Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 28: Legends of Marhashi

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 28: Legends of Marhashi
Published April 25, 2012

The lion-headed bird Anzu …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 28: Legends of Marhashi

The Sumerian legends

The Sumerian legends tell us the relationship between turbulent and warlike kingdom of Sumer and Marhashi, for the period from the fourth millennium to the second millennium Four legends tell of these conflicts: Enmerkar and Ensuhkeshdanna Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta Lugalbanda in the cave of the mountain Lugalbanda and Anzu As legends tell the story seen from the side of Sumer, it is obviously the Sumerian kings and Enmerkar Lugalbanda that the right role The Sumerian powerful must still admit the dificulties to achieve the annexation of Marhashi, and recognize that despite the high cost of these campaigns, their domination of Marhashi hardly have lasted over time In fact, it seems that the real cause of these conflicts, either due to excessive wealth of Marhashi, and vassal colony of Sumer The Marhashi advantage of its location close to the Aryan Valley Thar for their alliance and protection and no longer pay his tribute to Sumer … The Marhashi seems dependent on Sumer for his wheat, but the reverse is true for construction materials, minerals, gold, silver and precious stones

Enmerkar and Ensuhkeshdanna

This legend begins with a description of the richness and beauty of Uruk, which is higher than that of Aratta We learn qu’Ansigaria is the Chief Minister and Ensuhkeshdanna Namena-tuma that of Enmerkar Enmerkar Unug is lord of the other name of Uruk, and Kulaba the city that goes from heaven to earth This confirms the spatial origin of Sumerian direct, that is to say without going through the base of Sanchi Aryan Ensuhkeshdanna is also called Ensukushsiranna or Ensuhgirana Ensuhkeshdanna, priest-king of Marashi, sent a messenger to Enmerkar, priest-king of Uruk, asking him to submit to Aratta It boasts support for that of the goddess Inanna, his wife, the great goddess of love and war Enmerkar is furious because he is the priest-king of Uruk and the husband of Inanna Enmerkar meets Ensuhkeshdanna Inanna left the temple with him and she will not go to Aratta, even for only five or ten years In his reply he even adds a few details like sex “even if it is not a duckling, she cries so much” When the messenger returned with this message to Aratta, Ensuhkeshdanna feels rejected His advisors asked him to step back and avoid confrontation with Enmerkar He vows never to submit to Enmerkar although Aratta must be completely destroyed The sorcerer Urgirinuna who had to leave his city state Hamazi, destroyed by the Sumerians, comes to take refuge in Aratta Urgirinuna Ansigaria ensures that it can be overcome Enmerkar and thus avenge the Sumerian Ansigaria accepts his proposal and the sorcerer goes to Eresh, City Nisaba, also called Nidaba, goddess of writing, learning and harvesting, but also closely linked to Inanna friend The action of the sorcerer will dry milk production of Eresh, the leading provider of Uruk It was a fatal error that déclancha anger of Inanna who called his Sagburu witch to the rescue Then began a contest of witches: Urgirinuna turns his magic with an animal with fish roe River First a giant carp is soon captured and eaten by an eagle created by Sagburu Urgirinuna Then the lamb is seized by a wolf A cow and her calf are removed by a lion A goat and a ram are carried away by a leopard Finally, the foal of a gazelle is kidnapped by two wild beasts The witch who defeated Sagburu Urgirinuna, its magic is higher, she refuses to spare the life of the sorcerer, and flows into the Euphrates The rites of Dumuzi tell us that the old hag becomes a beautiful girl after a stay in the mountains and she married Enmerkar When Ensuhkeshdanna learn it, he admits defeat and submits to Enmerkar The rest of the text is too fragmentary to be construed to, but did not destroy Uruk and Aratta burned as the goddess Inanna would have been entitled to require their Aratta was far too precious …

Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta

The Sumerian legend seems based on real events that occurred during the early third millennium BC Enmerkar, son of the sun god Utu, who reigned 420 years or 900 years depending certtains texts, wants to annex the rich city of Aratta, fitted with gold, silver, tin and lapis lazuli He asked his sister and wife, the goddess Inanna, to help get the people of Aratta tribute intended to restore the temple of Enki in Eridu: the Apsu Inanna Enmerkar advised to send a messenger who will cross the mountains and the land of Anshan, Elam, to communicate its requirements to the lord of Aratta The messenger over the mountains and arrived in Aratta where he asks the Lord to deliver the tribute and send his people to build the Apsu, under penalty of reprisals The lord of Aratta refused Enmerkar the messenger returns to Aratta, where he recites the incantation of Enki, to impress the lord of Aratta that he agrees to pay the tribute for the Apsu He hoped that the confirmation of his coalition with Enki, the lord of Aratta folds and agrees to pay the requested tribute But he still refuses Despite threats of Enmerkar, the lord of Aratta is inflexible because it is the equal of the king of Uruk and Inanna’s husband, who lived at earlier Aratta before joining his brother in Uruk The messenger told him then that Inanna has left and is now married to Uruk and has promised to help Enmerkar to submit Aratta The lord of Aratta then agrees to submit to Uruk and send him riches and materials, if Enmerkar sends a large amount of grain in large-mesh nets and not in bags Enmerkar solves the challenge of using grain germination But he refuses again and submit a new challenge Enmerkar still accepts the challenge but provided that in the premium large additional quantities of precious stones The lord of Aratta refused and asked him to Enmerkar matter who gets these gems to Aratta in compensation for the abandonment of Inanna When the king of Uruk finds out, he returns to Uruk the messenger, not message, but with his scepter: scepter of Sumer, the scepter of Gilgamesh, king of Kulaba rallying of all Sumerian It requires him to cut a second scepter at the base of his It should then show off the new scepter as his own and thus recognize vassal of Enmerkar The lord of Aratta is shaken, but does not yield Enmerkar and offers a single combat between two champions of the two cities to determine the winner of the conflict The king of Uruk accepts the challenge, but increases its demands, asking the people of Aratta to make significant additional offerings for the temple of Inanna at Uruk, the Eanna Enmerkar this time sends the message in writing, the Sumerian formula: the nail is driven, which means that discussions are completed, in case of refusal, up to the war … The text becomes partly missing, and it is unclear how Enmerkar becomes the winner, but we learn later that the lord of Aratta accept defeat Aratta receives the help of Ishkur, the storm god, who offered him large quantities of wheat The assistance of Aryan god Hurrian proves the aid promised by the Allies at Marhashi Valley Thar With this new support, it can raise its head The following text is missing and can not know the steps that lead to the final victory of Enmerkar The people of Aratta then the tribute book and provides the materials to build the Apsu, the temple of Inanna, the Eanna of Uruk


Lugalbanda, the second king according to the Sumerian King List, reigned 1200 years Its name means: young king and he was nicknamed the shepherd Lugalbanda is the hero of two legends compiled the Ur III period, the twenty-first century BC: Lugalbanda in the cave of the mountain and Lugalbanda and Anzu In these two legends, Lugalbanda is an army officer of Enmerkar, the first King according to Sumerian King List The legends we are best known in the 18th century versions Part of the story still comes from the Ur III period, and it is very different from those versions of 18th century This confirms the christiannisation text …

Lugalbanda and Ninsun

The fragmentary tablets Abu Salabikh, dating from about – 2600 BC, describe the relationship between love and Lugalbanda Ninsun goddess, goddess of wild cow, which give birth to Gilgamesh At the Ur III period, we find Lugalbanda deified in many city-states such as Nippur, Ur, Umma and Puzrish-Dagan

Lugalbanda in the cave of the mountain

The Sumerian king Enmerkar wants to conquer the land of Aratta, the Marhashi At the head of his army, march to Enmerkar Aratta, located in the highlands of eastern Lugalbanda is a young army officer sumérienned’Uruk As the army marches towards the city of Aratta, he fell ill in the mountains, on Mount Hurrum His companions, thinking it close to his death, decided to leave it in a cave with his weapons and supplies They plan to bring the body back to Uruk with them upon their return Simply to protect to improve its end and think the repatriation of the body, proves that even if it currently has the rank of officer, it is still a high-ranking Lugalbanda, very sick and seriously weakened, prayed to the gods: Nanna the Moon god, Utu, the sun god, and Inanna, the goddess of love and war, to ask his recovery When he wakes up, two days later he remembers the dream he saw in his sleep Lugalbanda then obeyed the requests sent by the gods of dreams It captures and sacrificed a buffalo and a goat and prepares a banquet for the gods He dedicates the sacrifices to the great Sumerian gods: An, Enlil, Enki and Ninurshag The gods offer him then healing … He then resumed the road and joined the army on the march The end of the text is fragmentary But these texts shed light on these gods who possess such great power They use it mainly to satisfy their desires They do not help anyone for free …

Lugalbanda and Anzu

During his march to join the army of Enmerkar, Lugalbanda is lost in the mountains He then takes the decision to seek the nest of fearsome Anzu The nest is located near the tree the eagle of Enlil This tree grows atop a huge mountain Anzu, or Zu Imdugud, is a lion-headed eagle, that is to say, provided a lion’s head This attribute also indicates that this is a god Anzu, the thunderbird, so called because it could unleash lightning, was the servant of the mighty god Enlil Lugalbanda found the nest, but was absent Anzu There was a chick … Anzu was out hunting to feed his little Lugalbanda then busied himself with care and respect to feed the chick He gave her cakes, honey, salt beef and mutton fat He adorned his head with strands of white cedar and painted his eyes with koh He hid near by and waited cautiously Shortly after, Anzu returned with his partner, bringing a bull in his talons and another on his shoulder He called his chick, but there was no response Fearing the worst, Anzu and his companion uttered a cry of pain so piercing that the gods of the mountain have crept into the crevices like ants But when they atteignèrent the nest, he saw the child sitting quietly The parents were delighted and Anzu then said “Whoever did this to my chick, if you are a god, I give you my friendship, if you are a man, I hope your exaucerais” Lugalbanda then approached and introduced himself with respect to Anzu The god of this bird happy warrior who had befriended her chick offered her to choose a wish, whatever it was Lugalbanda asked him to have the ability to jog very quickly and without fatigue, regardless of the path length Anzu, with only a word, he granted his wish Lugalbanda thus able to quickly leave the mountains and join Enmerkar siege of the city of Aratta The conflict was long and laborious A year passed, but there was no sign of afaiblissement defense of Aratta Their walls, the besieged rained spears as thick as rain For Enmerkar, there was only one explanation: he had lost the favor of Inanna So he asked a volunteer to return to Uruk bring a message to Goddess If she helped him to return safely, he promised to give up his spear and his shield to give it the breeze Lugalbanda, provided his tireless legs, claimed the honor of carrying the message He decided to travel alone, despite warnings from his companions, who told him “you can not cross the great mountains, those who go there, do not return” But thanks to the power given him by Anzu, Lugalbanda Uruk reached before midnight the same day, just when the offerings were made to the goddess in her temple He conveyed the message of his king The Great Goddess did not want qu’Enmerkar renounces war Inanna told him how Enmerkar should proceed to beat the rich city of Aratta, which has brick walls of green crystal, manufactured with cassiterite extracted from the mountains where the cypress grow and decorated with lapis lazuli His reply was that inform Lugalbanda Enmerkar: It took him down a lonely tree, tamarisk, who grew up in one of the sacred pools of the goddess, near Aratta It can then catch the fish with his hands that lives It will then offer him a sacrifice All this is done, the victory was assured of Aratta and Uruk Enmerkar could return with his loot: precious metals and precious stones for which he had declared war to Aratta She also advises to removing all Enmerkar metallurgists craftsmen, goldsmiths, stonemasons, not to mention all the molds And what was said, was made …

Funny gods

Inanna, illustration of Diego Barlock History tells us of gods their life: from 400 to 1200 years! Although their life is long, they do not last forever … They may be gods, they also get sick and need to be treated for cure! They may be gods, they have needs: food, sex, housing, gold and jewelry … Remind you, the Mayan gods demanded food for people, young virgins and gold! They are very human these gods …

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Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 27: The Marhashi

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 27: The Marhashi

Published April 23, 2012

The zigurrat of Ur …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 27: The Marhashi

The Marhashi

The Marhashi is an ancient kingdom of Iran and Pakistan, between Elam and the Indus Valley, the southern Zagros Mountains to the west of the Indus, with part of southern Afghanistan It has been inhabited since the 6th millennium by the Sumerians: The Marhashi is a Sumerian colony The Indo-European Aryans, they were joined from the valley near the Thar, from the fourth millennium All this is evidenced by its business activity, its architecture, but also by the Sumerian, Elamite, and those found in Marhashi The Marhashi exports semiprecious stones: soapstone, chlorite, agate, carnelian and lapis lazuli, but also animals: sheep, bears, dogs, monkeys, elephants and zebu This mineral wealth and agricultural confirms what we said in the Sumerian legends

History of Marhashi

His story is almost unknown, and for good reason, the kingdom has suffered the brunt of the wars of Yi, and was totally destroyed around – 2000 BC As little as we connaissont comes from outside, because the tablets found at Marhashi have not yet been fully translated The language of Marhaschi seems close to the Elamite or rather proto-Elamite It has still been possible to decipher the information on these shelves They cite our commercial connections with the valley of Marhashi Thar, Elam and the kingdoms of Arabia, including Dilmun For the period from 4000 to 2600 BC, it was the Sumerian legends that tell the story of Marhashi, but that’s another story … To be continued … For the period from 2600 to 1700 BC, it was the Sumerian tablets of which Lugalannemundu tell the story of Marhashi

The Sumerian tablets

Lugalannemundu shelves, king of the Sumerian city of Adab, around 2600 BC,we recount his battles against the king of Enlil-Marhashi Migir The first kings of the Akkadian empire fighting a coalition of Elamite kings of Awan and their traditional allies, the kings of Marhashi Sargon of Akkad was the first to defeat them in the late 24th century BC The king of Akkad Rimush, to 2270 BC, defeated the king of Marhashi Abalgamash, allied to the king of Awan, Khita or Luhî-Ishshan The king of Akkad, Naram-Sin, ca 2240 BC, defeated the king of Awan Khita or Hishep Ratep-ally the King of Marhashi Hubshumkipi In the late 22nd century BC, the kings of Ur face a coalition of Marhashi and Elamite kingdoms of Simashki, the Anshan and Zabshali The king of Ur Shulgi, to – 2070, tries to stop the progression of Simashki Elamite dynasty by marrying one of her daughters, Nialimmidashu, the king of Marhashi Libanukshabash and another to the king of Anshan His successor Amar-Sin, around 2040 BC, must again fight the new king of Arwilukpi Marhashi After the fall of the Empire of Ur around 2004 BC, the kingdom of Elam and Marhashi dominate the Iranian plateau Towards 1800/1700 BC, these kingdoms collapsed along with their larger neighbor, the Valley Civilization Thar, erroneously called, Indus civilization

Sites of Marhashi

The main sites of the Bronze Age of Marhashi, currently known, are those of: Shahdad, Shahr-e Sukhteh, Tepe Bampur, Espiedej, Shahi Tump, Tal-e Iblis, and Tepe Yahya Konar Sandal Konar Sandal is thought to be the site of the capital’s legendary Marhashi: Aratta


Shahdad in Kerman province, is located in the oasis of Dasht-i Lut, on the edge of the Lut desert, north of the city of Aratta, and has been occupied since – 6000 BC It is found the oldest metal banner of the world dated back nearly 4000 years This is a banner of 22 cm by 25 cm, on a staff of 1m09, representing two palm trees, a cow, a lion and a goddess called upon by three women The excavations of Professor Ali Hakemi Archaeological Institute of Iran have shown the existence of a highly advanced and refined civilization They mastered the technology of metallurgy, writing, and had proceeded with the funeral rites in the third millennium BC There are many uncovered ceramics, stone vessels and chlorite and metallic, bronze and copper including

Shahr-e Sukhteh

Shahr-e Sūkhté, or Shahr-e Sukhteh, or Shahr-i Shōkhta, in Persian means: She burned the city is located in the province of Sistan-Balutchistan It is the archaeological site of a city of culture of Jiroft Covering 151 hectares, Shahr-i Sokhta was a very large city In the western part of the site there is a huge cemetery, dating from around – 3200 BC and contains 25,000 to 40,000 graves The city had four periods of peak and was burned three times before being abandoned – 2100 BC In December 2006, archaeologists have discovered the first artificial eye of the world! The woman who wore the artificial eye was 1.82 m, much larger than the women of her time, but as great as the noble women of the sites Ikshvaku … Its skeleton has been dated to between 2900 and 2800 BC In a hemispherical shape and a diameter of just over 2.5 cm, the eye was made with a very light material, not yet determined The surface of the artificial eye is covered with a thin layer of gold engraved with a central circle to represent the iris and decorated with gold lines representing sunlight Both sides of the eye are pierced with small holes, through which a gold wire held the eyeball in place Controls the microscope showed that the eyeball was increased during the life of this woman On other skeletons, skulls have been found which supports the practice of trepanation, in which patients survived … It is also found in a cup earth, dating back there over 5000 years, decorated along five images representing the movements of a goat scampers It was enough to turn the cup to see the animated image … Seeds have been found, evidence of an agriculture-led It is also found of metallurgical slags, residues of cast iron and steel Archaeologists have always placed in the Iron Age – 1000, approximately, and the Bronze Age to the Neolithic and Copper For them the hard copper metallurgy is the carved stone! For them, they did not know the iron! They did not take into account the short life of the iron: 2000 years maximum The dairy found in many sites of cities Aryan therefore prove their mastery of iron and steel as copper and bronze We found a backgammon game dated back more than 5000 years The game consisted of two dice and 60 pieces whose fields are decorated with undulating serpents The backgammon game is already mentioned in the Vedic Puranas The use of dice for the game confirms its Indian origin, relations Marhaschi Valley and Thar, and also the age of the Vedas It was recently discovered the skeleton of a messenger who traveled by camel The human skeleton reveals signs of bony trauma, suggesting that this was a professional cyclist who spent his life on a camel Approximately 5,000 medals made with pebbles were found in graves of women, while the medals are clearly attributed to significant This shows clearly the equal status of women in society Aryan The excavations of the city of Shahr-e Sūkhté us discover a race of civilized people of farmers and artisans No weapon was found on the site …

Tepe Bampur

Located in Iranian Baluchistan, Bampur Valley is a natural route linking the Iranian plateau with the Indus Valley It is occupied from the 4th millennium BC The valley cities Bampur have obviously thrived on international trade The site of Tepe Bampur delivered numerous pottery identical to other sites and also to Marhaschi excavation sites of Bahrain and Oman In addition to the site of Tepe Bampur, most importantly, 12 other inhabited sites were discovered in the valley of Bampur

Shahi Tump

Shahi Tump is a site in the valley of Kechi crossing the Makran in southern Pakistan It found, dating from the fourth millennium BC, a weight-filled copper lead, weighing 13.5 kg, ovoid, with a hanging loop at the top It is decorated with mosaics of shells 2 representing a leopard pursuing a gazelle This proves the mastery of copper technology in lost wax casting and that of lead, in addition to the artistic skill of the mosaic The excavations also be said that the locals were engaged at the fourth millennium, a sophisticated and developed agriculture and livestock Found there remains of wheat and barley 6-row

Tal-e Iblis

Excavations at Tal-i-Iblis Bardsir today, revealed many objects of copper, cast using the lost wax dating from the fourth millennium BC It should be remembered that the technique of lost wax casting requires treatment with very high melting temperature and controlled to the degree that it could not be controlled until the late 19th century!

Tepe Yahya

Tepe Yahya is located in the valley of the river Kish-e Shur, near Jiroft in Kerman province, Iran It has been occupied since the 6th millennium BC In large workshops searched, they found many ceramics and metals, especially copper and bronze But chlorite vases and cylinder seals of steatite There were also tablets, written in cuneiform The site is abandoned, then reoccupied and was finally abandoned sometime in the second half of the third millennium BC , At about the time of the wars of Yi …

Konar Sandal

Konar Sandal in the valley of the Halil Rud, in Kerman, is located near the town of Jiroft This site is divided into two tells part of the same city, split by a river The tell B is a high terrace In the workshops unearthed were found numerous tablets in an unknown This is the wedge that resembles the linear Elamite or Proto-Elamite In the graves were found many vases chlorite Konar Sandal should be the main center of production of these vases found throughout the Iranian plateau to Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley and around the Persian Gulf

Marashi civilization or civilization of Jiroft

The civilization of the region is called by archaeologists: Jiroft civilization, arguing that the sites are located around the present city of Jiroft It’s as if Paris was called civilization, the civilization of the Gauls … Archaeologists admit however that the discovery of an ancient civilization could change their view of ancient history … In the early 2000s, many objects dating from the Bronze Age, are found in Western auction houses Customs chains back to Iran, in Kerman province The Iranian customs uncover clandestine excavations along the river banks Halil Five great cemeteries are operated clandestinely, and deliver vases, pottery, objects in lapis lazuli statuettes of chlorite, marble and bronze The army put an end to looting in 2002 The Iranian archaeologist is responsible for Youssef Madjidzadeh expertise coins recovered It organizes regular excavations show that several dozen cemeteries similar to those already looted and two large mounds, the two tells of Konar Sandal


At Konar Sandal, the most impressive monument of this civilization is the large terrace of the mound B: the structure was built with more than four million mud bricks! Archaeologists excavated officials see it as the city of Aratta, capital of the ancient kingdom of Marhashi It is presented as a rich city of the Iranian plateau, with whom the kings of Uruk are in conflict, obviously motivated by his wealth, especially for its raw materials The Sumerian texts tell of the triumph of Uruk Aratta, which was however very difficult to achieve Aratta is well described in Sumerian literature: This is a fabulously wealthy city, full of gold, silver, lapis lazuli and other precious materials, with highly skilled artisans and skilled The town is remote and difficult to achieve This is the home of the goddess Inana, who transferred his allegiance to Uruk after our victory Inana was thus the patron goddess of Aratta The Marhaschi was then conquered by Enmerkar Uruk

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Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 26: The Elam

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 26: The Elam

Posted February 7, 2012

Timbale Elamite, proof of the quality of life, their technology, their artistry and their ability to write and metallurgy …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 26: The Elam

The civilization of Ikshvaku

The Indo-European of Ikshvaku, the Aryans  , see Chapter 9 to 11, who moved there from the 4th millennium BC, to develop, will split The Scythian will go east and south Elamite In the Avesta, the territories of the Ikshvaku were considered former paradise The Ikshvaku is controlled by major city states that support economic activity The late Indo-European, around – 2000 BC, will generate a new mode of power: the religions In Ikshvaku, Zarathustra created religion to Mazdean – 2000 BC The Elamite will take him with them in Elam

The Elam

The Elamite moved from the fourth millennium BC in what is now Iran Its capital, Anshan is located at Tell-i Malyan The city, covering an area of ​​200 hectares, was protected by an imposing wall The most important buildings of the city, are two large buildings: an administration building and other crafts No religious building … We are in a city of Atlantis Aryan At the same time, Susa was the capital of Susa, also Aryan kingdom before being annexed by Anshan The capital of Elam, will be one or the other, Anshan and Susa, because of changes in policies, where the royal title, which is titled king of Anshan and Susa The kingdom of Elam is composed, in addition to the cities of Anshan and Susa, like other Indo-European kingdoms, with many important cities and states, as Awan, Sialk Tepe, Tepe Ozbaki, Shahr-i Sokhteh, Godin Tepe, Simashki, Sherihum, Bashime, Huhnur, Kabnak, Hidalu, Madaktu, Hard-Untash, Liyan, Al-Untash Napirisha, Chogal Zanbil, etc. … Although qu’affiliées the kingdom of Elam, they are relative independence that can go at certain times until complete independence

The gods of Elam

The Elamite king, the sunki is the representative of the gods on Earth, and it is in their name that directs the Elam The gods royal govern their city-state   Humban, which means: one who commands, is the chief deity of the Elamite kingdom at the time of the dynasty of Awan in the third millennium His consort goddess estla Pinikir Pinikir, Pinigir Pinengir or, as the divine couple with primary Humban until XXIIIrd century BC Pinikir had an important temple at Dur-Untash today Chogha Zanbil Napirisha is the patron god of Anshan Its name means the great god It is associated with the snake symbolizes the primordial waters, like the Mesopotamian god Enki / Ea, god of the primordial waters of the abyss A large temple is dedicated to Hard-Untash today Chogha-Zanbil, in Susiana This temple is backed by a large ziggurat He is also revered in large open cave sanctuaries, like Kurangun His consort is Kiririsha Kiririsha, which means: the great goddess, is the consort of Napirisha, whose name means: the great god Napirisha and supplant the old divine couple Humban-Pinikir She is the patron goddess of the city of Liyan, in Bushehr, south of the Elamite kingdom on the Persian Gulf Excavations have unearthed inscriptions confirming that a great temple of this goddess was there This is a mother goddess, fertility goddess, who is thus similar to the Sumerian goddess Ishtar and Ninhursag Inshushinak is the tutelary deity of the city of Susa His name means Lord of Susa He is the god of the dead Attended the god-Ishme karab Lagamar and of the goddess, he judges the souls of the dead Its main temple was located in the neighborhood of Susa and a sacred ziggurat he was Assistant Another temple of Inshushinak, he shared with Napirisha was in the city of Dur-Untash, also accompanied by a ziggurat Nahhunte is the sun god, justice and protector of oaths and contracts Nusku the god of light and fire Its emblem is the lamp He is the son of Enlil, and has a son, Gibil, fire Gibil represents fire, the forge and metalworking It maintains the sharp weapons The Elamites also worshiped gods of Mesopotamian origin as Ishtar, Adad, or Ninhursag Nushku

Ziggurats to temples

The Elamites, like the Mesopotamian ziggurats were built since the 4th millennium BC Two of them are known: that of Susa attested by written sources, and that of Tchogha Zanbil, currently the best preserved ziggurat Some churches are in the open, like those found in Fars to Izeh, Kurangun or Naqsh-e Rostam Large reliefs representatives of the gods and scenes of worship have been carved Some of these places were used over a long period, as Naqsh-e Rostam which is still a place of worship under the Sassanid The Elamites also worshiped their gods in temples as at Susa, Haft Tappeh and Tchogha Zanbil Elamite and Assyrian texts inform us that the Elamite temples include sacred groves, the husa, perhaps linked to the cult of the dead

The succession of gods

The brother sister incest was common among the Atlanteans It seems that it must be to retain power in the family The Elamites are Atlantean Elamite kings are called: the sister’s son, Ruhu-shak, their predecessor The son born to the union of the king and his sister are the rightful heirs priority for succession to the throne The king’s successor was appointed during the lifetime of his predecessor and he participated in the affairs of the kingdom It has been found in numbers of these rules dynasties Atlantean In the dynasty of governors of the kingdom of Ur III, the king bears the title: mah sukkal of Elam, great ruler His successor was appointed sukkal Susa, Regent He exercised power in Susiana on behalf of his king From the Neo-Elamite, the rules of succession become classics: we succeeded from father to eldest son

History of Elam

Elam is a mountainous territory Therefore, it has always consisted of many independent and rival city states The two main ones being that ruled Susa Susiana and Elam who led Anshân In fact, Elam was rarely unified in its history, – in 4000 – 1000 … The historical capitals were sometimes cited under the domination of smaller states We know very little about the period – 4000 to – 2600, except that it is a period of expansion and collapse of competing city-states, allied or enemy … But this was the era or are developing significant international trade flows for the people who master the writing and metallurgy, among others … Towards – 2600, Elam is dominated by the dynasty of Awan The kings of Awan were defeated by Sargon, despite the help of their allies Marhashi They still retain their independence Towards – 2250, the Empire of Akkad collapsed The king of Awan, Puzur-Inshushinak, reconstructs a powerful kingdom from Susa, he resumed Then a succession of wars will put the power of emerging dynasties: the kings of Simashki the épartides of Ebarat: the Sukkalmah, then kidinuides In the 15th century BC, the capital of Susa was the city of Kabnak, Haft Tepe today King Tepti-Ahar there built a great palace with his funerary temple complex and a craft It manufactured portraits painted terracotta which were placed in tombs, near the head of the dead In the second half of the 14th century, King Untash Napirisha, founded a city bearing his name: Al-Untash Napirisha, Tchoga today He restored the unity of the Elam taking the title of king of Anshan and Susa, Elam and Susiana There he built a grand palace: the center stood a temple dedicated to Inshushinak, tutelary god of Susa Like all palace Indo-European, it was not only worship It included a large courtyard surrounded by shops On one side, two small rooms were arranged on both sides of the central passage guarded by monsters and animals glazed earthenware The square outside were protected by an enclosure in which were part of dwelling houses and workshops A second chamber housed other temples and houses A third enclosure surrounding a city of more than 100 hectares The king’s palace contained underground cellars where large were placed cremated remains of the king and some family members A temple or a palace, with a large open courtyard, have been used to Nusku cult, the god of fire

The bronze of the time show a high mastery of metallurgy They make ceremonial ax-shaped snake-breathing dragon blade The kings gave them as a badge to their officials The bronze statue of the queen Napir-asu, weighing 1750 kg, with fine aristocratic hands clasped on the dress flared evidenced today in the Louvre Their mastery of glass and earthenware, their allowed to manufacture seals remarkable In the 12th century, the heyday of the Elamite power: The conquest of the Babylonian Sending to Susa the stela of Naram-Sin Drafting the code of Hammurabi, which is probably a compilation of law much older, inherited the first Indo-European

Elamite Writing

The Elamite writing, linear, date of the fourth millennium BC Bee Season seem designate goods and names The figures show the use of the decimal system The Elamite was later attested in cuneiform script from the second half of the third millennium BC This writing has resisted all attempts to decipher because many signs designate probably things or methods that are totally unknown More icons are highly stylized The Elamite cuneiform used by proving a phonetic writing, which does not facilitate decryption The tablets recently discovered at Konar Sandal, Jiroft, would be to write Elamite The oldest text in Elamite cuneiform is a peace treaty between a king of Awan and King Naram-Sin of Akkad The Elamite cuneiform is used to the Achaemenid The last tablets found in this writing, are those of the palace of Persepolis


Anshan,  or Anšan, is the former capital of the Elamite kingdom, and the first capital of the Achaemenid Persian kings It owes its influence to its strategic location at the crossroads of important trade routes It is located on the site of Tell-e Malyan in Iran, near the city of Shiraz Anshan was occupied from the 6th millennium BC The site of Tell-e Malyan is considered home to the Elamite civilization The city, covering an area of ​​200 acres, was enclosed by a large wall The site includes two large buildings: a main building and an administrative workshop The administrative building has yielded fragments of proto-Elamite tablets The building had its walls covered with craft paint colors white, black, gray and red, with geometric patterns: triangles, rosettes, etc. … Between 2400 and 2000, the kings of Anshan face expansionism of the kings of Akkad and Ur The kings of the Dynasty of Anshan Simashki make the capital of the Elamite kingdom Dynasties of Eparti, or Sukkalmah, Anshan is with Suse, one of two capitals of Elam The kings of later dynasties, the kidinuides, and the igehalkides shutrukides, of – 1450 – 1100, will take the title of king of Susa and Anshan In the first millennium, the region of Anshan, Anshan new name, passed to the Persian Achaemenid The Persian sovereigns then take the title of King of Anšan It was discovered, dating from around 1100, a new landmark building, built by King Khutelutush-Inshushinak, which were found in Elamite administrative tablets


Suse , Shushan in the Bible, Susan Elamite, ancient Elamite, becomes the fifth century BC, the capital of the Achaemenid Persian Empire Today it is a field of ruins in the small town of Shush Susa was founded around 4000 BC on a checkpoint in the valley of the Tigris Susiana before Suse is already populated with several city-states founded in the late 6th or early 5th millennium, which Jafarrabad, Jowi, Bendebal and Chogha Mish Darius I built on the ruins Elamite, his palace of Apadana The Acropolis, the highest part of the site housed an Achaemenid fort, which was habition area of ​​the city at the time Elamite Below is the royal city that was inhabited from the late fifth millennium, Susa Elamite The upper terrace, which one side was reached, is a palace with a single stage, measuring 10 meters high and 80 meters long A necropolis was discovered near Many graves have delivered copper items: flat axes, awls and mirrors But also of painted pottery fine white or red, decorated with geometric and stylized animals, mainly vases, cups and bowls Excavations have unearthed a large number of seals or seal impressions and seals on doors Many are the master of animals, common in Iran divinity of the fourth millennium Were manufactured at Susa many statues of all sizes Darius I built there his statue The metal is also very developed and there control the technique of lost wax Excavations have delivered remarkable bronze weapons Obviously there at that time an administrative Accounting is present everywhere, indicating a complex management of agricultural estates and many trade Were found during excavations more than 1,500 tablets administrative accounting, recording or storage of goods movements Was found in Susa, the stele of Hammurabi’s code and that of Naram-Sin of Akkad, reported military campaigns Elamite


Awan is a former city of Elam, whose kings are the first historic dynasty Awan has not yet been found It is located north of Susiana According to the Sumerian King List, a dynasty of three successive sovereigns, reigned 356 years ago This is the political importance of Awan in the third millennium BC At the period of Akkad, to – from 2340 to -2 200 Mesopotamian historical texts inform us that Sargon of Akkad, Naram-Sin and Rimush beat successively Luhi ishshan-and-Hishep ratep Awan and their allies, the kings of Marhashi After these defeats, Awan becomes the vassal kings of Akkad The peace treaty signed between Naram-Sin and ruler of Awan, Khita, is one of the oldest documents in Elamite, which has been found

Tepe Sialk

In Isfahan Province, near the town of Kashan, is the site of Tepe Sialk, consisting of two hills, the tell north and south tell The occupation of the site dates back to the late 7th millennium BC until the 4th millennium BC There is also a necropolis from the second millennium BC Tell the north has two levels: Sialk I and II Sialk The tombs of Level I contained pottery with painted decoration and clear the stone tools or bone The level Sialk II attest the appearance of metallurgy and demonstrates trade links with other state cities Tell the south includes levels III and IV Sialk Sialk III corresponds to the fifth millennium and the beginning of the fourth This period reflects the complexity of the architecture and materials: molded bricks, stone and handicraft development and Metallurgy The level IV Sialk from the second half of the fourth millennium to the abandonment of the site at the beginning of the third millennium It is here that date back many proto-Elamite tablets At Sialk IV, we also find the ruins of a vast ziggurat This is a large terrace which has more than 5000 years After a drop of more than a millennium, the site was reoccupied Sialk in the second half of the second millennium: Sialk V and VI Sialk It found two burial Sialk level V, we have uncovered weapons and bronze objects, jewelry and objects made of iron But also ceramics of gray-black or red, decorated with geometric At Sialk VI, the graves are covered with tiles It is found weapons of bronze and iron, bits and harnesses But also long-beaked vases, painted with geometric or animal The site was finally abandoned in the early first millennium

Choga Zanbil

Choga Zanbil Elamite is an urban complex in the Khuzestan province in Iran   Found in Chogha Zanbil the ruins of the ziggurat of Dur Untash, the largest and best preserved of all those we know The site is located approximately 45 miles south of Susa Also included is a figurine of kaolin representing a human head, from the 2nd millennium BC, and looking strangely like the statues of Easter Island …

The ziggurat of Dur-Untash-Napirisha

In the 13th century BC, at the height of the Elamite kingdom, the ziggurat of Dur Untash dominated the kingdom Partially restored, it is one of the largest ziggurats of the world Hard-Untash-Napirisha was a religious center of the Elamite kingdom, founded around – 1250 by King-Untash Napirisha on the road between Susa and Anshan Hard-Untash-Napirisha means the fortress of Untash-Napirisha The city is surrounded by a wall of 400 m square and is dedicated to the god of Susa, Inshushinak Napirisha, Ishme-Karab, Kiririsha, there are also revered The ziggurat is composed of four floors fitted vertically A neighborhood with royal palace was built southeast of the city Royal tombs were built under one of the palace mausoleum of use Found there the remains of cremated bodies, as in Hittite and Hurrian Nushku a temple, the god of fire, was excavated near the palace Neighborhoods designed for habitation, were never built, the city was soon abandoned because of the rapid extinction of the dynasty of Untash-Napirisha Many works of art created for Hard-Untash, were sent to Susa, where they will be found during the excavations The ziggurat however still used several centuries, until its destruction by the Assyrians

The Elamite

The Elamite art is characterized by animal motifs, like that of Scythian … The site of Susa has delivered a large number of impressions of cylinder seals and statuettes Ceramics, painted pottery, jewelry and bronze sculptures complete the inventory of artistic, classical Aryan for all populations The economy and industry, also demonstrate the high technological level for the time, found in all ethnic groups Aryan Valley Thar to the Eastern Europe International trade and metallurgy developed are the hallmarks The classical architecture of the valley and the Thar is found everywhere in Aryan Ancient cities include administrative buildings, workshops, homes, but like all cities Aryan: any place of worship … In fact, all this confirms the invention of religion, to – 2000, to take power, because the technology of the gods is no longer sufficient to impose

Before – in 2000, is the time of gods on earth

After – 2000 is the time of the gods in heaven …

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Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 25: Babylon

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 25: Babylon
Posted October 29, 2011

The Ishtar Gate in Babylon …


Book Two: Lespeuples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 25: Babylon


The official historians now recognize only But partly, power and technology of all state cities the middle east, Anatolia in Elam north, and south to the sea, the fifth to the third millennium before J.C. They have been little studied with arguments of genre: the period of the 1st millennium BC being the most brilliant, this is one we’ll look … Of course, the study of the third millennium is more difficult … Cited state and kingdom, the history of Babylon is also eventful than that of the region … Founded by the Sumerians, who make a city state independent, it was then inhabited by the Indo-European, Aryan, who take refuge there after the wars of Yi Atlanteans like them, they have no problem to adopt their lifestyle A tablet dated around 2500 BC. AD testifies in Babylon, the Ensi, King, commemorates the building of the temple of the god Marduk Marduk was the patron god of Babylon The name of Babylon in cuneiform appears again to 2200 BC. AD, with the king of Akkad, Shar-kali-Sharri, who restores two Temples Levels of the third millennium BC city. AD having not been searched, it is difficult to date its origins The city came under the rule of Akkadian to – 2200 before J.C. She later moved under the cutting of Amorite, the Kassite, Hittite, Assyrians, etc. …

History of the Enuma Elish
Babylonian mythology is the heir of mythology Sumerian The Enuma Elish is the Babylonian epic of creation of the world The version we know was written in Akkadian Enuma Elish means: When top That is to say: history of the gods She tells of Marduk’s accession to sovereignty Babylonian gods The text of the epic is almost complete, because there we missing is the fifth tablet, which has never been found The poem was compiled in the late twelfth century BC. AD during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar I, according to documents of the time, which we did not know and probably completed by tradition Oral The epic describes the origins of the world and the cosmos, the battles of the first gods against the forces of chaos, Marduk’s accession to the throne of King of Gods, the Creation and Man

The Enuma Elish

The saga began in the early days, when the universe was still a body of water Then Apsu, the fresh water, and Tiamat , Salt water, generate several generations of gods A third generation, the last born, too noisy increase anger and disruptive to Apsu Apsu, with the help of his advisor Mummu, decides to destroy Ea, Enki, learns of the plot He plunges into a deep sleep Apsu, kills and connects Mummu Others begets a son, Marduk, who from birth is superior to other gods The birth of Marduk the envy of other gods They will persuade Tiamat to avenge the death of her husband Apsu by helping to destroy Tiamat Marduk created an army of monsters and gives the command to Kingu Marduk agrees to fight Tiamat in exchange for the site higher in the hierarchy of gods The fourth tablet recounts the struggle Marduk manages to kill Tiamat, the primordial sea, and with his body, split in two like a dried fish, it creates the vault heaven, earth and their elements: mountains, rivers, bodies heavenly constellations were put in the sky The Moon was created to set the month and for the Sun set the day In heaven there up the homes of gods and astral fixed their celestial races He fixed a link, the two parts of the dismembered body of Tiamat Thus the sky is connected to the Earth’s surface above the fresh water which the door Finally it forms the natural elements, earth up to the center and create the universe Babylon

Babylon is a divine city Marduk has withdrawn all its powers in the temple low, the Egasil), and in the temple above the top of Etemenanki, the ziggurat Babylon, which would have peaked at over 90 meters high … Etemenanki would be the Tower of Babel from the Bible … Marduk then decided to create man to serve the Gods Others kills Kingu and created with his blood mankind The text gives a list of fifty names given to Marduk and with a call for men to worship him Marduk had to overcome the critical elements that existed from the beginning, before the creation of the gods He wants to create an ordered universe that Babylon will be the Egasil capital and the heart of Babylon, will be the seat of government, according to the account of the Sixth Tablet See also: Book One, The gods, the fifth part; The Atlanteans, Chapter 17: Sumerian Legends

Extracts of the epic
Beginning of the text (Tablet I, 1-10): “When the sky above was not yet named Than below the earth did not name [these are not available] Only the Apsu [the ocean of fresh water] essential that begat the gods, Tiamat and [the sea] which bore all, Mingled their waters in a while. No bush of reeds was assembled, Zero reedbed was visible [vegetation does not exist] While none of the gods had not appeared, Being called a name, or provided with a destiny, Within them, the gods were created ” The crowning of Marduk (Tablet VI, 93-end): “He erected a royal throne Which exceeded those of other gods, And in the midst of the Assembly of Gods, Anu Marduk settled there. The great gods, as one, The exalted destiny of Marduk And worshiped him […]. They granted him to exercise dominion over the gods, Confirming the absolute power The gods of heaven and earth […] ” See also: Book One, The Gods, Part 5, The Atlantean Chapter 17: Sumerian Legends


In Babylon, found in what historians call the Archaic period, all the elements of a population of Atlantis However the question is: new arrivals of Babylon, after the wars of Yi, they are of Aryan refugees Valley of the Thar, or expat Sumerian Sumerian valley in which the Thar come home? Given the development that then took Babylon, it is logical to think that this is the 2 Indeed, the Sumerian mythology is the one that will survive and it is likely that the Sumerians in the valley of Thar have taken home mixed families they had created over there and the friends he had to be saved When high, means much space … Chaos on earth before the terraforming … Marduk has absolute power over the gods of heaven and the earth … We recover a space history, the history of Atlantis …

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Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 24: The Assyrians

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 24: The Assyrians
Posted October 26, 2011

Assyrian warship …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 24: The Assyrians

Assyrian periods

Archaeologists have divided the history of the Assyrian empire into three periods: The paleo-Assyrian period – 1796 to – 1393 Period of conquests and invasions of cities and kingdoms surrounding The Mid-Assyrian period – 1393 to – 912 The Neo-Assyrian period of – 912 to – 609 Period of defense against the neighboring peoples, Phrygian, Aramaic, Kaska, Babylon Assyria then disappears under the blows of the Medes For these three periods, already widely known by the stories Greeks, they made numerous excavations Archaeologists so they had to dig up objects and bring texts to confirm these stories in the history of Assyrian close

History of the kingdom of Assyria

But the real story of the Assyrian, the one that we interest, is the kingdom of Assyria, of – 3000 – 1800 For this period there was very little evidence and searches always stop at the newest, easiest, cheapest, etc. … During this period, the kingdom of Assyria ruled a region more or less around the city of Assur, but could extend throughout Anatolia and parts of Iran, and doors to Sumer south Indeed, we found texts prove that the commercial cities of the region were not independent counters, but colonies Hegemony is not eternal, the Kingdom has become vassal of Akkad at about – 2200 BC


Assur is the tutelary god of the city of Ashur and Assyria it is the true master of the kingdom, and the king is only its representative and high priest This is the god who orders him what to do, and sovereign must be accountable to The king of Assyria is the representative on earth of the god Ashur This way of writing the text proves the origin Extraterrestrial god And it was only after his death, his deification brings full powers to the king For the king is also the high priest of the god Ashur The king can not be present at all the ceremonies that was to lead, it was represented by his cloak, kuzippu, or a priest delegated The king is the head of the army and the domain administrator royal Its main role is to govern his kingdom, but also and especially to enlarge The royal estate owns the land, workshops, warehouse and inventory It employs an important administration for management field

The Assyrian pantheon

Assur is the king of the gods The ordeal of Marduk in the Enuma Elish, history Babylonian creation of the world, says that Marduk is judged by a court of the gods, headed by Assur At his side the goddess Ishtar, symbolized by the planet Venus, goddess of love and war Other important gods are part of this pantheon: The storm god, Adad The moon god, Sin And many others, found in all pantheons of Indo-European city-states

The city of Assur

Archaeology confirms the occupation of the city from at least – before 4000 J.C. The oldest remains were discovered in the temple Ishtar and the old palace Assur was the counter Assyrians, Indo-European or Aryan Valley Thar After the wars of Yi, they came to take refuge, as many other Aryan peoples, in their desks in the middle east The city of Ashur is known to us with over 22 000 tablets unearthed in the city of Kanesh currently Kültepe, Cappadocia It is written in ancient paleo-Assyrian cuneiform These are mostly letters of a private nature There are also many legal documents: contracts , Bills of sale, loans, receivables, minutes, verdicts But the accounting documents, exercises schools, religious incantations and literary texts Assur was a very rich city thanks to its trade international Assyria had commercial relations with Anatolia , Sumer, Elam and up the valley of the Thar An important part of commercial traffic with the valley Thar was assured by sea, the Persian Gulf and Oman to Indian Ocean They negotiated tin, bronze, copper, silver , Gold, jewelry, wood, cloth and food, among others … The cuneiform script is used to Assyria, as in Throughout the region, since the arrival of the Sumerian This writing common to Aryan and facilitates the Atlantean communications and trade Use of this writing, and understanding are not limited to the elite, and a significant proportion of the population use it Implying an important educational system …

Assyrian Navy

To transport bulky and heavy, cedar such as drums, metals, olive oil, etc. …, up to Indian Ocean should be a consistent Shipping He needed a boat to transport To be profitable, well yes, in those days, the profitability was the order of the day, it was necessary that these vessels are immense … The Etruscans, as discussed in Part 5 , Manufactured vessels over 100 meters long and 20 to 30 meters off! There is no reason than their Atlantean Assyrians do not enjoy the same technology And to ensure that these transports are represented huge, it was necessary a navy to protect them from pirates … The fact that the bas-reliefs of Assyria, located inside land, far from the sea, are transport vessels and war, proves the great influence of Assyrian territorial The art demonstrates not only the Assyrian presence at sea Black, Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf, but also their technology progress Just imagine the technology and logistics necessary for the collection, transportation , Loading, travel, delivery and payment for these goods … This confirms to us that the Atlanteans to 5000 years ago were not uneducated barbarians just good to make war …

Assyrian ship propulsion

In northern Anatolia or the figurine was found in pottery representing a transport ship Assyrian The photo is part of the wonderful blog: between two banks to I would strongly advise you to go through it, you will make a wonderful trip to Turkey This figure comes from a pottery exhibition Temporary Museum of St. Irene (Aya Irini Müzesi) located in the park Topkapi Palace The exhibition traces of Kültepe concerns, most important trading Assyrian in Anatolia The exhibits date from the end of the third millennium to the beginning of the second millennium BC But what is more interesting is that this figure represents a tug It is driven neither by sail or by oars … The top of the mast is strangely reminiscent of an antenna radar … The two characters are completely one pilot and his assistant At their hats, it is clear that they are Assyrian What may work well on this engine tug very that was powerful draw cedar barrels or barges? This took place there over 4000 years …

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Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 23: The Akkadian

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 23: The Akkadian

Published July 17, 2011

The great Sargon of Akkad to the tree of life …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 23: The Akkadian


I told you the story of Sumer in the book first , Part 5, Chapters 16 and 17 The Sumerians were the Atlanteans who have dominated the region with their powerful city-states Uruk, Ur, Eridu, Nippur, Kish and Lagash were the most important Kish, led by their king Ur-Zababa, had control the region for the Sumerians to 2235 BC, before losing to advantage of the Akkadian

The legend of Sargon of Akkad

A text of the eighth century BC, written during the reign Sargon II, tells the legend of Sargon My mother was high priestess My father, I do know him The brothers of my father are camping in the mountains My hometown is Azupiranu on the banks of the Euphrates My mother, the high priestess, conceived me and bore me in secret She set me down in a basket of reeds, which she sealed with the opening of the bitumen She threw me on the river and I can not escape The river carried me He took me up in Aqqi, the drawer of water Aqqi the drawer of water drew me out by dipping his bucket Aqqi the drawer of water adopted me as his son and raised me Aqqi the drawer of water taught me his trade as a gardener While I was gardener the goddess took Ištarse love for me and so I exercised kingship for fifty-five years In the Sumerian tradition, the eldest son inherited the throne The other son received the government of a province of kingdom The daughters were high priestesses of the temple religious They had no right to have children, to avoid the wars of succession We can see in the legend, a high priestess royal blood, that of the temple of Ishtar, has been circumvented with a head Hurrian: the mountain near the Euphrates Of course, the high priestess followed and supervised education and career of his son He was able to reach the enviable position of cupbearer to the king Ur-Zababa To – or 2320 – 2270 BC, Sargon instigated a coup state prepared by political and religious intrigues and became the ensi instead of Ur-Zababa

Moses and the Bible

The text of this legend predates the compilation of the Bible , Begun by King Josiah in the late seventh century This compilation will last until the year 358: 1000 years of negotiations to achieve write a Bible that is acceptable to all factions … It is noted that the Bible is appropriate legend Sargon to tell about the birth of Moses – 1400 BC The Hebrew priests were exiled to Babylon in the seventh century BC. AD …

Sargon of Akkad

Sargon of Akkad, founder of the sovereign kingdom of Akkad, also called the kingdom of Akkad, ruled from -2334 to -2279 BC Some historians place his reign of -2285 to -2229, 50 years later He conquered Uruk and tore down the walls He captured the king of Uruk and took Lugal zagesi in a straitjacket to be exposed pinioned at the door of the e-kur, the temple of Enlil at Nippur Sargon then seized Ur, Lagash and Umma A Eninkimar, port Lagas, he washed his weapons in the sea to show his power over all the land of Sumer Sargon conquered Mari and Ebla then west, then Awan and Warahše in the Zagros and Susa in Elam He married Tašlutum, an Akkadian He also had many concubines One of them, a Sumerian, gave him a daughter Enheduanna She became a high priestess of Nanna, Inanna and Ur Ningal Sargon put it in this position to control populations Sumerian south 42 hymns are attributed They ruled over the worship of the temples during the Akkadian kingdom nearly five centuries

The kingdom of Akkad

Some historians have called the empire, but all known texts speak only of kings Historians have used this term to define empire history of the dynasty of Akkad centralized power to a successor era of feudal rule of state cities Yet this is indeed a royal dynasty in succession domestic The kingdom of Akkad dominated Mesopotamia for more than two centuries On the death of Sargon, his son succeeded him Rimush Then turn it is the brother of Rimush that will leave its place his son Naram-Sin Naram-Sin by his lack of fervor, has lost the support of gods, Enlil and does not entitle him to rebuild his temple at Nippur Naram-Sin is also destroying the temple and thus attract the curse of the gods, who condemn his kingdom The curse of Akkad, written in Sumerian, under the kings of the next dynasty, that of Ur III, was orchestrated by the power religious disagreed with the king almighty …

Economy of Akkadian

Urukagina, king of Lagash, defeated by the king of Uruk, Lugal zagesi, had decreed, when he was still in full glory, that areas of King, Queen and Crown Prince defeated, passed under the ownership of the symbolic realm of the gods Members of the royal family were the representatives on earth They could therefore legitimately dispose Sargon of Akkad after defeating Lugal zagesi, applied this law to the whole of his kingdom … Urukagina is also known for digging a canal to Lagash The three main cities of his kingdom are connected by an extensive network of irrigation, who was one of the richest agricultural regions of Sumer Some documents will be exiled to Urukagina Akkad after the invasion of Lugal zagesi Documents found in Susa relate the activity Akkadian merchants who act on behalf of the state or privately, to import raw materials International trade is very active with Elam (Iran ), Meluhha (Thar valley) and Magan (Oman) Akkad is the center of international trade at the time There are gems of East Africa, money of Mount Taurus, lapis lazuli of the Pamirs, cedar of Lebanon , … Etc.

Traders are the wealthy citizens related to power Central … The archives tell us about local activities, the agricultural trade, purchase and sale of fields, slaves, and also loans At Umma, Ur a-Shara takes care of the cattle belonging the palace His wife Ama-e, leases the land from the palace and performs ready These notables regarded the lands granted as family property The archive found tell us in detail the royal administration that controls carefully the commercial, agricultural , Craft and legal The main areas belong to the king, family Royal and temples The temple was Ningirsu has more than 4400 hectares of land, and employed 1,200 workers … They were paid in rations based on grain They depended entirely on the ruling class was based on an efficient bureaucracy Entries show the abuse of Urukagina members administration of the temples and palaces against workers

Religion of the Akkadian

Religion is of type Sumerian Akkadian It is a true divine family linked to the royal family There are also links with the Indo-European gods imported by the Aryan people of the valley of the Thar Inanna in Sumerian, Akkadian Ishtar is the goddess patron of Akkad She is the daughter of the sky god An in Sumerian or Akkadian Anu Its symbol is Venus and she is the goddess of love and war Inanna, the sister of Shamash, the sun god, is the wife Dumuzi the shepherd who would become the king of the city Inanna, Queen of the great kingdom from above, down to hell to overthrow her sister Ereshkigal, ruler of the underworld She enters the palace of Ereshkigal, through the seven gates and sometimes naked, no power, before his sister and seven judges Hell, the Anunnaki, who kill The gods are informed, but condemn him for his act Enki shapes and sends two messengers to hell, which revive Inanna with the drink of life and the food of life Obeying the law that anyone who enters into hell can not return to Earth, the Anunnaki do not want to let her go Inanna must provide a replacement She returns to earth accompanied by the demons and finds Dumuzi sitting comfortably on the throne of the city By anger, he is bearing it to replace In the Akkadian version, Ishtar and Tammuz are the names Inanna and Dumuzi We also find the location of hell in space, or we must die (cryonics) to travel, and have the apple immortality to extend life up to 3000 years to resist these long travel … Those in hell are not dead, but exiled and forbidden to return to earth …

The Akkadian language

The Akkadian language comes from the Sumerian The Sumerian language is derived from Proto-Indo-European What is normal, the Sumerians being a branch Atlantean , Like the Aryan or Indo-European The evolution comes from the territorial annexations of the new king, Sargon, who conquered all Hurrian territory that have been added to the territories Sumerian The Hurrian is an Indo-European With half of the Hurrian-speaking population and the other Sumerian half, it is normal everyday language, Akkadian, evolves to a mix, especially since the two languages from the same roots The Akkadian language is a language well Indo-European Akkadian cuneiform writing is like the Sumerian The Akkadian writing was used until the first century J.C. It evolved to transcribe several other languages Mesopotamia, as the Assyrian and Babylonian The most famous Akkadian text is the code of Hammurabi, king of Babylon about 2250 before J.C.   We found the kingdom of Akkad over 5,000 cuneiform tablets from geographically dispersed sites In lower Mesopotamia, Girsu, Umma, Nippur, Adab, have fought many tablets Valley of Diyala, and Eshnunna Khafadje, Suse Elam, Gasur in upper Mesopotamia, and Tell Brak in Syria, also provided their large batches of cuneiform tablets This is mainly administrative tablets, written in Sumerian or Akkadian They record the management of agricultural estates belonging in palaces, temples and rich characters It shows the resource control, the movements of goods, storage inventories, land grants, the balance sheets Annual farms or workshops, bills of sale, loans , … Etc.

The cone of clay of Ur-Bau

On the cone of clay of Ur-Bau, governor of Lagash – 2155 to – 2142 BC, we read the following in Akkadian cuneiform: When the sky above was not yet named, the earth below not yet named, there was Apsu, the first of the gods and descendants and servants Tiamat the Malaxa and mixed it all their water, without forming or lumps of dough None of the gods was to be drawn, nor their names spoken or written for their new The gods have been born and of the liquid This philosophy is reflected in the religious texts all ancient religions, or Atlantean édenistes …

Akkadian art

At the period of Akkad, king of new accesses to the rank divine, as in all theologies Atlantean, and we proclaim in all the kingdom of statues representing the king-size Art is devoted to the king, clearly the purpose of propaganda The king is shown as a victorious warrior, submitting his enemies The texts accompanying these representations are praised the divine king The monument excavated at Sippar Phillips says: I Manishtusu the son of Sargon, the powerful King Kish, etc … He tells the “liberation” by the King of thirty-eight cited The pyramid Manishtusu in Shushan is a block of diorite 1.40 m high, with inscriptions on all four sides The texts mention the purchase of land for many constitute a large area and describes the commodities that are produced for royal god The victory stele of Naram-Sin shows the king who wears a horned tiara, divine attribute, After his successful campaign against the Lullubis, mountain Hurrian Zagros The royal head, generally attributed to Sargon first , Copper alloy, found at Nineveh, is representative of the royal style This is the time to develop cylinder seals, representative character of the realm One of the most remarkable shows two naked figures, appointed Lahmu, now drink two buffaloes The cartridge is called and the function of the holder Seal: Ibni-sharrum, scribe Shar-Kali-Sharri, king of Akkad, son of Naram-Sin

The Akkadian

The Sumerians are in place in the region with their cities states since – before 4000 J.C. The Hurrian are an ethnic group Aryan or Indo-European, native of the valley of the Thar The Akkadians were a people of Atlantis, from the mixture of populations Sumerian and Hurrian They also mixed their languages to create language Akkadian, Indo-European language They have maintained and developed their writing system, the cuneiform

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Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 22: Cities and states Hurrian kingdoms

Part 4: The Indo-European, Chapter 22: Cities and states Hurrian kingdoms
Published June 27, 2011

The 12 Hurrian gods of the underworld …


Book Two: The peoples

Part 4: The Indo-European

Chapter 22: Cities and states Hurrian kingdoms

The Hurrian

Originally, the Hurrian arrived from the Valley Thar in India to their desks in Armenia, see chapter of Urartians Armenians speak a language related to Sanskrit Hurrian texts discovered describe Vedic deities: Varuna, Indra and Nasatya In the fourth century AD, Eusebius, cites Eupolemus historian of the second century BC, which asserts that the time of Abraham around 1800 BC, the Armenian invaded the Syrian This confirms the Indo-European Hurrian


Tell means a hill or an artificial hill formed by remains of dwellings Tells are characteristic of the Neolithic and we are found from the Indus to the Near East The equivalent Turkish tepe: hill, or höyük: mounds Persia is Tappeh: Hill The word also refers to the tombs, as these hills artificial burial mounds are often

Tell Mohammed Diyab

This mound of 14 hectares, is under excavation surrounded tells many smaller It is occupied from the third millennium to the end of the time Mitannian There is a small temple and homes In a tomb were found the remains metallic clearly indicating an Armenian of Hurrian, as for Urartians As at Tell Brak and other sites Mitannian, there find traces of repeated destruction by the Assyrians

Gasur and Nuzi

Gasur, who was appointed during the second millennium Nuzi, Today Yorgan Tepe, has been inhabited since the fifth millennium BC The texts indicate an uninterrupted occupation until its destruction in the fourteenth century During the second millennium, Nuzi was a city of the kingdom Arrapha of the present Kirkuk, a vassal of Mitanni North of the palace was a double temple dedicated to Ishtar and Teshub, the Hurrian storm god Excavations in the temples, the palaces and houses, have delivered more than 6,000 cuneiform tablets, the oldest dating from the third millennium before J.C. Most of the names of the inhabitants of Nuzi that we are related in the tablets, names are Hurrian There are also uncovered statues, weapons, ceramics and remains of frescoes In a house, more than a thousand tablets us engage the private archives of the owner TEHIP Tilla: contracts, recording acquisitions and land exchanges, purchases of slaves, trial, etc. … Property sales are in the form of adoption of fictitious contracts, of maruti tuppi: a person takes a another, which he inherited a property and in return pays the adopted adopting a present that is the price of land Tehip-Tilla is passed over a hundred times The lending rate is 50% and insolvent debtors must dispose of their property to their creditors or placing family members or themselves , And for several years to several decades

The kingdom of Ebla
The tell of Ebla, Tell Mardikh today, 60 km south Aleppo, occupies a strategic position which controls access to the Mediterranean The kingdom of Ebla has extended its grip to Iraq The king has the title of Sumerian EN, translated by Lord , And its legitimacy is based on ancestor worship deified dynastic Excavations have unearthed more than fourteen thousand tablets carved in Sumerian clay and éblaïte These tablets have provided information on economy, trade, industry, government, diplomacy, religion and history of Ebla The exhumed remains can tell Ebla was occupied in the second half of the fourth millennium Between – and 3000 – 2000, Ebla was one of the most powerful city-states of Syria

The G palace, which dates from the XXIVth century, is the oldest palace known in Syria It extended over an acre and included at least one stage In the administrative district was found in the room archives about 14,700 tablets and fragments of tablets classified On the east wall were shelves deliveries tissue In the corner there were shelves of deliveries precious metals and copper Along the north wall on the top shelf there were word lists or dictionaries éblaïte-Sumerian and Decrees Other shelves were reserved for agriculture and Livestock In other parts of the palace, were found tablets deliveries of food, flour and oil The threshold of the civic district and steps the grand staircase of the palace include pearl- The courtyard and the throne room contained wall panels inlaid with gold leaf, ornamental limestone and lapis lazuli These panels represent processions of characters paying homage to the sovereign There were also statues of composites, whose elements in hair are made of steatite and lapis lazuli The body of the statues was hard stone or metal decorated precious stones and gold There were inlaid furniture and decorated with small marble figurines representing animals or round of fighting heroes and mythological animals Representation shows a goddess taming lions

The palace of Ebla textile workers employed for work wool and flax, blacksmiths with about 500 ironworkers, the goldsmiths who worked copper, silver and gold, and workers in the processing of agricultural products such as flour milling, baking, brewing, wine making, the manufacture of perfumes, etc. Two-thirds of the agricultural sector are grain, as evidenced by a report, which informs us that the palace has a reserve of more than 31 000 tonnes of barley Almost all the rest of the agricultural area is formed olive groves At the time of the destruction of the palace, its reserves were approximately 330,000 liters of oil The vine occupied the remaining land, the presses and Wine cellars are mentioned in the documentation The breeding was mainly focused on sheep There would have been more than 100,000 according to the archives According to accounts, there were over 8,000 head of cattle International trade was very active The export concerned mainly olive oil and textile products Ebla was on a crossroads of trade routes important that controlled trade in metals and wood In the royal palace were found objects from Egypt and lapis lazuli from Afghanistan The great god of the kingdom is éblaïte Kura and his consort Barana Dagan is the god of fertility The god of thunder is Adda The sun god Utu is Rashap god of the underworld, Ishkhara fertility goddess, Ashtar (Ishtar), celestial goddess of Venus, the star is Kakkab, Enki, the goddess Ninki, the Hurrian goddess Hebat complete this pantheon still largely unknown

Ebla is constantly at war against its powerful neighbor, Husband At the end of the XXV and early XXIVth century, Ebla was a vassal state of Mari and pays tribute But the reign of Ibrium, around 2300 BC, Ebla conquered the kingdom of Emar, the kingdom and the kingdom of Tuttul Abarsal and several other small neighboring kingdoms Through marriages of princesses éblaïtes, the vizier Ibbi-zikir is allied to the kingdoms of Nagar and Kish After many adventures in this region tormented, to – 1600, the city of Ebla was destroyed by King Hurrian Pizikarra of Nineveh, according to a tablet written in Hittite and Hurrian discovered in the ruins of Hattusha It tells the story of the making of Ebla One recognizes all the elements that characterize companies Aryan or Indo-European Kura is the chief god, unknown elsewhere, which is normal for a tutelary deity of the city founder The other gods are the classical pantheon Aryan god and goddess couple, storm gods, fertility, the sun and other celestial bodies, the underworld, etc. … Aryan Technology is also recognizable architecture, urban planning, administration, goldsmiths, metallurgy , Intensive agriculture, wine and beer, international trade, etc … And all this, there 5000 years …


Urkish or Urkesh now Tell Mozan, was founded during the fourth millennium BC. J.C. Excavations have unearthed the royal palace, a terrace which had to be surmounted by a temple, houses with courtyards interior and exterior, cemeteries, etc. … Urkish was Hurrian capital at times The cuneiform tablets in Hurrian language of the gods speak Kumarbi, god nature, father of gods and tutelary deity of the city, and the god of the underworld , Nergal They also give us the names of some kings The first names mentioned are the title of Hurrian NNWS : Tupkish NNWS (2250 BC.) Tish-atal NNWS (time unknown) Shatar-mat NNWS (time unknown) Atal-shen (time unknown) Ann-atal (2050 BC.) Te’irru (1800 BC.)


Nagar, modern Tell Brak, is composed of several tells, extends over 110 hectares The site has been occupied since – 6500 before J.C. There is good reason to believe that one of the tells of Nagar is the site of Wassugammi, but there is no conclusive evidence in meaning Nagar IV dated millennium before J.C. We are unearthed a temple measuring 30 meters by 25 The outer walls are decorated with cones forming a rosettes and mosaic stone Copper sheets covered the interior walls At the back of the temple, there was an altar decorated with stones white and lapis lazuli He was appointed temple in the eyes because they are found more 200 figures in alabaster, called: idols in the eyes, representatives of characters with one or two heads, eyes occupying almost the entire surface But also many amulets and large amount of faience beads and rock crystal and many ceramics The seals that are found, attest at that time The existence of an administration developed After its destruction by the XXIVth century Sargon of Akkad, a palace of 105 by 92 meters, is built on the site of the temple to eyes


Taite, called Taidu Assyria was one of the capital Mitanni Tell al-Hamidiya be identified with Taite We are uncovering a citadel and a large palace complex It was destroyed and rebuilt by the Assyrians in their so because they wanted to sever all ties with civilization Hurrian

The kingdom of Mitanni

The Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni reaches its apogee in the sixteenth century before J.C. The capital was Wassugammi Wassugammi could be located at Tell Brak Taite was the second capital, modern Tell al-Hamidiya Urkish too, was the capital of Mitanni In fact, the capital has to depend on the extent and composition of the kingdom … It is a confederation of many vassal cities: Aleppo, Alalakh, Ugarit, Carchemish, Emar, and kingdoms: Nuhasse, the Kizzuwatna, Arrapha, the Hana, etc … Mitanni then goes to the east of the Zagros, Iran, until the Mediterranean in the west and north to Taurus, Turkey, to the south to Kadesh and Hana, at Lebanon and Syria The king of Mitanni was called: Hurrian king of men The first elements of the Hurrian language have survived with the letter Mitannian This missive from the king of Mitanni to Pharaoh Tushratta Egyptian Amenhotep III, from the early fourteenth century, was found in Egypt at Tell El-Amarna The address consists of seven lines, written in Akkadian Text, four one hundred eighty-seven lines, is written in Hurrian It is the composition of the dowry of Princess Mitannian given in marriage to the Pharaoh The decline of the Mitanni kingdom will begin with Hittite and Egyptian invasions and end with the final annexation by Assyrians in the thirteenth century before J.C. The Assyrians had a policy of destroying the borrowed of other civilizations and replacing them with their values and personal this explains the difficulty to find traces of Hurrian

The kingdom of Mari

Mari, modern Tell Hariri, is also a kingdom Hurrian The city of Mari was founded around – 3000 BC on a surface Circular 1300 meters in diameter Found there a magnificent palace, the sacred and the terrace of the massive red The site includes the temples of Ishtar, Nini-Zaza, of Shamash and Ninhursag of Dagan but has not yet found the temple of Itur-Sea , The tutelary deity of Mari Bronze objects attesting to metallurgy developed Technology and administration are attested to by Mari a Hurrian city-state But after 40 seasons of excavations, only one fifteenth the site was excavated It was a strategic port on the Euphrates controlled regional trade A channel 120 km long allowed the ascent of the river and connected the northern plains of the south by the Khabur and the Euphrates land routes Tablets show that the rulers of Mari required up to 20% of the value of goods transported were Husband was surrounded by a dike designed to protect flood and was protected by a thick wall of 6 meters, and flanked by towers There was also an irrigation system to allow intensive agriculture The city was abandoned around – 2650 BC, following succession of wars with Sumer Husband will be integrated in the empire of King Sargon of Akkad the Great to – 2300 BC and becomes a flourishing city A second royal palace is then built on the site of before and another smaller palace is added To – 1800 BC, the palace of Mari reached its peak with over three hundred rooms and over an area of 2500 hectares Husband will then be destroyed by the Babylonian armies of Hammurabi before in 1760. AD

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