EARTH IS THE AIM 7 , Mu and the other worlds ; Chapter 9 : Homo Erectus

EARTH IS THE AIM 7 , Mu and the other worlds

Chapter 9: Homo Erectus

 

Discovery of Homo erectus fossils

In Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, Homo erectus olduwaiensis, dated from -1.4 million  years ago

Fossils of Homo erectus have been found in Algeria dated  -900,000 years

In Spain, in Gran Dolina Fossils of Homo erectus have been found, dated around   -800 000 years

In Italy, Homo cepranensis would be dated to 353,000 years ago, when it had first  been dated 800,000 years

In 1894, the Dutch physician and anatomist Eugene Dubois discovered in Java, in the  alluvial deposits of the Solo river at Trinil, a fragment of mandible, a molar, a  skullcap and a femur undoubtedly belonging to a biped, 700,000 years ago

He called it Pithecanthropus erectus, the “monkey-man erected”

Swedish geologist Johan Gunnar Andersson discovered in a quarry in Zhoukoudian  near Beijing, Sinanthropus pekinensis, known as the Sinanthropus, dated back

700,000 years ago

In Germany, in Heidelberg, fossils of Homo erectus have been found dated around   -700,000 years

In France,  fossils of Homo erectus, called Neanderthal ante, were found at Tautavel,  dated from around 450,000 years ago

They were also found at Montmaurin and Orgnac, dated from about -300,000

A Homo erectus was exhumed in Germany at Bilzingsleben, dated around -300,000  years

In Spain, at Sima de los Huesos of Atapuerca, fossils of Homo erectus have been  found dated around -300,000 years

In Germany, in Steinheim, fossils of Homo erectus have been found dated to around  -300,000 years

In France,  fossils of Homo erectus  have been found at Lazaret, La Chaise and

Biache-Saint-Vaast, in Tautavel, dated around -150,000 years ago

They were all categorized as Homo erectus

 

DIGITAL CAMERA

Reconstitution of a Homo erectus

Westfälisches Museum für Archäologie, Herne

Photo Wikipedia CC: Author Lillyundfreya

 

 

Homo erectus

Homo erectus means erect man, standing man

In fact, rather than being a well-defined Homo, this term has become a generic

 

catch-all term that would correspond to a Homo who would have lived in Africa and  Eurasia from -2.5 million years to -200,000 years , Even for some archeologs up to

-100 000 years

Indeed as  soon as a Homo erectus became a little more studied, it came out of this  category to be replaced in a new denomination, notably to associate the study and  the discovery with a precise place or a researcher

The generic term for homo erectus commonly used includes several types of men,  the most well-known of which are Homo ergaster, Homo heidelbergensis and Homo

erectus

 

 

The true Homo erectus, as a species of Homo, is the first human Homo, definitely  separated from animals

He lived from about -1 million years to -400,000 years

He cohabited with Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis, but also and especially with  Homo proto neanderthalensis

 

 

Origin of Homo erectus

Homo rudolfensis from -2.4 to -1.8 million years ago,

“Man of Lake Rudolf”

Homo habilis from -2.4 to -1.6 million years,

“Skilled Man”

Homo ergaster from -1.9 to -1 million years,

“An industrious man”

Homo georgicus from -1.8 to -1.2 million years,

“Man of Georgia”

Homo antecessor of -1.2 million years to -700,000 years,

“Worrying Man”

Homo erectus from -1 million years to -300,000 years,

“Man erected”

 

 

Homo ergaster has a long time been considered as an Homo erectus

Homo ergaster lived in Africa from -1.9 million years to -1 million years ago

He would descend from Homo habilis

It is believed that Homo ergaster would be the ancestor of Homo antecessor and  Homo erectus

 

 

This reframing in the dates confirms the most commonly accepted dating for Homo  erectus, that is, from -1 million years to -400,000 years, which is most consistent with

the idea of  a human finally finally separated Of the animal

It was not until the early twentieth century that was allowed the idea of the existence  of an Homo older and more animal than the Neanderthals

And so that man has not appeared in its present form but that he is indeed the  product of  an evolution

 

This corresponds to the acceptance of the theory of evolution, but also to the  relaxation of the harsh doctrine of the church which must struggle to try to retain its  influence on society

 

 

Physical  Of Homo erectus

Its size and the proportion of its members have great similarities with those of  modern man

He measured up to 1.70 meters and weighed up to 60 kilos

He has a powerful and prognathous jaw, that is, the lower jaw protrudes from the  upper jaw, thick bones, a low forehead and no chin

Its cranial  volume will reach up to  1200 cm3

 

 

In 2007, in Kenya, researchers discovered 1.5 million years old Homo erectus  footprints

The analysis of the steps proved that it worked exactly as we do

The footprints show an arcuate foot and a large toe in the extension of the foot,  allowing the weight of the heel to be transferred to the metatarsus and the big toe

during walking

 

 

Life  Of Homo erectus

Homo erectus is a hunter gatherer

 

 

In the site of Olorgesailie in Kenya, Louis Leakey discovered “bolas”, stones of  fronds

“Three round stones put together in the net of a sling that made it possible to reach  the paws of antelopes in the manner of the Australian hunters” according to Yves

Coppens

 

 

The Homo erectus invented the bifaces, cut stones, especially flint and quartzite,  sharp on both sides and symmetrical  

 

 

With a small-sized biface squeezed with animal tendons at the end of a stick, it  became a spear or spear

He was then able to fish and hunt large animals such as elephants

 

 

It is believed that the tooling of the Homo erectus was not only made of stone tools  but also of bamboo tools

 

 

They built shelters clustered in encampment and would be the first men to  domesticate the fire towards -500 000 years

They could cook their food

 

It must be pointed out, however, that fire has been controlled everywhere on the  planet, almost simultaneously

This reinforces the theory of the multiple origin of man

 

 

Homo erectus had the physiological means of emitting articulated sounds, which  enabled them to communicate with one another in a basic language

 

gravure-coquillage-500000-ans

Photo : Wim Lustenhouwer , Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

 

 

They practiced a kind of writing as evidenced by an engraved shell of Java,  Indonesia, discovered by Stephen Munro in 2007, dated 500 000 years ago

One of the shells shows a pattern of zigzag lines engraved on its surface

Francesco  d’Errico of the University of Bordeaux demonstrated that the marks had  been made in one go with a sharp tool

 

 

Geographic origin  Of Homo erectus

The origin of Homo erectus is found in East Africa

He will cohabit with Homo habilis for hundreds of thousands of years

Then he will gradually occupy all of Africa

 

 

Homo erectus would be the first hominid to migrate out of Africa

They would certainly be small groups of hunters who head North in search of food

In case the multiple origin does not concern Homo erectus, this would explain why  fossils of Homo erectus are found in Europe and Asia

 

 

First man

Homo erectus had a social life

They built huts grouped in a camp, which already implies in addition to the notion  of family, the notion of clan

They used fire and could cook their food

Homo erectus had a language and a writing

Even if this language and writing are basic, they used them

It is most likely that their writing was more a kind of counting and inventory, but  this proves their notions of logistics

 

 

They were already able to carry out first aid

They showed empathy and looked after the elderly and weak

The fact of having found many fossils in the same site implies the use of cemeteries

They did not want their dead to serve as pasture for wild animals

 

 

Homo erectus is really the first man, in every sense of the term

However, we must put things into perspective:

 

He evolved gradually from -1 million years ago to 400,000 years ago to become a  man from around -500,000 years ago

Then from 400 000 years ago, the species of the Homo erectus will gradually die out  to give place to the Homo neanderthalensis which will supplant it

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EARTH IS THE AIM 7 , Mu and the other worlds ; Chapter 8: Homo

EARTH IS THE AIM 7 , Mu and the other worlds

Chapter 8: Homo

 

The Homos

Homo rudolfensis from -2.4 to -1.8 million years , “Man from Lake Rudolf”

Homo habilis from -2.4 to -1.6 million years, “Skilled Man”

Homo ergaster from -1.9 to -1 million years, “industrious man”

Homo georgicus from -1.8 to -1.2 million years, “Man of Georgia”

Homo antecessor of -1,2 million years to -700 000 years, “Man first-runner”

Homo erectus of -1 million years to -300,000 years, “Man erected”

Homo heidelbergensis from -600,000 to -200,000 years , “Heidelberg Man”

Homo helmei from -500 000 to -300 000 years

Homo denisoviensis from -400,000 to -40,000 years

Homo cepranensis at around -353,000

Homo naledi at around -335,000

Homo rhodesiensis from -300,000 to -125,000 years, “Man of Rhodesia”

Homo neanderthalensis from -250,000 to -28,000 years old, “Neanderthal Man”

Homo sapiens from -200,000 years to present days, “Wise man”, modern man

Homo sapiens idaltu from -195,000 to -154,000 years, “Hero’s Man”

Homo floresiensis from -95,000 to -12,000 years, “Man of Flores”

Homo soloensis from -95,000 to -12,000 years

Homo-mungo from -65,000 to -26,000 years

 

From Hominins to Homos

The family of Homininis will give  birth to the family of Homininas, which will lead  to the human genres

Homininas include Australopithecines and Homos

A consensus exists that the Australopithecus are monkeys and the Homos are  humans

 

But this is  far from being obvious, because some Australopithecines look like Homos  and the opposite is also true

This proves quite certainly that the mixing of the races has indeed existed

The work of paleontologists confirms that this separation was progressive

It will therefore be necessary to await later Homos in order to arrive definitively to  the human race

 

History of Homo

The earliest known Homos, Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis, appeared in Africa  there are about 2.4 million years, but some paleontologists push this appearance to –

2.8 million years

Homo habilis, still adapted to arboreal life, possessed the ability to make and use  tools, most certainly cut stones

 

Homo rudolfensis had a more carnivorous diet thanks to its more advanced  bipedalism

 

Homo ergaster, about 1.9 million years ago, is larger and exclusively bipedal and  represents the first totally human Homo

Homo ergaster is based in Africa, Europe and Asia

He is a hunter who communicates with his fellows with articulate language

He created sophisticated tools like bifaces and grasshoppers

 

hachereau 2

Hacherau in flint, Museum of Toulouse, Author Didier Descouens

Photo Wikipedia CC: Archaeodontosaurus

 

The grasshopper involves know-how and technical knowledge

Other tools being simpler to produce, this means a specific need for a specialized use

 

The Homo naledi, as early as -335,000 used the first known cemeteries

Even if there is possible doubts about the hypothesis of a funeral rite, the  accumulation of at least 15 skeletons in a protected cave proves the shelter of the  bodies of their congeners

 

 

The Homo neanderthalensis or Man of Neanderthal, about -250 000, is adapted to  the cold of the glacial periods that it will cross

He use funeral rites

 

Homo sapiens, the modern man, appeared around 200,000 years ago

His tools are very elaborated and he is recognized as the author of the first known  works of art

 

Homo neanderthal, appeared around -250 000 was probably preceded by a  neanderthal proto that would have appeared about 1 million years ago

Just like the Homo sapiens, which was probably preceded by a proto sapiens  appeared in the vicinity of -315,000 years

 

Changes in  brain  size

Homo is a biped with a superior cranial volume compared to the

Australopitheciness ones with a more rounded cranial case, a reduced masticator and  face , and with small canines

 

The evolution of the size of the brain begins with Homo habilis with a brain of a size  of about 700 cm³, slightly larger than that of chimpanzees or gorillas

The cranial capacity of Homo rudolfensis will reach 750 cm³

It continues to increase up to 1200 cm³ with Homo erectus

It will reach 1600 cm³ in Homo sapiens, the modern man

Finally it will reach up to 1 900 cm³, the maximum size, with Homo neanderthalensis

 

The evolution of the human brain and the increase of the volume of the cerebellum  have favored the development of balance, motor skills, speech, memory, reasoning,  learning and intelligence

This has led to greater ease of problem solving, decision-making, perception and  attention

 

Geographic areas

It is generally agreed that Homos first appeared in Africa, then in Eurasia

To confirm this theory, people relies on the greater antiquity of the African fossils  compared to those of Eurasia

But as the Homos colonized the totality of the Earth, it is explained that the  intercontinental mixtures of the Homos were created over time with the  displacements authorized by the accessibility of the continents

 

 

However, I remain convinced of the multiple origin of Homos on all continents of  the Earth at the time

As in Africa, there is no reason why life should not have followed a similar  development

It is not because ancient fossils have not been found in the Americas, Australia or  Antarctica, that there are none

 

And we have just discovered the Homo Mungo at Lake Mungo in Australia who  lived 60,000 years ago and who practiced funeral rites

It arouses much controversy because it would confirm the multiple origin of Homos

As a result, it was rejuvenated at 40,000 years in order not to contradict the unique  African origin

 

The omnipotence of dogma …

 

The evolution

From the acquisition of bipedalism, it will constantly evolved to arrive to a  permanent bipedalism

This has resulted in the four curves of the spine, an occipital hole at the base of the  skull, a wide and flared basin for better stability, oblique femurs to be at the center of  gravity, a parallel thumb Toes, arch and foreshortened anterior limbs

 

Then the use of fire, probably from Homo erectus, made them make a new leap in  their evolution

 

Everyday life has forced them to invent tools

This has led to the development and diversification of their technologies, which has  led to specializations and thus to the rules of community life

Technological evolution is only possible if it is accompanied by an intellectual  evolution

This is why social life has played an important role in the evolution of Homos, as  this will enabled them to move from a family clan to an extended tribe

 

This has made them acquire what will definitely separate the animals from humans:

The power of reflective and shared thought which follows instead of reactions only  provoked by reflexes and intuitions

 

This life in society has led to questions that have led to mystical and religious  metaphysical behavior, the only way to admit the incomprehensible

Shamanism and funerary rites then entered men’s lives, supported by paintings or  sculptures, representative of their beliefs and traditions

 

The evolution will then continue with technical progress, logistics and then the use  of metals

At the same time, it will also be necessary to unify and determine languages and to  become engaged in the discovery and use of mathematics

 

In a cave of the Lebombo mountains in Swaziland was found a piece of baboon  fibula with 29 notches, dated to around -35,000

This is the evidence of a digital recording device

It is unclear what was the use of this counting , but for sure they    needed it , which  already requires a certain level of knowledge as well as an understanding of logistics

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EARTH IS THE AIM 7 , Mu and the other worlds ; Chapter 7: Evolution

EARTH IS THE AIM 7 , Mu and the other worlds

Chapter 7: Evolution

 

Evolution in Antiquity

Hippocrates in the 5th century BC, found a relationship between anatomy and influence of the home environment

Aristotle, in the 4th century BC, already describes an evolution of life, according to a progressive scale: Scala naturae

Galen in the 2nd century AD, urges physicians to practice dissection on monkeys because of the similarity of their anatomy with men

Carl von Linné establishes a classification of nature, Systema naturae, in which man is described as Homo Sapiens, a member of the group of anthropomorphs including chimpanzees (Homo Troglodyts) and sloths

Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck defines evolution: more complex species emerge as a function of environmental changes, according to an evolutionary process

It introduces the notions of anteriority, descent, genealogy of species and transformism

 

The Darwinian Theory

On July 1, 1858, two theses were presented to the Linnean Society of London:

On the Tendency of Species to Form Varieties, by Alfred Russel Wallace

From the Origin of Species, by Charles Darwin

These two theses present the theory of evolution by natural selection

Darwin in “Of the origin of the species”, explains there the mechanism of the evolution of the species

His theory is that only the best adapted species survive and reproduce

It is natural selection

According to Wallace, only natural selection leads to the evolution of species

For Darwin , it cannot explain everything and publishes “The Offspring of Man”, which adds sexual selection

He considers that monkeys are the animals closest to man and thinks that the origins of humanity has to be found in Africa

 

The Evolution of Darwinian Theory

The first debates on the nature of human evolution remain quarrels, because there is a lack of clearly dated human fossils to argue the discussions

 

The Red Lady of Paviland discovered in Wales in 1823, male skeletons discovered in 1829 in Engis in Belgium and then fossils discovered in the quarry of Forbes in Gibraltar in 1848, were subsequently identified as Neanderthals

In 1856 human bones were discovered in the Neander Valley near Düsseldorf

Johann Carl Fuhlrott defined them as ancient and primitive bones

This is the subject of great controversies because the idea that other types of men could have existed was not yet admitted

Then the discoveries succeed one another to flesh out the argumentation of the Darwinist evolution and to prove the existence and the antiquity of an human type of different morphology from that of the present man

 

The missing link

Beginning in 1860, Huxley, Broca and Ernst Haeckel model the evolution of the monkey to the man

Named anthropopithecus by Gabriel de Mortillet and Pithecanthropus by Haeckel, the search for the “missing link” begins

 

Eugène Dubois thought to discover it in 1891 in Trinil in Indonesia with the man-monkey of Java

The discovery of one of his femurs demonstrates that he must stand and walk

He baptizes it Pithecanthropus erectus, the monkey-man standing

In 1925, Raymond Dart described his “missing link” as the child of Taung, an Australopithecus africanus, discovered in Taung, South Africa

Mary and Louis discovered in 1959 their “Dear boy”, also called Mister Zinj, a Australopithecus

By applying a new technique of dating, they push back to 1.8 million years the birth of humanity, estimated until then only a few hundreds of thousands of years

In 1974 in Ethiopia, the discovery of Lucy, an Australopithecus afarensis, demonstrates that the bipedal walk dates from 3 to 4 million years

 

The debate on the missing link is far from closed

 

Way out from the waters

As we saw in the previous chapter, from amino acids to multicellular life, it is already evolution in progress

This multicellular life will give rise to the whole aquatic life, from the plankton to the most evolved fishes and in particular the tetrapods

This diversification of species occurs mainly in coastal seas where shallow depth allows photosynthesis and where it will evolve for 1 billion years

 

All species, whether plants, mushrooms or animals, are going to have to leave the water

It seems that the first to do it are mushrooms, followed by plants and long time after animals

As this book tells the story of man, we will mainly focus our study on the exit of water from animals

 

About 542 million years ago, geological events will boost this evolution by forcing many plants, mushrooms and animals, among those who have not yet done so, to get out of water to colonize the submerged lands

This exit of the waters was constrained and forced, mainly because of the glaciation of the end of the Ordovician

Marine fauna and flora have had to adapt themselves gradually to terrestrial life, which will cause the extinction of many species unable to adapt to their new environment

 

From extinction of species to terrestrial life

2000px-Extinction_Intensity_svg

Marine genus biodiversity: Extintion intensity

Photo Wikipedia CC: Author Rursus

 

The extinction of the Ordovician-Silurian will cause the second largest mass extinction of the Phanerozoic, that is to say – 542 million years to the present day, with an estimate of extinction of about 85% of the cash

The most important being the Permian-Triassic which will take place about 200 million years later

 

It will start with peaks of extinction in – 517, – 502 and – 488, millions of years, of course

This period of extinction will continue with the glaciation of the Ordovician-Silurian, which will last about 30 million years, from – 450 to – 420 million years

 

This glaciation will lead to a decline of sea level, that is to say a marine regression which will cause a withdrawal of the sea over hundreds of kilometers and will also increase the freshwater environments and extend the course of the rivers to reach the seas

Then the deglaciation will lead to a rise in sea level, ie a major global marine transgression

This transgression will create an oceanic anoxic event

Anoxia is the decrease in available oxygen in the medium, which results in the lack of dioxygen in the water

 

This regression and then this transgression will lead to ecological disorders that will make it difficult for many species to be adapted at their new ecosystems

The marine environment will be reduced and the food will decrease

Then for those who have moved to the land and would like to return to the marine environment, this one will be shallower and less oxygenated

 

These major climate changes will profoundly disrupt aquatic environments and oblige species to evolve into terrestrial life

This operation will lead to the extinction of the many species that cannot evolve

 

From tetrapods to mammals

Tetrapoda, are vertebrate animals with two pairs of limbs and benefit from pulmonary respiration

The first tetrapods were aquatic

 

The appearance of aquatic tetrapods dates from about 380 million years ago

To colonize terrestrial environments, the tetrapods will develop pulmonary respiration and they will then be able to breathe directly the oxygen of the air thanks to a lung

Primitive tetrapods have a brain with two lobes and fins connected to the bony skeleton that will become legs

 

The first discovered fossil legs are types of paddles, adapted to movements in submerged shores and swamps

The first outflows of water from vertebrate tetrapods date from about 365 million years ago, with Ichthyostega:

“The oldest known vertebrate with adaptations for locomotion other than swimming”

Ichthyostega was able to evolve to life out of the water thanks to his lungs, his forelegs able to support his weight out of the water and his elongated ribs avoiding the crushing of his lungs by the weight of his body

 

From – 359 million years ago, adaptation to the terrestrial environment has improved for species that have conquered the terrestrial environment, notably thanks to four walking legs

 

Towards – 320 million years, the amniotic egg will appear, which thanks to its aquatic environment, will allow the development of the embryo, which previously had to be deposited in water

The quadrupeds can thus emancipate themselves from the aquatic environment

 

Towards – 315 million years, Hylonomus lyelli is the first reptile identified laying amniotic eggs

From that time on, reptiles will give birth to crocodilians, birds, dinosaurs, turtles, lizards, snakes, mammals, etc.

The current tetrapods are amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals

 

The mammals

Mammalian reptiles appeared about 250 million years ago

They are the origin of mammals

The earliest known fossils date from the Triassic period, about 220 million years ago

 

Mammals, or Mammalia, are vertebrate animals

Their main feature is the breastfeeding of newborns

As their digestive system is not functional at birth, breast milk is their vital and obligatory source of food

 

The first mammals had a terrestrial way of life, but during their diversification, some branches evolved differently

The bats acquired beating and echolocation

Others, such as seals, polar bears, beavers, hippos, otters, amphibian voles, platypus, etc., have developed a partial aquatic lifestyle

Others like cetaceans, sirenians, etc., have returned to a total aquatic way of life

 

Mammals are all homeothermic, I.E. they are endowed with an organism that keeps them constant body temperature independently of the external environment

Most of them are endothermic, that means that heat is produced by the body itself

 

Some species are able to survive a long time at low temperatures in a seasonal lethargic state such as hibernation

Some species are not able to regulate their temperature at birth, so it is the parents who have to provide their thermoregulation until their autonomy

 

Most mammals communicate by cries, odors and pheromons, but also by posture and mimicry such as aggression, bending their heads in sympathy, or putting their tails between their legs in a sign of fear and Submission, etc …

 

From mammals to primates

Excerpts from the list of subclasses and orders of mammals according to ITIS and Mammal Species of the World, in its 2005 edition, revised in 2007:

 

Subclass: Theria

 

Infra-class: Eutheria

 

Orders:

Afrosoricida: gilded moles, tenrecs, limnogales, microgales

Carnivora: caniforms (wolves, bears, ferrets, seals …) and felids (cats, hyenas, civets …)

Cetartiodactyla: cetaceans, ruminants, pigs, camels

Chiroptera: bat

Cingulata: armadillos (21 species)

Dermoptera: colugos (2 species)

Erinaceomorpha: hedgehogs

Hyracoidea: damans (4 species)

Lagomorpha: hares, rabbit, pika

Macroscelidea: sengis or trunk shrews

Perissodactyla: equines, rhinoceros, tapirs

Pholidota: pangolins (7 species)

Pilosa: anteaters, lazy

Primates: primates

Proboscidea: elephants

Rodentia: rodents

Scandentia: ptilocerques, toupayes

Sirenia: dugongs, manatees

Soricomorpha: moles, shrews, solenodons

Tubulidentata: oryctéropes

 

From primates to Hominids

Primates diverged from other mammals about 85 million years ago

Primates are divided into two groups:

The Strepsirrhines

The Haplorrhinians

 

The Haplorrhinians are divided into two groups:

The Tarsiiformes

The Simiiformes

 

The Simiiformes are divided into two groups:

The Platypins, the Apes of the New World

The Catarhinists, the monkeys of the Old World

The earliest known Simiiforms appeared in Asia, including Burma, Thailand and China, about 50 to 45 million years ago

 

The Catarrhines or monkeys of the old world are split into two

Super-families:

The superfamily of Cercopithecoids, or monkeys with tails

The superfamily of Hominoids, or monkeys without a tail

 

The superfamily of Hominoids consists of two families:

The Hylobatidaes , which includes gibbons

The Hominids

 

The Hominids

Hominids are divided into two families:

The families of Ponginaes , which includes orangs outans

The family of Homoninaes

The hominids are believed to originate from Africa, but the discovery in Catalonia of a hominid fossil indicates that their dispersion could certainly be more extensive

 

The family of Homoninaes is divided into two families:

The Gorillinis which includes gorillas

The Homininis

The bipedalism appeared with the Homininis

 

The family of Homininis is divided into two families:

The Panins which includes chimpanzees and bonobos

The Hominins

The first bipedal hominini would be Sahelanthropus tchadensis or Orrorin tugenensis

They are probably the last common ancestors between chimpanzees and humans

 

The family of Hominins is divided into two families:

The Australopithecines

The Homos

 

Posted in Evolution, The Darwinian Theory, Uncategorized, Way out from the waters | Leave a comment

EARTH IS THE AIM 7 , Mu and the other worlds , Chapter 6 : Emmergence of Life on Earth

Earth is the aim 7

Mu and the other worlds

 

Chapter 6 : Emmergence of Life on Earth

 

The Miller-Urey Experience

In 1953 Stanley L. Miller, an American biologist, became famous thanks to his Miller-Urey experiment, on the chemistry of the origins of life on earth in the original ocean , named soup

This experience enabled him to prove that on Earth, about 4.3 billion years ago, the original ocean contained the chemical elements necessary for the creation of proteins and DNA, the constituents of life

 

He put methane, ammonia and hydrogen in a flask filled with water and heats it to boiling point

By means of a condensation column, the vapors then pass into a second balloon where they are permanently bombarded by flashes produced by electric arcs

At the end of a week, organic compounds appear, of which 2% are amino acids, base of all the protein chains, therefore potentially of the life

 

We know today that the primitive atmosphere of the Earth was not that of experience, but these results triggered a great deal of research

 

 

Research on the emergence of life on Earth

Critics arrived immediately on this theory, saying that the amino acids could have originated from a contamination, but these results were corroborated three years later by new experiments

 

Five years later, in 1958, Miller realized a new experiment using other gases, notably hydrogen sulphide, recreating conditions closer to those around the volcanoes, but did not have time to re-analyze the results

The compounds created by the experiment were kept in his laboratory and were found at his death fifty years later

 

In 2008, thanks to mass spectrometry, the analysis of these compounds allowed the discovery of the twenty-two amino acids necessary to the life and the assurance that they could well be created in the primitive soup of the Earth

 

Since then, many researches have reinforced and completed the theory of the appearance of life on Earth in the original soup

The role of sulfur, electrolysis and the magnetic field in the creation of amino acids, are the steps towards the living

 

The Original Soup

It is still unclear what chemical elements were present in the Earth’s atmosphere and water about 4.5 billion years ago, but we have now a good idea about it

 

The Earth’s atmosphere was made by numerous elements sent by the Sun, comets and meteorites, to which are added the elements produced by the intense volcanic activity

We should have then :

Hydrogen, methane, ammonia, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, potassium, magnesium, sulfur and of course water vapor

These elements have been slowly deposited in the water creating the primordial soup

In this warm soup, the precipitated elements could evolve towards the living

 

From soup to cell

If you wish the soup be good, you have to turn it …

This is what the Earth has done with its magnetic field

 

The magnetic field of the Earth generated a current in this original soup but also attracted in this current, by magnetization, its various components

The components gathered attracted preferably the flashes of lightning, creating a quasi-permanent electrolysis

The transformations have then begun to arrive at the amino acids, constitutive elements of the proteins and of any living organism on Earth

 

Then combinations of elements created coherent assemblies, the coacervates

Coacervate comes from the Latin: coacervare which means to gather, to put in group

It is a spheroidal droplet of suspended particles

The coherence of the droplet in the current is ensured by the magnetic magnetization of its non-soluble components

 

Coacervates measuring 1 to 100 micrometers in diameter and are spontaneously formed in this soup

They then capture other molecules that will allow it to create a flexible membrane that will close on its components

The coacervates driven by the current, will continuously capture by osmosis new components

After a certain time, the coacervate which has accumulated too much material becomes too large until tearing its envelope

It will then split in two to and form a new coacervate separated from the initial coacervate

Thanks to the high concentration of compounds in the original soup, the new coacervate will in turn enrich itself with the free compounds floating in the magnetic current

 

Alexandre Oparine, who studied coacervates, discovered that in the presence of catalysts, the coacervates exchanged substances with the outside world, enlarged and multiplied

 

Hence the importance of the magnetic field, which will serve as a trap for components, container, catalyst and activator

 

From cell to RNA

Increasingly complex populations of molecules have then populated the coacervates

 

At this stage, the molecules can bind together according to ordered sequential patterns and thus form chains by polymerization called PolyA

Thus, thanks to the harvest in the primitive soup of nitrogenous bases, sugar (ribose) and phosphate (inorganic pyrophosphate), the primitive RNA molecules will be formed

These intakes stabilized the RNA molecules

 

The RNA, ribonucleic acid, is a molecule containing 1 strand composed of a chain of nucleotides

A nucleotide is an organic molecule composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar and one to three phosphate groups

 

This stranded configuration allowed the RNA to fold back on itself and thus certain complementary sequences could be linked together

These looped folds gave it a better resistance to degradation and the possibility of replication by the formation of a second strand

 

New bases will then cling by affinity rather than randomly and thus form new RNAs

Among the new breeders, some of them will have a catalytic activity, and will be able to serve as a support of genetic information, it is the ribozymes

 

This catalytic activity will give them the ability to self-replicate

RNA capable of replication will then proliferate to the detriment of the others

Natural selection will begin

 

Some RNAs will bind with an amino acid, which will protect them from degradation

Increasingly, they will then prefer to bind themselves

By combining them, they will form a longer RNA

 

From RNA to DNA

At this stage, the RNA is armed with peptides, polymers or associations of amino acids, which will allow him to create an enzyme that will allow it to make the DNA

This operation, the reverse transcriptase, will, from a single strand of RNA, create a double-stranded DNA molecule

 

DNA will then evolve to store the primitive genes and thus be at the origin of all the other molecules of the living

The DNA constituted by a chain of nucleotides will provide the information necessary for the synthesis of proteins

It is first transformed into messenger RNA, it is the transcription

Then the ribosomes will synthesize the proteins by decoding the information contained in the messenger RNA, it is the translation

 

Of course, the first auto-catalytic systems were not as elaborate

But the primitive molecules had the capacity to evolve

The many contributions of new elements have allowed them

And these evolutions are inheritable, because once incorporated into a self-catalytic network, a molecule becomes capable of reproducing

 

Their auto-catalytic technics have then been perfected until they have reached the technics of DNA replication and the manufacture of the proteins that have characterized for billions of years all living organisms

This universal mechanism is the proof of the common origin of all living organisms

 

From DNA to Prokaryots

Then the cell contains DNA, a tool that allows it to transmit its characteristics to its offspring

This cell has become a bacterium

 

Prokaryots are primitive bacteria:

They are monocellular organisms

They have colonized all the environments, even the most hostile and are the most numerous organisms on Earth

 

Prokaryotic cells contain a single compartment:

The cytoplasm

It contains a circular DNA molecule called nucleoid

They replicate by cell division

In a favorable environment, bacteria can multiply at a very high speed :

The bacteria population can double every 20 minutes!

 

The most common prokaryot is Escherichia coli

This bacterium composes about 80% of the human intestinal flora

The majority of E. coli strains are harmless, only a few are pathogenic

But it could be the cause of food poisoning by the consumption of badly cooked or raw consumed animal products

Fresh fruits and vegetables which have been in contact with these strains may also be a risk, hence the need to wash them before consumption

 

eucaryotes

Ring of Life = Prokaryotic phylogenetic tree + Symbiogenetic origins of eukaryotes

Photo Wikipédia CC : Maulucioni

 

In their evolution, they will be divided into 2 groups, arches and eubacteria, finally becoming eukaryots

The archaeobacteria will colonize the extreme environments because they can survive with very few resources and are adapted to the high temperatures

Eubacteria, close to current bacteria, are adapted to warmer temperatures and have thus been able to conquer less warmer environments

 

The arches

Archae, from the ancient Greek Archaea, the original signification, are prokaryotic unicellular microorganisms, made up of a single cell that does not include nuclei or organelles

 

The Archaea generally have a single circular chromosome which is found in the cytoplasm

A chromosome consists of DNA molecules and proteins

It is the support of the genetic information that will be transmitted from the mother cells to the daughter cells

 

Archaea are found in ocean hydrothermal springs, hot volcanic springs and salt lakes

They have also been discovered in the soil, sea water, swamps, intestinal flora and even in the human navel

In the oceans, arches are part of the plankton

It is one of the most abundant groups of organisms on earth

 

The archae are involved in the carbon and nitrogen cycle

Methanogenic Archaeas of the human intestine and ruminants participate in digestion

 

Bacteria

Bacteria are cells without nucleus or organelles

There are about 10,000 species known to date, but the estimated number of species would range from 5 to 10 million

 

Bacteria are present in all types of biotops

They are of considerable importance in biogeochemical cycles, such as the carbon cycle and the fixation of nitrogen in the atmosphere

Inside the humans, 1012 species of bacteria colonize the skin, 1010 species of bacteria colonize the mouth and 1014 species of bacteria colonize the intestine

There are ten times more bacterial cells than human cells in the human body

Most of these bacteria are harmless or beneficial to the body

However, there are many pathogenic species

 

Bacteria are involved in the wastewater treatment process, in the manufacture of yogurts or cheese, and in the industrial production of many chemical compounds

 

There are about 40 million bacterial cells in one gram of soil and 1 million bacterial cells in one milliliter of fresh water

It is estimated that there would be four to six quintillions, or between four and six trillions billions billions of bacteria in the world

 

In 2007, a drilling in the Canadian permafrost allowed the discovery of a bacterium that was about 500,000 years old and still alive

 

Pathogenic bacteria can cause infections

If some pathogens bacterias cannot survive outside their host, others will create an infection by penetrating a wound, or by contaminated water, or infect weakened individuals, particularly in hospitals

 

In summary, a bacterium in its place is almost always useful, but displaced, it is most often harmful

However, pathogenic bacteria attempting to invade a host will encounter many defense mechanisms

 

Pathogenic bacteria are not only for humans and animals, but also for plants

This is how bacteria can replace pesticides to replace plant pests

 

The eukaryotic cells

In prokaryots, to protect DNA and isolate it from the environment, the cell will place the chromosome in its cytoplasm

In eukaryotic cells, evolution will create a nucleus and place inside the chromosome

 

The difference between prokaryots and eukaryots is therefore that the genetic material of the prokaryots is grouped in an area physically not separated from the rest of the cell, whereas for eukaryots it is contained in an organelle, the nucleus

The eukaryots have thus become multicellular organisms

The eukaryotic cells are delimited by a membrane for the animals or by a wall for the plants

 

Do not confuse eukaryots with viruses which are acaryots

Acaryots are elements, not cells, that have no nuclei or cytoplasm and can only reproduce by parasitizing a host cell

 

Appearance of Life on Earth

– 4.56 billion years: Earth formation

– 4.50 billion years: Liquid water covers the surface of the Earth, original soup is ready

– 4.30 billion years: The process of life begins with amino acids and organic carbons

– 4.00 billion years: First prokaryots

– 3.50 billion years: First bacteria

 

As you can see, it took just a billion years to go from the original soup to multicellular life …

Then it need another 2 billion years for the explosion of biodiversity

And then another 1.5 billion years to arrive at the men of today

 

Space, the origin of life on earth

Although there are still many unanswered questions, we begin to glimpse the origin of life on earth

 

Life appears on earth probably about 4.3 billion years ago

The Earth recovered by the water of the comets that plant themselves on its ground would then inoculated particles able to evolve towards the living

These particles would also have been deposited by comets

 

NASA astrobiologists have detected amino acids on meteorites and comets

Many scientists believe that the first amino acids would have been delivered to us by meteorites or comets and would therefore have been at the origin of life on Earth but it sure was same on other planets

 

Then life must also exist on other planets, but not necessarily like as on Earth

The evolution which may have taken place is necessarily consequent of the physical conditions of these planets

That means that a small green man or a smart saurian coming from space are quite plausible

But life can take many other forms

 

Posted in Emmergence of Life on Earth, The Miller-Urey Experience, Uncategorized | Leave a comment

EARTH IS THE AIM 7 , Mu and the other worlds ; Chapter 5: History of the Planet Earth

Mu and the other worlds

Chapter 5: History of the Planet Earth

 

 

The Origin of Life on Earth

Although there are still many unanswered questions, one begins to glimpse the origin of life on Earth

Life appears on Earth probably about 4.3 billion years ago

 

The numerous collisions of meteorites and comets with the Earth brought us the water of the primitive oceans

These meteorites and comets that came to plant on its soil also contained particles that seeded the Earth

Some of these particles have proved to be able to evolve towards the living

 

We will try to reconstruct this long and beautiful story

But we must begin with the beginning, that is, with the history of our planet in the Universe

 

The Universe and the Sun

The age of the Universe is estimated at about 13.8 billion years   The generally accepted theory of its formation, is the Big Bang:

The Universe was a concentrate of energy that suddenly exploded

 

This was the beginning of its expansion

As it moved away it cooled and some of this energy became material

This material is at the origin of galaxies, stars and other celestial bodies such as nebulae

 

The galaxy of the Milky Way formed about 13.21 billion years ago

About 4.6 billion years ago a Milky Way star exploded into a supernova that sent a shock wave over a nebula

It collapsed into a cloud of gas

Part of this cloud has turned into an accretion disk, creating the solar system

 

This disc was a cloud of dust, rocks and gas

Most of these materials were concentrated towards the center of the disk and began to heat up

This rise in temperature triggered the nuclear fusion of hydrogen to transform it into helium

As the kinetic contraction increases further, about 4.57 billion years ago, the central cluster becomes a star:

Our Sun

 

The Earth and the Solar System

The rest of the materials of the solar disk, by collisions and accretions creates protoplanets

About 4.56 billion years ago, one of these becomes the Earth

As the Earth continues to be bombarded by asteroids, comets and other celestial bodies, it began to burn from inside because of the heat caused by these successive shocks

 

During the first forty million years of the Earth, the iron and nickel contained in this molten mass melted and flowed towards the center of the planet to form by contraction a solid nucleus

The residual liquid iron then creates a magnetic field around this nucleus, which will ensure the protection of the planet against cosmic rays

 

Massive_Smash-Up_at_Vega

NASA / JPL-Caltech: Artist’s concept of a celestial body of the moon   http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_1454.htm   Photo Wikipedia public domain: Originalwana, Cmlisse, Bot

 

Then about 4.533 billion years ago, the Earth was struck by Theia

It was a planet of the size of Mars, also formed by accretion, substantially on the same orbit as the Earth

The same orbit, different sizes involving different orbital speeds:

The collision was inevitable

 

The ejected pieces then formed a ring around the Earth which by accretion became the Moon

This impact changed the axis of the Earth in an inclination of 23.5 ° which created the seasons on our planet

With a 0 ° axis, there would be no season

The impact also accelerated the rotation of the Earth and thus initiated the tectonics of the plates

 

The eons

The eon is a time interval corresponding to the division of the geological time scale   The history of the Earth is divided into four eons

 

Radiometric dating, that is to say the measurement of the residues of the radioactive elements still present, makes it possible to delimit the different era, thanks to the known disintegration times

Eons are used as a time scale for all planets

 

The first three eons cover the first 4 billion years of Earth’s history and are grouped into a super eon:   The Precambrian

 

The three eons of the Precambrian of the Earth are:

The Hadean, from – 4.56 to – 4 billion yearsThe Archean, from – 4 to – 2.5 billion years

The Proterozoic, from – 2.5 billion years to – 541 million years

 

The last eon of the Earth is:

The Phanerozoic, from – 541 million years to the present day

 

The Hadean

The Hadean begins with the formation of the Earth, about 4.56 billion years ago and ends 4 billion years ago

Hadean comes from Hades, god of hell, given the state of the surface of the Earth at that time

This eon corresponds to the stabilization of the Earth

 

During the Hadean, the magmatic ocean and the metallic nucleus differentiate and the continental crust forms

After this separation, atmospheric pressure was around 200 bar

The oceans could thus begin to form as soon as the surface temperature became less than the critical temperature of the water, ie below 350 ° C at such a pressure   This water precipitated the formation of the rocks and the tectonics of the plates was able to start, which allowed the differentiation of the continental and oceanic crusts

 

Towards 4.3 billion years, the conditions necessary for the emergence of life are gathered

In 2015 , carbon inclusions of organic origin have been discovered in the Jack Hills area of Western Australia and have been dated of – 4.1 billion years

In 2017, fossilized microorganisms found in the Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt in Quebec were dated from – 3.77 to – 4.28 billion years

These discoveries confirm the origin of life on Earth as early as the Hadean

 

The Archean

Archean comes from the Greek Arkhē, meaning:

Beginning or origin

Before the recent discoveries, emergence of life on Earthwas admitted to be

4 billion years ago

 

The Archean decomposes into four eras:

The Eoarchian, from – 4 to – 3.6 billion years , is the era of appearance of prokaryotes

The Palaeoarchaean, from 3. 6 to 3.2 billion years ago ,is the era of the earliest known

life form with the discovery of a bacterium of 3.46 billion years old

The Mesoarchy, from – 3.2 to – 2.8 billion years , is the era of appearance of stromatolites

The Neoarchy , of – 2.8 to – 2.5 billion years, is the era of the formations of most of the rocks, but some older rocks are dated from the Hadean

 

During the Archean, the energy of the Sun received on the Earth was 25 to 30% less than today

There was quite no land

Most of the rocks formed during the Archean

The two main types of rocks are metamorphic rocks and magmatic rocks   Metamorphic rocks originate from sedimentary rocks amalgamated by high temperatures and pressures

The magmatic rocks are due to the volcanic activity which was much more important than nowadays

 

The absence of rocks of more than 3.8 billion years would be due to the collision of the Earth with a large number of meteorites or comets between 4.1 and 3.8 billion years during the great bombardment

The impacts probably removed all traces of anterior rocks

 

The Proterozoic

Proterozoic comes from the Greek meaning:

Before the animal

It goes from – 2.5 billion years to – 541 million years

 

It is divided into 3 era:

The Paleoproterozoic

The Mesoproterozoic

The Neoproterozoic

 

The Proterozoic is characterized by a very quick continental accretion leading to the creation of the supercontinent of the Pangea and the mountains

 

The oxygen content in the air, which is only 1 to 2% at the beginning of the Paleoproterozoic, will then increase gradually and this event is called:The Great Oxidation

 

From the beginning of the Paleoproterozoic one observes the first glaciations At the Neoproterozoic, appeared soft-body organisms

Trilobite fossils have been discovered in rocks dating from the late Neoproterozoic, which allows to date their appearance from the late Precambrian

 

The Phanerozoic

The Phanerozoic comes from the Greek meaning: visible animal   It covers the last 541 million years until today and tomorrow   As the name suggests, it will end when we cease to exist …

 

The Phanerozoic is divided into three eras:   The Paleozoic, from – 541 to – 251 million years   The Mesozoic, from – 252 to – 66 million years

The Cenozoic, from – 66 million years to the present

 

At the beginning of this era, life forms are limited to bacteria, algae, sponges and other unknown organisms

Then we see the appearance of small animals with shells

It is the beginning of the biodiversity with the appearance of terrestrial plants, the evolution of fish and their conquest of the earth, and then the evolution to the present fauna and flora

 

Towards the end of the Paleozoic, during a period called Carboniferous, large forests of plants are formed which will become layers of coal

 

During this era, the tectonics of the plates will separate the Pangea to form the present continents

 

Posted in Archean, eons, Hadean, History of the Planet Earth, Phanerozoic, Proterozoic, The Earth and the Solar System, The Universe and the Sun, Theia, Uncategorized | Leave a comment

From the Saturday 6th May to the Wednesday 10th May 2017 , DESTINATION TERRE 2 , Les dieux atlantes , Sale of my E-Book is FREE

 

This month :

From the Saturday 6th May to the Wednesday 10th May 2017 ,

DESTINATION TERRE 2 , Les dieux atlantes ,

Sale of my E-Book at the price of :

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DESTINATION TERRE 2 , Les dieux atlantes

In French

It is the story of our origins

The story of the old civilizations from – 261 780 , beginning of the humans dated by the Sumerians , up to – 1 000 , to arrive to our known modern history

 

It begins with the story of the Edenist and Atlantean gods who came from space and their colonization of the Earth …

 

In the book 1 , Edenits arrives on Earth

In this book 2 , Atlanteans arrives on Earth

Some troubles will occure …

 

 

Date of the Free Sale :

From Saturday 6th May at 10 H 00

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DESTINATION TERRE 3 : La dissolution des dieux

 

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Douglas Moonstone

 

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Douglas Moonstone

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Frederic le voyageur

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EARTH IS THE AIM 7 , Mu and the other worlds ; Chapter 4: The Worlds

Mu and the other worlds

Chapter 4: The Worlds

 

 

The twelve astrological era

In 1937, Paul Le Cour create the 12 astrological era with his book :

L’Ère du Verseau

He named the great years, the eras of precession of 25 776 years

Each great year being divided into twelve eras of about 2148 years each and corresponding to one sign of the zodiac

 

The four Vedic ages

The Vedic age cycle is determined by four ages

Hinduism and Buddhism still use it today

The complete cycle lasts approximately 12,000 years

 

It begins with the golden age, the Satya Youga

It is the period when man possesses spiritual knowledge and lives in perfect harmony

The silver age, theTreta Youga, where he gradually loses knowledge

The bronze age, the Dvapara Youga, where spiritual decline continues

Iron age, Kali Youga, where ignorance, selfishness and evil triumphs

A cataclysm then purifies mankind and engenders the beginning of a new cycle

 

The five ages of Hesiod

Hesiod, in his book , The Works and Days, partly takes up the Vedic ages and thus brings them to the Greek mythology

 

The golden age is the one of the first men, contemporaries of Cronos

Hesiod tells us:

They lived like gods, exempt from anxiety and fatigue; Cruel old age did not afflict them; They rejoiced in the midst of feasts.

They did not share in immortality, but they died as if chained by a sweet sleep

All possessions were theirs: the fruitful ground produced abundant treasures of its own accord.

At their death the men of the golden age became beneficent geniuses, protectors and guardians of mortals

The men did not breed, they were simply sown and they were not forced to sacrifice.

 

The age of silver is the one of the ungodly

Hesiod tells us:

They did not know how to abstain from each other with a mad excess.

They refused to offer worship to the Immortals or to sacrifice to the holy altars of the blessed gods, according to the law of the men who have given themselves dwellings.

Then Zeus, son of Cronus, buried them, angry, because they did not pay homage to the blessed gods who possess Olympus.

 

The age of brass is the one of ruthless men

Hesiod tells us:

The men of the bronze age, as robust as the ash, were pleased only with insults and the labors of Ares

Their pitiless heart had the hardness of steel; Their strength was indomitable, their arms invincible.

They ended up mutually destroying each other.

 

The age of the heroes is the one of the warriors

Hesiod tells us:

Although it was more noble and more just, it was nevertheless destroyed by wars like that of Thebes or Troy.

Yet among the people of the heroic age some will never disappear, for they now and for ever live in the islands of the blessed gods, an idyllic place led by Cronus, which in this way keeps alive the golden age for a Limited number of heroes.

 

The iron age is the one of the present-day men

Hesiod tells us:

Where faith is not respected by oaths, nor justice, nor virtue

This is how the progressive decline of humanity was explained.

As long as Cronus had reigned, the understanding was maintained between the gods and the men.

Then the meals were common, the assemblies were common between the immortal gods and the humans. ”

Everything changed with the advent of the Olympians.

Zeus claimed to impose on men his divine supremacy.

 

The Four Ages of Ovid

Ovid, Publius Ovidius Naso, 43 BC to 18 AD, is a Latin poet author of the Metamorphoses, which describes the 4 ages, of which the following are excerpts

 

It was in gold, the first age to be born: without vengeance, without constraint, without laws, he respected good faith and righteousness. No punishment or fear; Menacing words were not read on bronze tables, and the suppliant crowd was not afraid of the face of her judge; Without protector, people were safe.

Then the pine had not yet been cut down in its mountains, and had not descended upon the sea-waves to visit a foreign world; The mortals knew no shores but theirs; Steep ditches did not yet surround fortified places; No straight trumpet, no bows with brazen bows, no helmets or swords. Without the help of the soldier, the tribes passed without the risk of sweet leisure.

The land, too, exempted from all obligations, without being touched by the hoof, or wounded by arrows, gave everything of its own accord. Satisfied with the food produced without any constraint, the man gathered the fruit of the strawberry tree, the strawberries of the mountains, the cornouilles, the blackberries attached to the thorny brambles, and the tassels falling from the broad foliage of the tree of Jupiter.

 

When Jupiter had precipitated Saturn into the dark Tartarus, the empire of the world belonged to him, and then began the silver age

Jupiter abridged the duration of the ancient spring; He formed four seasons which divided the year: the summer, the uneven autumn, the winter, and the spring, now so short. Then, for the first time, devouring heat burned the air; The winds formed the ice of the condensed wave. We sought shelter. The houses were at first nothing but dens, bushy shrubs, and huts of foliage. Then the seeds of Ceres had to be entrusted to long furrows; Then the young bulls groaned tired under the yoke.

 

Then succeeded the third age, the one of bronze: of a temperament more savage and more frightened on the frightening weapons, though not criminal.

 

The last age had the hardness of iron. Immediately all the sacrileges burst forth at this time with a worse vein; Then fled modesty, truth, good faith; In their place appeared deceits, tricks, traps, violence, and the guilty passion of possession. The sailor delivered his sails to the winds without yet knowing them well; The wood of the hulls, which had stood for a long time on the heights of the mountains, leaped upon unknown waves. The ground, hit her to common, like the light of the sun and the air, a suspicious surveyor bounded it with a long furrow. The rich land was no longer asked only for the harvests and foods it has to produce, but they penetrated to its very depths, and began to extract the resources which it had hidden and transported near the shadows of the Styx. Treasures that are the source of our evils. Already the harmful iron and gold, more harmful than iron, had appeared: the war was coming, which fought with one and the other, and waved in its bloody hand with resounding weapons. They live on rapines; The host is no longer safe in the host, nor the stepfather in his son-in-law; Between brothers also the understanding is rare. The husband plans the death of his wife, the wife, that of her husband. Dreadful martens mix the livid juices of the aconite. The son inquires before the hour of his father’s age. Piety is lying, vanquished, and, last of the inhabitants of the heavens, the virgin Astrea has abandoned the lands soaked with blood.

 

The Three Ages of the Abenaki

The ancient age, when humanity and animals are confused

The golden age, when animals are very similar to humans, but their number decreases

The present age

 

The original text sure was longer and more detailed

This short text is all we have found

The description of the long time past is very accurate and describes perfectly the separation of primates and hominids

 

William Commanda

William Commanda, 1913 – 2011, real name Ojigkwanong, Morning Star, Algonquin spiritual leader, tribal chief of the Kitigàn-zìbì Anishinàbeg First Nation in Quebec, 1951 to 1970

 

Nicolas_Vincent_Tsawenhohi

Print: Native American with a Wampum belt, 1825

McCord Museum – Nicholas Vincent Tsawenhohi, Edward Chatfield

Photo public domain: David Ross, Jeangagnon

 

He was the guardian of the 3 Wampum Algonquin belts:

The Belt of the Prophecy of the Seven Lights, considered as the founding document of the Algonquin nation

The Jay Treaty Belt of the Border Crossing

The Belt of the Great Peace of 1701

There was a fourth one but it disappeared for several decades

 

Wampum is an abbreviation for wampumpeague, an Algonquin word meaning:

White shellfish

The French and Canadians name the wampums “necklaces” or “porcelain necklaces” and the English “Wampum belts”

These two expressions describe the belts exchanged during official diplomatic meetings

 

The seven fires of the Anishinaabeg

Excerpt from the prophecy of the Seven Lights of the Anishinaabeg

Inscribed on the former Wampum belt under the guardianship of Grandfather William Commanda, appointed Chief of the American Indians in 1957 and founder of the All Nations Circle

 

Seven prophets met with the Anishinabes. They came at a time when people lived a full and peaceful life on the North East coast of North America. These prophets left people with seven predictions of what the future would bring. Each of the prophecies was called a fire and each fire mentioned a particular period in the future. Thus, the teachings of the seven prophets are now called “the Seven Lights”.

 

The first prophet told people, “In the time of First Fire, the Anishinabe Nation will grow and follow the sacred shell of the Midewiwin tribe.” The Midewiwin tribe will be the rallying point for people and its traditional ways will be the source of much Sacred Megis will show the way to the land chosen by the Anishinabes, and you must search for an island in the shape of a tortoise, which is linked to the cleansing of the Earth, and you will find such an island at the beginning and end of your journey. There will be seven breakpoints along your search, you will know that the chosen land has been reached when you are on a land where food grows on the water If you do not move you will be destroyed . ”

 

The second prophet told the people, “You will recognize the Second Fire because at that time the nation will be established near a large point of water, at which time the path of the Sacred Shell will be lost.” The Midewiwin will lose A boy will be born to redirect you to the traditional ways and will show the way to the Anishinabes for a solid future.

 

The third prophet explained to the people. “In the Third Fire, the Anishinabe will find the way to the chosen land, a land to the west to which they must take their families. It will be the land where food grows on the water.

 

Two prophets gave the Fourth Fire to the Anishinabes. They came together. They warned of the arrival of the race of the Light-Skinned (the Whites).

One of the prophets said: “You will recognize this time by the face that the race of the Light-Skinned will show you, and if they come with a face of fraternity, then this will be a wonderful time for generations to come. The new knowledge and the items related to the knowledge of this country, in this way, two nations will join to make a powerful nation.This new nation will be joined by two others so that the four form of the most powerful nation of You will recognize the face of brotherhood if the race of the Light-Skinned comes unarmed, if they come offering their knowledge and hand outstretched. ”

 

The other prophet said, “Be careful if the race of the Light-Skinned comes with the face of death, you must be careful because the face of brotherhood and the face of death look very much alike if they come with a weapon. If they come with suffering … They might deceive you, and their hearts may be filled with greed for the riches of this Earth: if they are indeed your brothers, do them Do not accept them with total confidence You will know that they bear the face of death if the rivers flow with poison and the fish can no longer feed themselves You will recognize them by that.

 

The Fifth Prophet said, “In the time of the Fifth Fire will come a period of great struggle which will take the lives of all the natives.” In the warning of this Fire will come people who will give a promise of great joy and rescue. The people accept this promise of a new way and abandon the old teachings, the struggle of the Fifth Fire will spread over many generations, and the promise will prove to be false, and all who accept this promise will destroy them.

 

The Prophet of the Sixth Fire warned: “In the time of the Sixth Fire it will be evident that the promise of the Fifth Fire will be false. Those deceived by this promise will take their children away from the teachings of the elders, grandchildren and granddaughters. In this way, elders will lose their willing of life … they will lose their purpose in life, at which time a new disease will come in amongst people, and the balance of many people will be broken. Cup of life will almost be reversed. “The life cup will almost become the cup of grief.”

At the time of these predictions, many people laughed at the prophets. They had medications to keep the disease away. They were then healthy and happy. These were the ones who chose to stay out of the great Anishinabe migration. These people were the first to be in contact with the Light-Skinned race. They would suffer the most.

 

When the Fifth Fire came, a great struggle took the life of all the Natives. The race of Light-Skinned began a military attack on Indians across the country in order to seize their land and their independence. It is now clear that the false promise of the end of the Fifth Fire was the material and wealth incarnated by the way of life of the race of the Light-Skinned. Those who abandoned the ancestral ways and accepted this new promise played a great role in the destruction of the Natives of this land.

 

When the time of the Sixth Fire came, the words of the prophet sounded right over the children away from the teachings of the elders. The era of schooling in order to “civilize” Indian children had begun. The Indian language and religion were hidden from the children. People began to die young … they had lost their will to live and their purpose in life.

In the confusion of the Sixth Fire, it is said that a group of visionaries came among the Anishinabes. They brought together all the priests of the Midewiwin Lodge. They told them that the Midewiwin Way was in danger. They gathered all the sacred bundles, all the scrolls that recorded the ceremonies. All these things were placed in the hollow of a log from the tree to the Ironwood. The men descended on a cliff held by the long ropes. They dug a hole in the cliff and buried the log where no one could find it. Thus the teachings of the SENIORS were hidden out of sight, but not from memory. It has been said that when the time has come for the Indians to practice their religion without fear, a little boy would dream of the place where the Wooden Iron Log is full of Sacred Packets and Rolls. He would lead the people to hiding.

 

The Seventh Prophet who came a long time ago said things different from the other prophets. He was young and had a strange light in his eyes. He said, “In the Seventh Fire the New People will appear, and they will return to the way of what has been abandoned on the way, and their footsteps will reach the SENIORS who will be asked to guide them on their journey, Some of the SENIORS will remain silent for fear, others will be silent because no one will ask them, Newcomers will have to be careful about the way they are going to sleep, Approaching the SENIORS The task of the New People will not be easy.

If the New People remain strong in their Research, the Water Drum of the Midewiwin Lodge will again sound its voice. There will be a Renaissance of the Anishinabe Nation and an attraction of the old flames. The Sacred Fire will be lit again.

 

It is at this moment that the race of the Light-Skinned will have to choose between two ways. If they choose the right road, then the Seventh Fire will light the Eighth and Last Fire, an eternal Fire of peace, love, fraternity and feminine solidarity. If the race of Light-Skinned makes the wrong choice, the destruction they have brought with them in this country will come back to them and will cause much suffering and death to people all over the Earth.

 

People from the Traditional Environment of other Nations have interpreted the two roads that present themselves to the Shorthair Light race as the road to technology and to spirituality. They believe that the road to technology represents a continuation of the irresponsible development towards technological development. This is the path chosen by modern society, which damaged and desiccated the Earth. Could it be that the road to technology represents a path to destruction? The road to Spirituality represents a slower journey than the traditional Natives have undertaken and are now looking for again. The Earth is not dried up on this path. The grass always grows there.

 

The prophet of the Fourth Fire spoke of a time when “two nations will join to make a powerful nation.” He spoke of the arrival of the race of Light-Skinned and the face of brotherhood that the Brother of Light Pelée could have. It is evident in the history of this country that it was not this face that this race carried on the whole.

That the Mighty Nation quoted in the Fourth Fire has never been formed.

If people close to the Earth could just wear the face of fraternity, we might be able to deliver our society from the road to destruction. Could we make sure that the two roads that today represent two shocking views of the world come together to form a powerful nation? Could a Nation be guided by respect for all living beings? Are we the New People of the Seventh Fire?

 

At the time of the Seventh Fire a New People will emerge. They will retrace their steps to find the Wisdom that was left behind of the road a long time ago.

Their steps will lead them to the Ancients, to whom they will ask to guide them in their journey. If the New People remains strong in their quest, the sacred drum will again hear his voice. There will be an awakening of people and the sacred fire will be lit again.

At that time the Light-Skinned race will have to choose between two routes. One of the ways is the way of greed and technology without wisdom, nor respect for Life. This path represents a race to destruction.

The other way is spirituality, a slower path involving respect for all living things.

If we choose the spiritual path, we can light another fire, the Eighth Fire and begin a long period

Peace and Healthy Growth “.

 

“The time has come to light the Eighth Fire”

Grandfather William Commanda

http://www.medecinedemereterre.com/

 

The eight Hopis worlds

The first world was destroyed by a devastating fire that came from Heaven and Earth

The second world came to an end when the Earth’s globe had deviated from its axis and everything was covered with ice

The third world was annihilated by a universal deluge

The present world, the fourth, will be wiped out by the flames

The fifth world, that of the future after the destruction of ours, will be followed by 3 others

The 8th world is the one of the end of times when the adult and responsible man will live in a deserved paradise and those who have not found the way will be for eternity in evil

 

It is difficult today to find the true version of the hopis prophecies, because in terms of oral transmission, there was no difficulty to christianize them

Christianisation does not only mean modifying the original text, but also destroying the original text

 

The worlds

Whether they are called era, age, fires or world, these are predictions to attempt to change the future in the right direction

The future forecasts are all unfortunately fair and very predictable

What gives the value of these predictions is not what they tell us about the future, but what they tell us about the past and especially how long they retreat precisely in this past

 

This is why, without any possible contestation, it is the Hopis predictions which are the most consistent with reality:

They date back to the first world starting in – 410 628

They punctuate their worlds in portions of about 100,000 years

We saw in the previous chapter that a world had a worth of 103 104 years

The cataclysms that end each world correspond to what we know about the paleoclimates

Posted in The eight Hopis worlds, The five ages of Hesiod, The Four Ages of Ovid, The four Vedic ages, The seven fires of the Anishinaabeg, The Three Ages of the Abenaki, The twelve astrological era, The worlds, Uncategorized, William Commanda | Leave a comment