius of Halicarnassus and most ancient authors acknowledge Romulus as Quirinus

 

The father of Romulus and Remus is then Mars

 

Rome has been founded by the Umbrian peoples of the sea

 

Atlanteans of the Valley of Thar / Scythian / Thracian / Hittite /

Peoples of the sea / Umbrian / Founding of Rome

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