Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 22: Cities and states Hurrian kingdoms

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 22: Cities and states Hurrian kingdoms
Published June 27, 2011

The 12 Hurrian gods of the underworld …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 22: Cities and states Hurrian kingdoms

The Hurrian

Originally, the Hurrian arrived from the Valley Thar in India to their desks in Armenia, see chapter of Urartians Armenians speak a language related to Sanskrit Hurrian texts discovered describe Vedic deities: Varuna, Indra and Nasatya In the fourth century AD, Eusebius, cites Eupolemus historian of the second century BC, which asserts that the time of Abraham around 1800 BC, the Armenian invaded the Syrian This confirms the Indo-European Hurrian


Tell means a hill or an artificial hill formed by remains of dwellings Tells are characteristic of the Neolithic and we are found from the Indus to the Near East The equivalent Turkish tepe: hill, or höyük: mounds Persia is Tappeh: Hill The word also refers to the tombs, as these hills artificial burial mounds are often

Tell Mohammed Diyab

This mound of 14 hectares, is under excavation surrounded tells many smaller It is occupied from the third millennium to the end of the time Mitannian There is a small temple and homes In a tomb were found the remains metallic clearly indicating an Armenian of Hurrian, as for Urartians As at Tell Brak and other sites Mitannian, there find traces of repeated destruction by the Assyrians

Gasur and Nuzi

Gasur, who was appointed during the second millennium Nuzi, Today Yorgan Tepe, has been inhabited since the fifth millennium BC The texts indicate an uninterrupted occupation until its destruction in the fourteenth century During the second millennium, Nuzi was a city of the kingdom Arrapha of the present Kirkuk, a vassal of Mitanni North of the palace was a double temple dedicated to Ishtar and Teshub, the Hurrian storm god Excavations in the temples, the palaces and houses, have delivered more than 6,000 cuneiform tablets, the oldest dating from the third millennium before J.C. Most of the names of the inhabitants of Nuzi that we are related in the tablets, names are Hurrian There are also uncovered statues, weapons, ceramics and remains of frescoes In a house, more than a thousand tablets us engage the private archives of the owner TEHIP Tilla: contracts, recording acquisitions and land exchanges, purchases of slaves, trial, etc. … Property sales are in the form of adoption of fictitious contracts, of maruti tuppi: a person takes a another, which he inherited a property and in return pays the adopted adopting a present that is the price of land Tehip-Tilla is passed over a hundred times The lending rate is 50% and insolvent debtors must dispose of their property to their creditors or placing family members or themselves , And for several years to several decades

The kingdom of Ebla
The tell of Ebla, Tell Mardikh today, 60 km south Aleppo, occupies a strategic position which controls access to the Mediterranean The kingdom of Ebla has extended its grip to Iraq The king has the title of Sumerian EN, translated by Lord , And its legitimacy is based on ancestor worship deified dynastic Excavations have unearthed more than fourteen thousand tablets carved in Sumerian clay and éblaïte These tablets have provided information on economy, trade, industry, government, diplomacy, religion and history of Ebla The exhumed remains can tell Ebla was occupied in the second half of the fourth millennium Between – and 3000 – 2000, Ebla was one of the most powerful city-states of Syria

The G palace, which dates from the XXIVth century, is the oldest palace known in Syria It extended over an acre and included at least one stage In the administrative district was found in the room archives about 14,700 tablets and fragments of tablets classified On the east wall were shelves deliveries tissue In the corner there were shelves of deliveries precious metals and copper Along the north wall on the top shelf there were word lists or dictionaries éblaïte-Sumerian and Decrees Other shelves were reserved for agriculture and Livestock In other parts of the palace, were found tablets deliveries of food, flour and oil The threshold of the civic district and steps the grand staircase of the palace include pearl- The courtyard and the throne room contained wall panels inlaid with gold leaf, ornamental limestone and lapis lazuli These panels represent processions of characters paying homage to the sovereign There were also statues of composites, whose elements in hair are made of steatite and lapis lazuli The body of the statues was hard stone or metal decorated precious stones and gold There were inlaid furniture and decorated with small marble figurines representing animals or round of fighting heroes and mythological animals Representation shows a goddess taming lions

The palace of Ebla textile workers employed for work wool and flax, blacksmiths with about 500 ironworkers, the goldsmiths who worked copper, silver and gold, and workers in the processing of agricultural products such as flour milling, baking, brewing, wine making, the manufacture of perfumes, etc. Two-thirds of the agricultural sector are grain, as evidenced by a report, which informs us that the palace has a reserve of more than 31 000 tonnes of barley Almost all the rest of the agricultural area is formed olive groves At the time of the destruction of the palace, its reserves were approximately 330,000 liters of oil The vine occupied the remaining land, the presses and Wine cellars are mentioned in the documentation The breeding was mainly focused on sheep There would have been more than 100,000 according to the archives According to accounts, there were over 8,000 head of cattle International trade was very active The export concerned mainly olive oil and textile products Ebla was on a crossroads of trade routes important that controlled trade in metals and wood In the royal palace were found objects from Egypt and lapis lazuli from Afghanistan The great god of the kingdom is éblaïte Kura and his consort Barana Dagan is the god of fertility The god of thunder is Adda The sun god Utu is Rashap god of the underworld, Ishkhara fertility goddess, Ashtar (Ishtar), celestial goddess of Venus, the star is Kakkab, Enki, the goddess Ninki, the Hurrian goddess Hebat complete this pantheon still largely unknown

Ebla is constantly at war against its powerful neighbor, Husband At the end of the XXV and early XXIVth century, Ebla was a vassal state of Mari and pays tribute But the reign of Ibrium, around 2300 BC, Ebla conquered the kingdom of Emar, the kingdom and the kingdom of Tuttul Abarsal and several other small neighboring kingdoms Through marriages of princesses éblaïtes, the vizier Ibbi-zikir is allied to the kingdoms of Nagar and Kish After many adventures in this region tormented, to – 1600, the city of Ebla was destroyed by King Hurrian Pizikarra of Nineveh, according to a tablet written in Hittite and Hurrian discovered in the ruins of Hattusha It tells the story of the making of Ebla One recognizes all the elements that characterize companies Aryan or Indo-European Kura is the chief god, unknown elsewhere, which is normal for a tutelary deity of the city founder The other gods are the classical pantheon Aryan god and goddess couple, storm gods, fertility, the sun and other celestial bodies, the underworld, etc. … Aryan Technology is also recognizable architecture, urban planning, administration, goldsmiths, metallurgy , Intensive agriculture, wine and beer, international trade, etc … And all this, there 5000 years …


Urkish or Urkesh now Tell Mozan, was founded during the fourth millennium BC. J.C. Excavations have unearthed the royal palace, a terrace which had to be surmounted by a temple, houses with courtyards interior and exterior, cemeteries, etc. … Urkish was Hurrian capital at times The cuneiform tablets in Hurrian language of the gods speak Kumarbi, god nature, father of gods and tutelary deity of the city, and the god of the underworld , Nergal They also give us the names of some kings The first names mentioned are the title of Hurrian NNWS : Tupkish NNWS (2250 BC.) Tish-atal NNWS (time unknown) Shatar-mat NNWS (time unknown) Atal-shen (time unknown) Ann-atal (2050 BC.) Te’irru (1800 BC.)


Nagar, modern Tell Brak, is composed of several tells, extends over 110 hectares The site has been occupied since – 6500 before J.C. There is good reason to believe that one of the tells of Nagar is the site of Wassugammi, but there is no conclusive evidence in meaning Nagar IV dated millennium before J.C. We are unearthed a temple measuring 30 meters by 25 The outer walls are decorated with cones forming a rosettes and mosaic stone Copper sheets covered the interior walls At the back of the temple, there was an altar decorated with stones white and lapis lazuli He was appointed temple in the eyes because they are found more 200 figures in alabaster, called: idols in the eyes, representatives of characters with one or two heads, eyes occupying almost the entire surface But also many amulets and large amount of faience beads and rock crystal and many ceramics The seals that are found, attest at that time The existence of an administration developed After its destruction by the XXIVth century Sargon of Akkad, a palace of 105 by 92 meters, is built on the site of the temple to eyes


Taite, called Taidu Assyria was one of the capital Mitanni Tell al-Hamidiya be identified with Taite We are uncovering a citadel and a large palace complex It was destroyed and rebuilt by the Assyrians in their so because they wanted to sever all ties with civilization Hurrian

The kingdom of Mitanni

The Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni reaches its apogee in the sixteenth century before J.C. The capital was Wassugammi Wassugammi could be located at Tell Brak Taite was the second capital, modern Tell al-Hamidiya Urkish too, was the capital of Mitanni In fact, the capital has to depend on the extent and composition of the kingdom … It is a confederation of many vassal cities: Aleppo, Alalakh, Ugarit, Carchemish, Emar, and kingdoms: Nuhasse, the Kizzuwatna, Arrapha, the Hana, etc … Mitanni then goes to the east of the Zagros, Iran, until the Mediterranean in the west and north to Taurus, Turkey, to the south to Kadesh and Hana, at Lebanon and Syria The king of Mitanni was called: Hurrian king of men The first elements of the Hurrian language have survived with the letter Mitannian This missive from the king of Mitanni to Pharaoh Tushratta Egyptian Amenhotep III, from the early fourteenth century, was found in Egypt at Tell El-Amarna The address consists of seven lines, written in Akkadian Text, four one hundred eighty-seven lines, is written in Hurrian It is the composition of the dowry of Princess Mitannian given in marriage to the Pharaoh The decline of the Mitanni kingdom will begin with Hittite and Egyptian invasions and end with the final annexation by Assyrians in the thirteenth century before J.C. The Assyrians had a policy of destroying the borrowed of other civilizations and replacing them with their values and personal this explains the difficulty to find traces of Hurrian

The kingdom of Mari

Mari, modern Tell Hariri, is also a kingdom Hurrian The city of Mari was founded around – 3000 BC on a surface Circular 1300 meters in diameter Found there a magnificent palace, the sacred and the terrace of the massive red The site includes the temples of Ishtar, Nini-Zaza, of Shamash and Ninhursag of Dagan but has not yet found the temple of Itur-Sea , The tutelary deity of Mari Bronze objects attesting to metallurgy developed Technology and administration are attested to by Mari a Hurrian city-state But after 40 seasons of excavations, only one fifteenth the site was excavated It was a strategic port on the Euphrates controlled regional trade A channel 120 km long allowed the ascent of the river and connected the northern plains of the south by the Khabur and the Euphrates land routes Tablets show that the rulers of Mari required up to 20% of the value of goods transported were Husband was surrounded by a dike designed to protect flood and was protected by a thick wall of 6 meters, and flanked by towers There was also an irrigation system to allow intensive agriculture The city was abandoned around – 2650 BC, following succession of wars with Sumer Husband will be integrated in the empire of King Sargon of Akkad the Great to – 2300 BC and becomes a flourishing city A second royal palace is then built on the site of before and another smaller palace is added To – 1800 BC, the palace of Mari reached its peak with over three hundred rooms and over an area of 2500 hectares Husband will then be destroyed by the Babylonian armies of Hammurabi before in 1760. AD

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Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 21: The Hurrian

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 21: The Hurrian
Published June 23, 2011

Teshub, king of gods and god of the storm …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 21: The Hurrian

The Hurrian

The Atlanteans, arrived from space, comprised of many ethnic groups, including Aryan or Indo-European The Hurrian are an ethnic group Aryan They settled in the valley of Thar and they created counters in the middle east After the wars of Yi, the countertops have become important and independent city states Some were able to consolidate into kingdoms, but it was ephemeral … Urartians are Hurrian If we gave them a special chapter is they were able at times to be a true independent kingdom … The main feature of Hurrian, is their feudalism pushed to the extreme that has always prevented from building real important kingdoms Their way of thinking can be summarized as follows: My brother is my enemy, but if my cousin’s attack, we unite against him
My cousin is my enemy, but if the attack a neighbor, we unite against him My neighbor is my enemy, but if an alien attack, we unite against him Etc … And their descendants, from that time until today , Have not changed …

The Kingdom of Hurri

The Hurrian, attested as early as 3000 BC, occupy the south-east Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq and the north-eastern Iran These are numerous independent city-state, sometimes grouped and allied and enemy and too often at war with each other Their favorite pastime: enslave small neighboring for the payment of tribute If the forces are equal too, then it better ally … The princesses are there to make marriages of alliance …

History of Hurrian

The IV during the second millennium BC, the Hurrian will be endless feudal wars between them, but also against Amorite, Egyptians, Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Hittite, etc. … In short, against everyone … They will in turn dominate much of the region and be vassalized at other times In the thirteenth century BC, the Assyrians destroyed definitely the last Hurrian kingdom, the kingdom of Mitanni

Technology of Hurrian

It is well recognized, in Hurrian, all elements that characterize societies Aryan or Indo-European The architecture, urban planning, administration, international trade, metallurgy, jewelry, ceramics, agriculture intensive, wine and beer, etc. … They were also known for raising horses and conduct of war chariots They also mastered the writing Among the Hurrian texts discovered at Ugarit, dating from 1800 before. J.C. It was discovered the oldest musical score We learn the names of four composers Hurrian: Tapšihuni, Puhiya (na), and Urhiya Ammiya An almost complete reconstruction of a hymn could be made by Marcelle Duchesne-Guillemin And all that happened there 5000 years …

Religion of Hurrian

Kura is the chief god of Ebla It is also unknown, which is normal for a god tutelary founder of the city Zababa was the tutelary god of the city of Kish Etc … The other gods are the classical pantheon Aryan god and goddess couple, storm gods, fertility, the sun and other celestial bodies, the underworld, etc. … Teshub is the chief god, and his consort Hebat with their son Sharruma He is the god of storms, war and climate Wind, lightning and thunder are his weapons It is often represented by a bull, symbol of fertility, or on a chariot drawn by bulls Hebat is called the queen of heaven … Kumarbi, god of nature is the son of Anu and the father of gods, so father Teshub Kushukh, the moon god, Shimegi, the sun god, Shaushka, the goddess of love, Hepit, the sky god, god of Astabis war Hesui, god of hunting, Rashap, god of underworld and Ishara goddess of writing and vows, complete the pantheon Hurrian Note that the names may be significantly different depending on the “patois” spoken in the city state, but still recognizes the same pantheon of gods by the functions Some important places of worship have been identified: Kummanni, the sanctuary Yazilikaya, with a representation of the Hittite pantheon that gives the gods their names written in Hittite Hurrian Harran, sanctuary of the god of the moon, Kushukh Shaushka the goddess had her temple in Nineveh Nergal’s temple was built at the end of Urkesh Third Millennium Found there a statuette of a lion Urkesh, placed on a tablet that has a curse against those who destroy the temple

Cycle of Kumarbi

Hurrian mythology, also called the Theogony Hurrian, that is to say the history of the gods, is described in the cycle Kumarbi This is a story in Hittite language, made from Hurrian myths of tradition, found in fragments Hattusha Kumarbi cycle consists of five songs: Song of the kingship of heaven or song Kumarbi, which recounts the struggle between the gods to take power in heaven The song Lamma, which recounts the struggle between Teshub and Lamma god, who wants to rob him of divine kingship The song of money personified, is too fragmented, which does not allow us to understand The song Hedammu, same observation as for the singing of money personified The Ullikumi song, which recounts a last attempt Kumarbi to overthrow Teshub

Song of the kingship or heaven song

Kumarbi At first Alalu was chief of the gods, before which prostrated Anu, god of the sky After nine years, Anu overthrew Alalu, who went in the dark earth while Anu was sitting on the throne of the gods at Nippur Kumarbi, son of Alalu, then his second After nine years, Anu overthrew Kumarbi He bit his testicles and penis and swallowed He found himself and inseminated Before taking refuge in heaven, Anu Kumarbi than predicted his seed be born three gods that will cause him problems He had in him the gods whose Tešub gods, god of the storm , Aranzah, the Tigris River and Tašmišu After seven least incubation within Kumarbi, 3 gods tried to escape: Gilim, and Kazal Suwaliyat The last attempted to leave by the head They were all eaten by three Kumarbi Kumarbi Tešub gave birth to the right place according to the text Hurrian and goddesses of fate reprisèrent opening to restore integrity Kumarbi With the help of Ea, Kumarbi tried to eat Tešub But Teshub had put in its place a basalt stone that Kumarbi eats while he flees She broke his teeth and sank her mouth The storm god Teshub, thus managed to escape the King gods, Kumarbi Teshub then organized a revolt against the gods Kumarbi After a fierce battle, and despite the support of the god Ea, overthrew Tešub Kumarbi He in turn became king of the gods, and could benefit from advice of his father Anu

The song of Ullikumi

Kumarbi joins a mountain and there followed the birth of a stone giant, Ullikummi He asked the god Irsirra to bring the new born Ubelluri’s right shoulder, with his feet and door to hell and earth sky Ullikumi then increases continuously, and eventually appear in sun god who warned Teshub Helpless about the size of his opponent, Teshub request his sister Shaushga to face the giant using his seduction It fails because Ullikumi is deaf and has no eyes, which makes it immune to her charms Teshub tries to fight the giant again, but in vain Ullikumi still grows until it reaches Kummiya, the city the storm god Teshub then called for help Ea, an old friend of Kumarbi, who agrees to help He asked the old gods to provide them with the weapon had once served to separate Heaven and Earth Teshub Ullikumi will be able to cut, causing him to lose his power and fall from the shoulder of Ubelluri So finally Teshub can attack again with Kumarbi using 70 gods The end is missing, but must end in victory the storm god, since it became the chief god of the Hurrian

Dark Matter

Dark matter or dark matter is composed of hypothetical particles and still undetected to date It is necessary to explain our universe In French we say, dark matter, but if we literally translated the English word, dark matter would be more accurate The universe is made up of visible matter and the dark matter Visible matter consists of stars, planets, human beings and all that is visible in the universe It is only 1 to 10% of the mass of the universe Dark matter constitutes 30 to 99% of the mass of the universe Neutrinos were an attractive candidate to explain this dark matter, but it can not exceed 18% of the mass missing Also the most likely candidates would be today The the WIMP, weakly interactive massive particles, but still to detect and weigh … Still many unknowns surrounding this dark matter, but a fundamental question is its mass If its mass is nonzero, this explains the expansion of our universe If its mass reaches a certain weight, then the universe stop its expansion at a given time Then it will collapse on itself to a point maximum compression that could recreate a new big bang


The song Kumarbi, finally sheds light on hell, or the underworld or the underworld We are not talking about the hell of the Christian religion, but hellish places of mythological gods Whatever the mythology, they tell us of hell and underworld Of course, that given the high technology Gods, this place could not be an underground place on planet earth
Anu overthrew Alalu, who went into the dark earth … Before taking refuge to heaven, Anu … This is what tells us the song of Kumarbi It is therefore clear that a god is losing its battle exile For this, he goes into the dark earth, in heaven That is to say: in the far depths of space Ubelluri, which has the feet door to hell and earth and sky This is what tells us the song Ullikumi This is proof that hell is not on earth This dark land was misinterpreted as a subterranean place on earth, and some religious myths hastened to add it fire … Then, each new translation of mythological texts translates directly dark land by: hell While the exact translation of land is dark: dark matter in space …

Hurrian mythology

The song Ullikumi confirms space technology the gods Kumarbi asked Irsirra god to bring the newborn Ullikummi, on the right shoulder of Ubelluri , Whose feet the door to hell and heaven and earth The interpretation is obvious: Kumarbi asked Irsirra Ullikummi to take in her saucer parked in space, to the base space of Ubelluri Ullikumi then increases constantly, and finally appeared to the sun god who warned Teshub Ullikumi grows yet to reach Kummiya, the city’s storm god Ubelluri Ullikumi then carries in his spaceship He leaves the solar system and eventually reaches the space station Kummiya of the city’s storm god, a planet in the Sirius system B ( see Dogon cosmology, Part 1) Others claim to former gods to provide them with the weapon that had once served to separate Heaven and Earth Teshub will be able Ullikumi cut, causing it to lose its power and fall from the shoulder of Ubelluri Others asked to provide their ancient gods of the weapon had once served to separate Heaven and Earth to destroy the ship and killing of Ubelluri Ullikumi Well it looks like a super laser cannon …

Hesiod’s Theogony

Cosmogony: chaos, emergence of Eros, Gaia the earth , Which gives birth to heaven Uranos Birth of Erebus darkness, of Night and Ether daylight Birth of children of Gaia and Uranos the titans. Narrative of castration by Cronus Uranos Birth of Aphrodite The progeny of Night The offspring of Gaia and Pontos: the flow Children of the Titans Honors reserved by Zeus to Styx Honors reserved by Zeus to Hecate Birth of Zeus and victory over his father Cronos Sharing Mecone and cunning of Prometheus Theft of fire Creation of Pandora The Titans Tartarus Battle between Zeus and Typhoeus Final coming of Zeus Sharing honors among the gods Offspring of Zeus Hero born of the union of a goddess and a mortal The story recounts the emergence of Zeus In the beginning there was chaos Then arise the natural elements: the night the day Etc …, and many other deities The battles between the gods will allow Zeus to command and chase the old forces of disorder such as creative titans and giants Zeus has the strength, but also thunder, lightning flamboyant, intelligence and cunning Because he swallowed Metis, the goddess of cunning intelligence It also symbolizes justice, by his marriage with Themis goddess of justice and the law, with whom it generates three hours: Eunomia goddess of order, the goddess of justice Dike and Eirene Goddess of Peace

Greek and Hurrian mythology

Hurrian mythology is virtually identical to the mythology Greek told by Hesiod in his Theogony Hesiod is the story of the origins of reference for the Greeks old It describes the three generations of the gods of Olympus: Uranos And then finally Cronus and Zeus Anu is Uranos, god of the sky Kumarbi is Cronos cut off the sex of Uranos while Kumarbi hard with his teeth is Anu Tešub, chief god and storm god, is Zeus, chief god and god of thunder and lightning

The original mythology

This can be seen, the mythology of origins is the same for the Greeks, édenistes, the Aryans, Atlantis, the Asians, édenistes, etc … The édenistes have Zeus chief god, or another name according to the different populations it controls the other gods, even if it does not always go well The Atlanteans were of chief god The big fight is permanent … Edenistes Atlanteans and thus the same origin … In the first book, we have located the paradise In this second book, we located the hell In the third book, we describe our origins …

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Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 20: The kingdom of Urartu

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 20: The kingdom of Urartu

Published May 29, 2011

Urartians were renowned for their horses, there are over 4000 years …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 20: The kingdom of Urartu

Historical knowledge

Excavations superficial sites Urartians, the first discovery being interpreted by historians as final and not succeeding, and the looting of sites, mean that our knowledge of the history of Urartu only beginning to the first millennium BC -C.   Some older discoveries allow official historians a very superficial knowledge and embellished with numerous holes, for the period from the second millennium BC   When the 3rd millennium BC and earlier, historians recognize no knowledge   But this is not specific to the Urartu, this is so for almost the entire history of the earth

The emergence of Urartu

From the fourth century BC. AD, ethnicity urartéene of Aryan or Indo-European, installed countertops in the southern Black Sea Caspian Ala It continued its hold by founding new city-states up to Lake Van After the wars to Yi – 2350, Urartians survivors Valley Thar came to take refuge in these city-states The entire territory became the kingdom of Urartu   The kingdom of Urartu will then gradually become an important kingdom which controlled present-day Georgia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan, the north eastern Turkey and northwestern Iran In fact, the south boundaries of the kingdom were blocked by the powerful Assyrian ethnic Indo-European like them From the second millennium BC, the kingdom will become a civilization that will count in the history of the region up to – 600 BC

The Urartu

Understanding of technology, but also the customs of the Aryans, in this kingdom of Urartu It has not yet found many remains of their civilization until the second millennium, but the royal inscriptions of the first millennium clearly prove this relationship I Argishti we communicate to -770: “For the greatness of Haldi, Argishti, son of Menua speaks: I built a great fortress and gave him a name from the mine, Argishtinhinili. The land was wild, nothing was built there. From the rivers I built four channels; vineyards and gardens have been shared. ” It gives its name to the city he built himself in because he considered the tutelary god   The kingdom is connected by roads that pass through the fertile plains and hills connect them Canals were built to develop agriculture in the plains One recognizes hydrological knowledge found in all pathways On the hills they built fortresses The fortresses controlled the roads and plains They are used for crop storage and to house the troops The territory of Urartu is mainly composed of the region enclosed by three lakes: Lake Van, Lake Sevan and Lake Urmia The Lake Van and Lake Urmia are salt lakes, which is why they are called inland seas The border of Urartu was controlled by Altintepe

The fortresses of Urartu

The main strongholds are known Horom, Arin Berd, Kamir Blur, Armavir, Altintepe, Kef Kalesi Ayanis Van Kalesi Bastam Toprakkale, Cavustepe, Hasanlu, Haykaberd, Musasir, etc. … These are the current names But there has certainly many other sites that we have not yet discovered


The city of Van Kalesi includes the ruins of the fortress of Tushpa Technology Architects of Urartu is remarkable To have more space on the surfaces of tiny hills, Urartians were masters in the art of digging into the rock pieces A Tushpa barn was found carved into the rock The fortress is surrounded by a wall made of stone blocks over 20 tons


Rusahinili today Toprakkale, was connected to Tushpa by a 56 km canal network that served the region for agricultural water The canal was built by Menua in – 800 In fact, it seems more likely that Menua have altered and extended a channel that already existed for centuries We had to fetch water from a source in southern Tushpa, build an aqueduct and retaining walls over 20 m high The channel Menua remained in use until the 1950s when its maintenance was no longer profitable …   Towards – 720, King Rusa, expanding the water network with the development of an artificial lake, the current Kesis Gölü The waters of the reservoir were retained by two dams, which held until 1891   The plain of Van had at the time of Urartu many other water projects, dams, reservoirs and canals Inscriptions found tell us that water projects have also been made in the valley of the Araxes


Fortress Altintepe is built on a hill overlooking the Euphrates The citadel has been little researched, but has helped to uncover beautiful objects in gold, silver, ivory and bronze It also found the pot of Altintepe It is bronze and is 51 centimeters high It is decorated with four bulls’ heads that serve as handles He was accompanied by a tripod of 66 centimeters The dating supposed to be the first millennium BC Yet it is well recognized in the materials and how, the Indo-European art of the fourth and third millennium BC …   Their technology is also recognized in the drainage system of the fortress There are also workshops where they worked metals There were large storage areas for agricultural products Some pieces were used to make oil and wine production


Teishebani today Kamir Blur, is the city’s storm god: Teisheba The city of about thirty acres was surrounded by walls of a thickness of about 3 m and more than 9 m high In the center there are four acres of the citadel! She had a large courtyard surrounded by about 150 rooms … Rooms, workshops, warehouses, attics, cellars, etc. … The roofs were built of barrel vaults Many walls were covered with frescoes painted   Found there including the remains of cereals, fruit, wine, oil and beer But also many ceramics, bronze statues and ivory, weapons and armor of bronze and iron as well as administrative documents, testify to the living standards of Urartians   The fortress had a floor that served as a residence, the ground floor used primarily for storage and workshops It’s like in the Thar valley …


Erebuni, Arin Berd today, was built by the kings Argishti I and II to Sarduri -782, To establish the power of the country and intimidate his enemies, according to an inscription in cuneiform on a slab of basalt In fact, as for all sites Urartians, it dates from the 3rd millennium BC, and the successive kings, have completed sites by maintenance and expansion, appropriating the same time the paternity of the city , which placed them to the rank of gods …   The palace of Erebuni has a central courtyard with porticoes To the right was the throne room, which was reached by three small rooms The rest of the building was formed by residences and warehouses


Argishtihinili today Armavir, was occupied from the fifth and sixth millennia BC Tools, bronze objects and pottery show King Argishti I gave it its name in 776 BC This is a citadel surrounded by imposing walls   Armavir, from the first millennium, will be under the rule of the Seleucid, Parthian and then, then the kingdom of Armenia, then the Roman Empire, then of the Sassanid and Byzantine Empire before being conquered by 645 by the Arabs

Rusahinili Eidurukai

Fortress Rusahinili Eiduru-kai, Ayanis today, was built on a hill surrounded by walls The architecture is characterized by massive blocks of stone for buildings, walls and gates The fortress occupies an area of 400 m x 150 m Its occupation dates back to the Bronze Age It was reused and destroyed during the reign of King Rusa II, -685 to -645   We discovered a solid gold scepter, but also many bronze objects such as weapons, arrowheads, helmets and a wonderful cauldron


Rusal-Urutur, Bastam today, is the second largest after that of Urartian fortress Tushpa It was occupied from the third millennium BC. AD   The dried brick fortress on a foundation stone, measuring about 800m and 400m on floor on three levels It is protected by walls with rectangular towers and buttresses   The lower part has a single door to the south, flanked by a tower There are houses, barns that can hold about sixty horses, a mill, kitchens, stores and workshops Upstairs, there are large warehouses for grain, wine and oil The upper part which was used for habitation, has been transformed into a palace in the 7th century   The city was sacked by the Scythians to the end of the reign of Rusa II, we have only found few items   In the plain, opposite the fortress, we found the remains of buildings for horse breeding, and housing for visitors and merchants


Musasir temple, dedicated to the god Haldi urartéen, is deemed by the wealth obtained from being looted by Sargon II, king of Assyria over a ton of gold, five tons of money, valuables and more 300 000 weapons … The narrative of the campaign of Sargon II describes the admiration of the Assyrian Urartu for: architecture, infrastructure such as waterworks, horse breeding, wealth and artistic silverware   Musasir is located today in Rabat Tepe near Sardasht in West Azerbaijan, Iran The site had been assessed at 14 hectares, but the excavations show that the site area is over 60 hectares   There is a pavement of 1.80 m X 1.80 m 7 interlocking circles representing Another feature is the discovery of winged angels female color on the brick reliefs It has also found a male winged angel The dating of these is the low relief prior to the first millennium


The cave shrine of Meher-Kapesi is carved into the rock It consists of two niches on an artificial platform The pantheon urartéen is engraved on the rock in the large niche with a list of deities and sacrifices that they spent There are also engraved on the rock, petroglyphs …


Haykaberd Fortress, also known Sardurihinili, Cavustepe today, was built, according to Armenian legend, August 11, 2492 BC It was founded by Hayk who rejected and killed King Bél who tried to invade UrartuBel was the king of Assyria at the time of Zeus and other gods fought the giants and titans Hayk built the city in the valley of Haykashen Hayots Dzor Haykaberd and fortress on the site of the battle of the giants   Haykaberd Fortress is located on a ridge and is surrounded by imposing walls The fortress is on a floor, with residential functions upstairs and utility rooms on the ground floor King Sarduri There is added, between 764 and 735 BC, the palace-Sarduri Hinlini and the temple of Khaldi, the god of war

The legend of Hayk and Bel king

The Armenian history was compiled by Moses of Khoren, who lived from 410 to 490, from the oral tradition This earned him the title father of Armenian history: patmahayr This is the first Armenian history from its origins to the demise of the kingdom of Armenia In fact, we hold that copies were made from the ninth century, which confirms a significant risk of Christianization of the original work It tells the legend of Hayk and Bel king  Hayk, son deTorgom had a child named Armanak while living in Babylon When Titanid Bel seized power in Babylon, Hayk and his family emigrated to the region of Mount Ararat, where he founded a village he named Haykashen   He left behind a guard armed detachment commanded by his small son Kadmos Bel sent one of his son asking him to return to Babylon, but Hayk refused Bel then pursued with a huge army   Warned by Kadmos, Hayk harangued his men He told them they must overcome and kill Fair, because it was better to die than become slaves He assembled his army along the shore of Lake Van Hayk was a giant, a mighty archer and a fearless warrior At the Battle of the giants, Hayk slew Bel with its arrows He pulled so far that it seemed impossible and put the king’s troops in disarray Bel Legend has it he used a very long bow, usable only by a giant, and so accurate that this arc would be magic After the battle, Hayk and Bel gave him embalm his body for the attackers The Babylonians deified then Bel, who became the god Baal

Legend and history

After the wars of Yi, the urartéen Hayk, Aryan Atlantean, came to settle in Babylon then occupied by the Phoenicians, Nubians, édenistes Soon, they could not coexist and Hayk took his in Urartu and founded Haykashen Bel would not accept this break and chased When they arrived at Haykaberd, Hayk sent them an arrow from the shores of Lake Van: 24 km! He was to remain in Hayk, a nuclear missile war Yi … Simply measure the residual radioactivity in Cavustepe to confirm Hayk went to the body of Bel Phoenicians who deified as a god, because it is the Phoenician sank as far inland Thus Bel became the god Baal

Religion of Urartu

The god of Urartu is Haldi, the god of war He is represented by a man standing on a lion Her main temple is located in the city of Musasir His consort is Bagbartu Haldi and Bagbartu are purely Urartians   The other deities are common with the Hurrian pantheon Teisheba the god, storm god, standing on a bull His consort is Huba ARTinis is the god of the sun His consort goddess estla Shiwiniqui attribute has as a winged sun disk   Haldi, and Teisheba ARTinis form a triad   The temples are made Urartians by a tower, or susi, with thick walls, surrounding a square cella It is not far from the pyramids … They have only found that stone bases, the walls being built of mud brick, were missing

Language and script of Urartu

The urartéen is a language belonging to the same branch as the Hurrian language Urartian language was translated by the German Johannes Friedrich in 1930, through bilingual inscriptions urartéenes-Assyrian   Urartians use the cuneiform The most famous cuneiform texts are royal inscriptions   Subsequently, they also used a hieroglyphic writing similar to that of Luwian, which has not yet been deciphered This hieroglyphic writing is clean louvitophones peoples of Anatolia and Iran whose oldest known inscriptions date from the fifteenth century BC. AD The Luwian was written centuries before, in cuneiform

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Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 19: The Phoenician city-states

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 19: The Phoenician city-states

Published March 12, 2011

The Phoenician temples of Amrit in Syria … One recognizes the megalithic culture of Atlantis … the resemblance is amazing lingas Asian …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 19: The Phoenician city-states

The Canaanite

The Nubian arrived around -4900 BC and settled in a territory that goes from Sudan to the Mediterranean The Canaanites are a people édenistes Nubian They settled north of the kingdom, Egypt and Palestine To -4000, which will come the Egyptians to assimilate As the Nubian Part of northern Canaanite will then gradually leave Egypt and Palestine, to migrate northward along the coast to Syria They will gradually absorb and unify their benefit, the city states Aryan or Indo-European, bordering the eastern Mediterranean from -4000 BC See the first part of this book, chapters 12 and 13, and 21 to 26 These population movements are attested in Egyptian texts dating from the second Egyptian dynasty, circa – 2700 BC, as having taken place several centuries earlier

From city-states to Canaan

-4000 To BC, the Aryans first arrived on the east coast of the Mediterranean, to found colonies of city-states of the Thar valley They created the city-states of Byblos (Jbeil), Berytos (Beirut), Tyre (Sur), Sidon (Saida), Arvad (Arwad or antioche), Dor, Ugarit, etc. … From – 3500 BC, and throughout a millennium, the Canaanites will migrate to the cities and become part of the Aryan population One day the balance was broken in favor of the Canaanite … They then organized themselves into a confederation of city-states to unite against invasions The new kingdom of Canaan was founded … The Canaanites, mixing édenistes: Nubian, and Atlantis: Egyptian and Aryan, despite some temporary annexations, will be able to maintain a relative autonomy over the following two millennia They will use it for the rivalry between the kingdoms that will in turn lead the Middle East But their unity was still fragile, the independence of city-states

Canaan to Phoenicia

The independence of the Canaanites will be manifested mainly in their name They were called by the name of the name of their cities, and not by the term Canaanite Foreigners called the inhabitants of the federation cited: Phoenician This name comes from the Greek that called Phoenician, Greek phoinix, named for their purple dye, very popular around the Mediterranean It is obtained by boiling shellfish ovals, murex, found in abundance on the beaches At the end of the second millennium the Phoenicians were traders very famous all around the Mediterranean Thus the name of Phoenician name became their normal and usual

Tripoli Lebanon

It is a confederation of Phoenician city-states which included: Sidon, Tyre and the island city of Arwad Tripoli in Greek means: triple city Its strategic location is confirmed by the invasions it suffered Alternately it was invaded and controlled by the Assyrians, Persians, Seleucids, Romans, Seljuks, Crusaders, Mamelukes and Ottomans …


Sidon, Saida in Arabic, or Sydwn Saidoon in Phoenician Lebanese port, was built on a promontory jutting into the sea According to legend, it’s on the beach in Sidon that Zeus kidnapped Europa, daughter of Agenor king of Tyre This was one of the largest ports in the eastern Mediterranean around the thirteenth century BC. AD Homer, in the late eighth century BC. AD, described the skill of the craftsmen of the city in the glass production and manufacture of purple dye millennium A Dakerman was updated a village surrounded by a wall over two meters thick In eight graves of adults buried in jars dating from the Bronze Age, were found Egyptian scarabs, bronze axes, cylinder seals, pottery from Cyprus, jewelry, etc. …


Herodotus informs us in 450 BC. AD, the city was inhabited for over 2300 years, which dates its inception around 3000 BC. AD This dating is confirmed by archaeological excavations Legend has it up the discovery of the purple Tyre Foundat counters Cadiz and Carthage


Arwad or Antioch in Pieria, Syria Island, has sites dating from around 3000 BC The island was fortified by thick walls The Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser I, confirms the influence of the city on its sister city on the coast, also has a port Thus the connection of the city with the mainland is assured Carpenters Arwad were renowned for naval constructions They used copper plates as anti-fooling … This gave a significant advantage in their warships, unbraked in their maneuvers with algae and shells on the hull This proves not only their mastery of metallurgy and the ductility of copper, but also their marine knowledge, there are almost 6000 years … It was not until 1805 at the Battle of Trafalgar that the English will inaugurate this system! The French and the world will only do so almost a century later!


Dor is a city of Phoenicia, now located in Israel The port of Dor is mentioned in the Bible Its port has made his fortune throughout its 5000 years of history … Dor, founded by the Aryans, was occupied successively by Canaanites, the peoples of the sea, the kingdom of Israel, Phoenicians, Assyrians, Persians, Seleucids and Romans The town stands on a promontory surrounded by two natural bays sheltered, and that allowed two different anchorages, according to prevailing wind direction We use the same technique today for our airports …


Berytos is the ancient Phoenician city of Beirut During the third millennium BC. JC, Beirut’s authority extended from the coast to the mountains The Phoenician cities, despite their commercial rivalry and military, have formed a federation governed by Byblos, Sidon and Tyre and until 7 th century BC. J.C. Between periods of independence, they knew how to use alliances: with Egypt for -1479 to -1150, with the -750 to -621 of Assyria, and Persia from -522 to -359 The Phoenician cities were able to retain their freedom of action of the third millennium BC until 332. J.C. This is the date of the fall of Tyre defeated by Alexander III of Macedonia, said the general, after seven months of siege Beirut is mentioned in the tablets of Tell el-Amarna and in the palace archives of Ugarit around 1360 BC. J.C.


Byblos is called in the cuneiform texts Goubla The Greeks called it Byblos because it is of Gebal that the papyrus was imported in Greece This confirms the domination of Aryan and Phoenician cities on international trade since the 4th millennium BC Goubla was founded around 5000 BC. AD It was a fishing village in the Neolithic The water was supplied by a natural well In the fourth millennium BC. BC Byblos suddenly becomes a commercial port in connection with Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Minoans of Crete Goubla exports include cedar of Lebanon, papyrus, textiles, clothing, purple, copper, metallurgical products, olive oil, wine and many other goods and raw materials The artisans of Lebanon were famous for their shipbuilding and hammering gold leaf on stone tablets An Egyptian scribe of King Sneferu to – 2500, mentions the arrival of forty ships loaded with barrels from cedars Gebal The ancient port controls two bays: one north and one south The ancient fortifications protect the tombs of kings of Byblos including that of Ahiram We discovered a sarcophagus decorated with a banquet scene and covered with inscriptions This is the oldest known text in Phoenician linear alphabet of 22 consonants Phoenician The oldest known traces of this alphabet date from the early second millennium BC

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Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 18: Cities states and small kingdoms

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 18: Cities states and small kingdoms
Posted February 5, 2011

Head of a king, unknown … One of the many kings, one of countless city-states of the third millennium …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 18: Cities states and small kingdoms


Kingdoms and city states
We will now go around the field colonial Indo-European, or Aryan, East Valley Thar and south of the Ikshvaku Colonized this vast area, ranging from Pakistan to the Mediterranean and will consist primarily of counters which will gradually become city states and kingdoms But from the moment the motherland, in the valley of the Thar, in the aftermath of nuclear war against the édenistes Yi, will lose its authority, the autonomy of the kingdoms and city states will come true … But this autonomy of the feudal system will be, and wars will follow one another, each wanting to unify the territories for the benefit …


Text fragments were found at the site of the former Meturan, modern Tell Haddad, we confirm that his death Gilgamesh was buried under the waters of the Euphrates River which had been temporarily diverted from its bed


Uruk covered an area of 400 hectares In April 2003, German archaeologists believe to have found the tomb of King Gilgamesh In the middle of the old course of the Euphrates, we see the remains of a building that could be the tomb The magnetogram allows the observation of magnetization differences between the bricks and sediments, thus designing the city map It shows a sophisticated system of canals, which was tell archaeologists qu’Uruk was a Venice in the desert, as the cities of the valley of Thar … The existence of these channels also explains how the river was diverted to build the tomb in bed Gilgamesh seems to have really existed They found that the king list mentions, but also documents that confirm the existence of other monarchs associated with it: the kings and Agga of Kish Enmebaragesi Gilgamesh probably ruled around 2700 BC His epic, the oldest of mankind, was written on clay tablets in cuneiform Akkadian language in Babylon to – 2000 BC According to the Sumerian king list, Gilgamesh was the fifth king of Uruk and reigned one hundred and twenty to six years

Gilgamesh and Heracles

The Epic of Gilgamesh, king of Uruk and the myth of Hercules, the orders of Hera, have much in common Gilgamesh is two-thirds god and one third human, he made a series of works which were to lead to immortality Heracles, guided by Hera, is half god and half man, and he must perform 12 works that will also lead to immortality On one of the cylinders found in Uruk, if the man shown seated rose, it would be much larger than the other 2 It would be a giant … The giants of the bible, gods are running backs, both among the Atlanteans than in édenistes … And texts are not lacking, in one or the other, candidates wishing to acquire running backs gods immortality of the gods


The Ehursag, house-mountain, is a square building of a base 55 feet square, southeast of the shrine of Nanna, the center of the city The royal palace is composed of a large courtyard that opens onto the throne room This palace was home to Ur-Nammu and Shulgi It became a sanctuary when they were deified Southeast of the palace are the mausoleums where kings are buried two of the 3rd Dynasty This is Shulgi who built this building It was to be his mausoleum, and a vaulted tomb was designed to accommodate his remains Amar-Sin had built new shrines Near the Ehursag was uncovered, a set of 400 tablets, printed with footprints cylinder seals They date from the 3rd millennium BC One of them is banded aragonite and is a banquet scene Another is made of lapis lazuli and is the god Shamash A third, aragonite orange, has a fight scene These would be the archives of the temple of the moon god Nanna, tutelary deity of the city They mention agricultural estates, possessions of the temple These texts mention lugal, King, and ensino, Vicar There are also seals in the name of the cities of Sumer, found on pieces of clay used to seal jars or doors

The Royal Tombs of Ur

In Ur, we found the royal tombs of kings and Meskalamdug Akalamdug, who ruled around – 2600 There are over 1800 graves in an area of 50 x 70 meters, dating from the XXVIth XXIIIrd century BC The graves are not robbed of a rich The sovereigns are buried with their servants We had 78 in the tomb of King RT 789, with five oxen pulling two carriages A Akalamdug, RT 1080, they are 40 A Pu-abi, RT 800, there are 17 and two oxen In the well of death, RT 1237, they are 74 The dead are richly dressed The soldiers in combat gear and musicians are buried with their instruments The arrangement of the body shows no disorder, suggesting that they died voluntarily or drugged The objects found in royal tombs confirm their high-tech in jewelery and metallurgy There’s luxury tableware, fine weapons, like daggers of gold, a chariot of respect that we could go back, statues, cylinder seals, etc. … There is a wooden lyre decorated with a bull’s head A sculpture representing a goat clinging to a bush which he eats the leaves, which measures 42 cm high It is made of wood overlaid with gold, lapis lazuli, silver, pearl and other materials There is also a gold helmet The ornament of Queen Pu-abi is made with a diadem of gold leaf, with decorations in gold, lapis lazuli, carnelian and other precious stones In the tomb PG 779 is the standard of Ur, exhibited at the British Museum in London It is 20 cm high by 47 long It is pearl with lapis lazuli There are two main panels, which were named War and Peace “War” is a battle scene from the Sumerian army There are four-wheeled wagons drawn by wild asses, soldiers wearing protective clothing and foot soldiers with swords or axes The panel also shows the wounded and prisoners naked, presented to the King “Peace” portrays a banquet scene There are meat, fish and other products The figures are seated and a musician plays the lyre

The Sumerian ziggurat

A ziggurat is a pyramid shaped building storey rectangular base It comprises three to seven platforms The ziggurat was oriented in the position of stars and constellations The ziggurat of 7 floors, had a base of about 90 meters wide and a height of nearly 100 meters It was a spectacular monuments with its colorful walls with glazed brick siding These ziggurats, surprisingly similar to Mayan pyramids … For the record, the Mayans are very related to Tocharian, one of the two components of the Aryans, see the third part of this book … There are about thirty known in Babylonia They are built in the center of city states Sippar in the north is home to the shrine of the sun god Shamash Ur in the south is home to the moon god, Sin Uruk is dedicated to the goddess Ishtar Babylon, the most impressive, worships the god Marduk The ziggurat of Chogha Zanbil is located 40 km southeast of Susa in Iran A Hard-Sharrukin today Khorsabad, the four lower floors of the ziggurat were painted white, black, pink and blue The top three floors were also stained The Tower of Babel was probably a ziggurat, although it is often represented later, probably wrongly, with a circular base

Ras Ibn Hani

Ras Ibn Hani, 5 kilometers southwest of Ras Shamra, the kingdom of Ugarit, we found the remains of two royal palaces The site has now been excavated on the sixth of its terrain In addition to the palace, there are also residential areas The city was built of stone, and found there a vast literature in cuneiform tablets Another interest of this discovery is that the tablets are written in several languages, which confirms the density of exchanges between city states and kingdoms


Ugarit, now Ras Shamra, was the main port of the Mediterranean kingdom of Ugarit in Syria The king who directs was chosen by the gods Despite its importance, more than 25 hectares, the site has been very little researched, and we know little about this city so important before 1800 BC It was deemed a port through which transited wine, olive oil, textiles, dyes, wood, copper and other metals Homes, a floor area of 50 m2 to 500 m2 more, generally included a floor for housing, the ground floor is reserved for the storage and business activities and crafts They consisted of wells and pipelines for water supply and sewage disposal We thus find in Ugarit, as in almost all state cities, the Thar valley to the Mediterranean, the same architectural characteristics and social … The merchants were men of the king, in the service of the royal palace, but they could also do business on their own account Independent dealers, local or foreign, had settled in Ugarit They also exercised financial activity and were even ready … They were organized into corporations or rather family clan, and had correspondents in other commercial centers, the middle east to India At Ugarit we found documents in eight languages and four different scripts … The craft of Ugarit was famous for pottery and ceramics, but also for the metal, silverware, the realization of ivory, textiles and the development of glassy materials


Alalakh, today Tell Acana, is a site of Turkey, on the river Orontes, near the northern border of Syria, which claims to this territory Site investigations have identified an occupation beginning at about – before 3400 J.-C The royal palace is dated from around – 2400 Been discovered large batches of tablets that telling us about the political and economic life of the kingdom of Alalakh But not on religious life … Umma Umma, modern Tell Djokha, had a productive agriculture as it had a sophisticated irrigation system The city is far from the Tigris and Euphrates, it was necessary to build a whole system of canals They were broad enough to allow boats to come ashore at karum, wearing


Many temples were built in the city, which was the tutelary deity Shara The site has never been officially excavated Numerous texts from Umma come from illegal excavations The remains of this city, such as the city of Ur, were looted during the war in Kuwait The oldest kings Aga is known, which lists the name of a pearl lapis lazuli This would be the last king of the first dynasty of Kish, to – 2585 BC The ongoing war between Lagash and Umma, about the limits of their common border, will last until the annexation to Sargon of Akkad – 2300 BC


The Marhashi is a kingdom of Iran, between Elam and the Indus Valley The peak of its influence is between 2600 and 1700 BC approximately. The archives of the kingdom of Elam tells us that the Marhashi had trade relations with the kingdoms of the Thar valley but also with the Mesopotamian kingdoms and even to the distant kingdom of Dilmun The kingdom is an exporter of semi-precious stones such as soapstone, chlorite, agate, carnelian, lapis lazuli The Marhashi is also known for trade in domesticated animals such as sheep, bears, dogs, monkeys, elephants and zebu

Small kingdoms and city states of the third millennium

The list of city states and small kingdoms does not stop there … It is very difficult to find in this web in perpetual motion … For example, the city-state of Lagash, who after having been an independent kingdom, became an important city of the kingdom of Akkad The kingdom of Awan, after being annexed by the kingdom of Elam, is finally a province of Akkad … We meet in front of colonial trading, relatively independent of the motherland, and in direct commercial competition with its neighbors So when the motherland would collapse and the result is a fierce feudal system …

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Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 17: Cities of the Gods

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 17: Cities of the Gods
Published on December 17 2010

The lion copper lions at the temple in Mari in the 2nd millennium BC


Book Two: The People

Part 4: The Indo-European
Chapter 17: Cities of the Gods

Counters Valley Thar
Arrived from space, and the Scythian Aryans settled in the valley of the Thar
The Scythians as Aryan ethnic groups are Aryan or Indo-European, and therefore of the Atlantis
After the war of Yi that devastated the valley of the Thar, the Scythians went on Ikshvaku and Aryan fled to Northwind they had created in the Middle East
The Aryans were able to install their factories in areas easy to win for them, because local people were still in the Neolithic
It should however avoid conflicts with the Hattis, édenistes and Sumerian, Atlantean, which would certainly have their posed more problems
The main counters were Wassugammi, capital of the Mitanni, the Hittites to Hattusas, Alaca Huyuk, Alalakh, Ugarit, Byblos, Babylon, Assyria, Susa, Kabnak, Meturan, Dilmun, Ekallâtum, Larsa, Isin, Uruk, Babylon, Chogha Zanbil Eshnunna, Aleppo, Mari, Qatna, Ras Ibn Hani and many others, since there are more than a thousand, known …

Cities of the Gods
The founder of the counter, and sent representatives of Aryan Valley Thar is a god
The counter takes his name
His house later became the temple or it will be worshiped as tutelary deity of the city and its territory
This god is the king of the city, and its load is transmitted by inheritance
At every coronation of a new king is proclaimed “God is King! ”
In all counters, became kingdoms, and whatever their size, the same principles are applied
In all these counters, liturgical narratives found, explain that the gods created humans to become their servant
Subsequently, the god owns the city will be deified and worship will be returned
This god will grant the monarchy, then a person worthy to succeed him … with the approval of the priests
He will be responsible for maintenance of temples, defense, and especially new territorial conquests …

The king establishes the amount of taxes
He directs the Authority’s levy
It ensures the smooth running of the worship of gods
He leads the army and justice
He began the great work
Ministers of the help perform these tasks
The kingdom is growing more and more the system becomes more complex

Realms of the Gods
Each city-state was independent, had its own deity and his government
The first written texts dating from – 3400 to -2900 BC, are administrative documents and lists
The use of cuneiform writing for administration and accounting, provides information on their rights and legal codes, including that of Hammurabi, and their contracts are sophisticated commercial

Cities such as kingdoms have in common irrigation techniques, agriculture and livestock, brick construction
This is the time of the sanctuaries of brick ziggurats, pyramids storey
They manufacture of ceramics, pottery and gold work fine
Their industry uses copper and cast iron, but iron, since it is part of steel
The Damascus steel was already built by the Hittites in – 2500, the Neolithic, while the Iron Age, according to scientists not begin until official – 1000 …

The city-states forge alliances between them to control as much territory as possible
Some take the head of the alliance will … or force
Over the kingdom grows, the more allies Schedule
Grows over the kingdom, and his patron god becomes strong

The city-states of Sumer
The city-states of Sumer, see the book first, the fifth part: the Atlanteans, Chapters 16 and 17, installed since – 4000, no longer the same unit …
After – 3000, they are constantly fighting each other to lead the kingdom …
The main cities are Uruk, Ur, Eridu, Nippur, Kish and Lagash

They are now in direct competition with former Aryans counters
They have become city-states with the arrival of refugees from the valley of the Thar
The independent Sumerian city-states became more vulnerable
They will fall prey to the kingdom or city-state’s dominant time

The great kingdoms
Period – 3000 – 1000, will become the period of the great kingdoms
The main kingdoms are: Canaan, Urartu, the kingdom Hurrian, Mitanni, the Hittite kingdom, Assyria, Akkad, Babylonia, Elam, Dilmun, etc. …

All these great kingdoms will use the time in their history to try to unify …
Of course, all want to be the unifying …
But neither the city states, kingdoms or small, will not accept these desires annexation
So alliances in betrayals, wars will succeed …

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Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 16: The Amorite and Aramaic

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 16: The Amorite and Aramaic
Posted November 27, 2010

Hammurabi, the sixth ruler of the Amorite dynasty of Babylon about BC -1750 …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 16: The Amorite and Aramaic


Anatolia was occupied by the seventh millennium Hattis
The Hatti kingdom, has three main ethnic groups: the Amorite, and the Aramaic mnouchs The mnouchs leave the North oest of Anatolia, fleeing the flood Drawn together by their patriarch Manu, they go to India Anatolia was occupied by the third millennium the Phoenicians and Hattis The Hatti kingdom, has two main ethnic groups: the Amorite and the Aramaic The Amorite occupy the center of Anatolia The Aramaic occupy the northern and eastern Anatolia The Phoenicians occupied the western Anatolia, the Mediterranean coast

The Amorite

The Amorite édeniste are a people, known to Sumerians and Phoenicians, with whom they practice trade Driven by the Hittite invasion, from the mid-third millennium, they take refuge in Mesopotamia Towards the end of the third millennium, they piece together a powerful nation who will contend the sovereignty of the kings of Ur in Mesopotamia In an attempt to stop them, Shulgi, king of Ur, built a wall between the Tigris and Euphrates This alone will not stop them In the early twentieth century BC the Amorite settle in the cities of Larsa, Isin, Uruk, Babylon, Eshnunna, Ekallatum, Aleppo, Mari, Qatna, and other smaller cities The period from 2000 to 1595 was marked by rivalry between different kingdoms Amorite The archives found at the site of Mari tell the story of this period In the seventeenth century BC. AD, they will be conquered by the new Hittite

Religion of the Amorite

The god Amurru, Martu in Sumerian, was the god of the Amorite It was their chief god, ancestor and founder of the Amorite The other principal deities were Amorite Adad / Hadad, the storm god, Dagan, god of the earth, Enlil, Ea, Shamash, Sin and Ishtar

Amorite language

The Amorite adopted the lifestyle and language of Mesopotamian They have kept their names These names are composed of short sentences, which helped Amorite language akin to the Semitic language family This language is very strongly related to Aramaic, which is normal in terms of population Hattis Hebrew is the same case, which is understandable, since the emigrants Hattis south-east will become Hebrew The Phoenician, Ugaritic and Canaanite, also have much in common, which is explained by their geographical proximity and trade relations important

The Aramaeans

The Aramaic édeniste are a people, people in the kingdom of Aram King Naram-Sin of Akkad, from -2255 to -2218, we talk about it in its archives In the Bible, is mentioned five times: Aram-Naharaim Which means: Aram of two rivers, certainly the Tigris and Euphrates Driven by the Hittite invasion, from the mid-third millennium, they take refuge in the south-eastern Anatolia, in the city of Haran According to rabbinic tradition, it would be the birthplace of Abraham In any case the city where he led them to Canaan – 1800 From that time, the Aramean who follow him will be called: the Hebrew The Hebrew word, meaning: those who pass, that is to say nomads After the fall of the Hittite empire, to – 1200, Arameans settled again in northern Mesopotamia, Syria and Lebanon The

Aramaic language

Aramaic is a Semitic language considered The Sefer Ha Zohar, the book of splendor, the major work of Jewish Kabbalah, written in Spain in the thirteenth century, is written in Aramaic The third century BC. AD to 650 AD. AD was the main written language of the Middle East The sixth century BC. BC, Aramaic was the administrative language of the Persian Empire Aramaic was the language spoken in Palestine in Jesus’ Aramaic is the language most likely to Adam and Eve …

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